Peripheral "chicken" obestatin administration does not affect feed intake and gut muscle contractility of meat-type and layer-type chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).
; ; et al
in Regulatory peptides (2012), 177(1-3), 60-7
Obestatin has recently been discovered in the rat stomach. As for ghrelin, the 23-amino acid obestatin is also derived from post-translational processing of the prepro-ghrelin gene but seems to have ... [more ▼]
Obestatin has recently been discovered in the rat stomach. As for ghrelin, the 23-amino acid obestatin is also derived from post-translational processing of the prepro-ghrelin gene but seems to have opposite effects on feed intake. In avian species, ghrelin is mainly present in the proventriculus and decreases feed intake, as opposed to its orexigenic properties in mammals. An obestatin-like sequence was also found in the avian ghrelin precursor protein but the potential involvement of this peptide in appetite regulation of chickens is unclear. We therefore investigated the effects of a single peripheral administration of this predicted "chicken" obestatin peptide on voluntary feed intake of 7- to 9-day-old meat-type and layer-type chicks. "Chicken" obestatin was injected intraperitoneally or intravenously at a dose of 1 nmol or 10 nmol/100 g body weight and feed intake was measured up to 4 h post injection. None of these treatments did reveal any effect of the putative "chicken" obestatin on appetite of either meat-type of layer-type chicks. Furthermore, "chicken" obestatin also failed to affect the in vitro contractility of muscle strips from crop and proventriculus. In conclusion, in the given experimental settings, the putative "chicken" obestatin has indistinctive physiological effects on feed intake and in vitro muscle contractility of gut segments, and hence its functional properties in ingestive behavior of avian species remain obscure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg)
Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand cytotoxicity unrelated to PBR expression
Hans, Grégory ; Wislet, Sabine ; et al
in Biochemical Pharmacology (2005), 69(5), 819-830
Some synthetic ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), an 18 kDa protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane, are cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and arise as promising ... [more ▼]
Some synthetic ligands of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), an 18 kDa protein of the outer mitochondrial membrane, are cytotoxic for several tumor cell lines and arise as promising chemotherapeutic candidates. However, conflicting results were reported regarding the actual effect of these drugs on cellular survival ranging from protection to toxicity. Moreover, the concentrations needed to observe such a toxicity were usually high, far above the affinity range for their receptor, hence questioning its specificity. In the present study, we have shown that micromolar concentrations of FGIN-1-27 And Ro 5-4864, two chemically unrelated PBR ligands are toxic for both PBR-expressing SK-N-BE neuroblastoma cells and PBR-deficient Jurkat lymphoma cells. We have thereby demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of these drugs is unrelated to their PBR-binding activity. Moreover, Ro 54864-induced cell death differed strikingly between both cell types, being apoptotic in Jurkat cells while necrotic in SK-N-BE cells. Again, this did not seem to be related to PBR expression since Ro 5-4864-induced death of PBR-transfected Jurkat cells remained apoptotic. Taken together, our results show that PBR is unlikely to mediate all the effects of these PBR ligands. They however confirm that some of these ligands are very effective cytotoxic drugs towards various cancer cells, even for reputed chemoresistant tumors such as neuroblastoma, and, surprisingly, also for PBR-lacking tumor cells. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (8 ULg)
Peripheral blood B-cell death compensates for excessive proliferation in lymphoid tissues and maintains homeostasis in bovine leukemia virus-infected sheep.
; Gillet, Nicolas ; et al
in Journal of Virology (2006), 80(19), 9710-9719
The size of a lymphocyte population is primarily determined by a dynamic equilibrium between cell proliferation and death. Hence, lymphocyte recirculation between the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues ... [more ▼]
The size of a lymphocyte population is primarily determined by a dynamic equilibrium between cell proliferation and death. Hence, lymphocyte recirculation between the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues is a key determinant in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Insights into these mechanisms can be gathered from large-animal models, where lymphatic cannulation from individual lymph nodes is possible. In this study, we assessed in vivo lymphocyte trafficking in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected sheep. With a carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester labeling technique, we demonstrate that the dynamics of lymphocyte recirculation is unaltered but that accelerated proliferation in the lymphoid tissues is compensated for by increased death in the peripheral blood cell population. Lymphocyte homeostasis is thus maintained by biphasic kinetics in two distinct tissues, emphasizing a very dynamic process during BLV infection. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (12 ULg)
Peripheral blood progenitor cell collections in cancer patients: analysis of factors affecting the yields.
Sautois, Brieuc ; ; Baudoux, Etienne et al
in Haematologica (1999), 84(4), 342-9
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) are now widely used to restore hematopoiesis following high dose chemotherapy in patients with malignancies. We sought to identify ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) are now widely used to restore hematopoiesis following high dose chemotherapy in patients with malignancies. We sought to identify parameters that could predict the yield of PBPC after mobilization with chemotherapy (CT) with or without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in cancer patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty patients underwent 627 PBPC collections during the recovery phase following CT with (n = 469) or without (n = 142) G-CSF. Hemogram, CFC-assays and CD34+ cell count were performed on peripheral blood and leukaphereses products. After log transformation of the data, differences between groups were assessed with the unpaired t-test or one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Seventeen and two patients required 2 and 3 mobilization cycles respectively to reach our target of 15x10(4) CFU-GM/kg. In patients with lymphoma but not in those with leukemia, the yields of both CFU-GM and CD34+ cells/kg were dramatically increased when G-CSF was added to CT for mobilization. In collections primed with CT and G-CSF, better yields were obtained in patients with breast cancer or small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) as opposed to other solid tumors and leukemia. Among potential predictive factors of CT- and G-CSF-primed harvests, we found that the CD34+ cell count in peripheral blood (PB) was strongly correlated with both the CFU-GM and CD34+ cell yields. Except in leukemia patients, more than 1x10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were harvested when the CD34+ cell count in blood was above 20x10(6)/L. Similarly, better results were obtained in collections performed when the percentage of myeloid progenitors in blood on the day of apheresis was above 5 % or when the leukocyte count in blood was above 5x10(9)/L. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of breast cancer or SCLC, a leukocyte count in PB of more than 5x10(9)/L, more than 5% myeloid progenitors or more than 20x10(6) CD34+ cells/L in PB were associated with higher yields of PBPC in collections mobilized with CT+G-CSF. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (8 ULg)
Peripheral blood stem cell contamination in mantle cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the case for purging?
; Lambert, Frédéric ; et al
in Bone Marrow Transplantation (1999), 23(7), 681-6
Intensification using peripheral blood stem cells collected after chemotherapy followed by growth factors is being increasingly investigated as an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for mantle cell ... [more ▼]
Intensification using peripheral blood stem cells collected after chemotherapy followed by growth factors is being increasingly investigated as an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for mantle cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We investigated 14 grades III-IV, t(11;14)-positive cases for contamination of PBSC collected after a polychemotherapy regimen followed by G-CSF. Patients were first treated with a polychemotherapy regimen. There were four CR, seven PR, two refractory and one early death. Seven patients have been transplanted, in whom PBSC were mobilized, using either cyclophosphamide/VP16 or Dexa-BEAM followed by G-CSF. For all patients, whether actually autografted or not, PB cells were tested at the time of regeneration on G-CSF after the first polychemotherapy or after the mobilizing regimen. PCR evaluation of contamination was performed first by a semi-quantitative approach, using serial dilutions of initial DNA, then confirmed using a limiting-dilution analysis. Two patients were not informative (one early death and one without an available molecular marker). PB cells collected at regeneration contained at least one log more lymphoma cells than steady-state blood or marrow, apart from in two cases. Moreover, where a mobilizing treatment diminished tumor burden in the patient, at the same time it increased PB contamination in most cases. We conclude that advanced mantle cell NHL appears to be largely resistant to significant in vivo purging by conventional chemotherapy. Where treatment brings benefits by reducing tumor load, it may at the same time negate it by mobilizing malignant cells into the collections used to intensify. Although the clonogenic potential of this massive infiltration is unknown (only gene marking studies could provide a definitive answer regarding the source of relapses), strategies aimed at reducing the level of contamination in the graft should be considered when designing future protocols. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 ULg)
Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Bioresorbable Macroporous Polylactide Scaffolds
; Martin, Didier ; Malgrange, Brigitte et al
in Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, Part A (2000), 52(4), 639-51
The ability of DRG-derived neurons to survive and attach onto macroporous polylactide (PLA) foams was assessed in vitro. The foams were fabricated using a thermally induced polymer-solvent phase ... [more ▼]
The ability of DRG-derived neurons to survive and attach onto macroporous polylactide (PLA) foams was assessed in vitro. The foams were fabricated using a thermally induced polymer-solvent phase separation. Two types of pore structures, namely oriented or interconnected pores, can be produced, depending on the mechanism of phase separation, which in turn can be predicted by the thermodynamics of the polymer-solvent pair. Coating of the porous foams with polyvinylalcohol (PVA) considerably improved the wettability of the foams and allowed for cell culture. The in vitro biocompatibility of the PVA-coated supports was demonstrated by measuring cell viability and neuritogenesis. Microscopic observations of the cells seeded onto the polymer foams showed that the interconnected pore networks were more favorable to cell attachment than the anisotropic ones. The capacity of highly oriented foams to support in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration was studied in rats. A sciatic nerve gap of 5-mm length was bridged with a polymer implant showing macrotubes of 100 microm diameter. At 4 weeks postoperatively, the polymer implant was still present. It was well integrated and had restored an anatomic continuity. An abundant cell migration was observed at the outer surface of the polymer implant, but not within the macrotubes. This dense cellular microenvironment was found to be favorable for axogenesis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (9 ULg)
Peripheral nerve stimulation in chronic cluster headache.
MAGIS, Delphine ; Schoenen, Jean
in Progress in Neurological Surgery (2011), 24
Cluster headache is well known as one of the most painful primary neurovascular headache. Since 1% of chronic cluster headache patients become refractory to all existing pharmacological treatments ... [more ▼]
Cluster headache is well known as one of the most painful primary neurovascular headache. Since 1% of chronic cluster headache patients become refractory to all existing pharmacological treatments, various invasive and sometimes mutilating procedures have been tempted in the last decades. Recently, neurostimulation methods have raised new hope for drug-resistant chronic cluster headache patients. The main focus of this chapter is on stimulation of the great occipital nerve, which has been the best evaluated peripheral nerve stimulation technique in drug-resistant chronic cluster headache, providing the most convincing results so far. Other peripheral nerve stimulation approaches used for this indication are also reviewed in detail. Although available studies are limited to a relatively small number of patients and placebo-controlled trials are lacking, existent clinical data suggest that occipital nerve stimulation should nonetheless be recommended for intractable chronic cluster headache patients before more invasive deep brain stimulation surgery. More studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of supraorbital nerve stimulation and of vagus nerve stimulation in management of cluster headaches. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Peripheral vascular surgery: Update on the perioperative non-surgical management for high cardiac risk patients
; Senard, Marc ; Roediger, Laurence et al
in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2003), 103(3), 248-254
This review of the recent literature regarding perioperative management in peripheral vascular surgery emphasizes some of the important features for the 2003 state-of-the-art on non surgical perioperative ... [more ▼]
This review of the recent literature regarding perioperative management in peripheral vascular surgery emphasizes some of the important features for the 2003 state-of-the-art on non surgical perioperative care for these high cardiac risk patients. The most adapted preoperative cardiac evaluation for each patient is guided by its individual risk factors and clinical history. Perioperative medication should nowadays consist of pre- and postoperative beta-blockers and acetyl salicylic acid, both reducing cardiac morbidity and mortality. Neuraxial locoregional anaesthesia techniques are reasonable alternatives to general anaesthesia because of their potential advantages, by reducing postoperative inflammatory response and reducing procoagulating activity, and increasing peripheral vascular graft patency, but the individual benefit/risk balance has always to be evaluated for patients submitted to aggressive antithrombotic therapy. During the postoperative course, early detection and treatment of postoperative myocardial ischemia or infarction by ST wave changes and/or cardiac enzyme control has to be considered. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (3 ULg)
Le périple et la boucle : Au seul souci de voyager…
in Diaz J.-L. (Ed.) Les Poésies de Stéphane Mallarmé. Une rose dans les ténèbres (1998)Detailed reference viewed: 112 (4 ULg)
Peripubertal proliferation of progenitor cells in the preoptic area of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).
; Balthazart, Jacques
in Brain research (2013), 1516
Brain structures related to reproduction are thought to depend on the action of gonadal steroids acting either during early life (organizing irreversible effects) or adulthood (activating transient ... [more ▼]
Brain structures related to reproduction are thought to depend on the action of gonadal steroids acting either during early life (organizing irreversible effects) or adulthood (activating transient effects). More recently puberty has become a focus of attention and it was demonstrated that action of sex steroid hormones at this time plays a critical role in the final organization of brain and behavior. We studied by BrdU immunohistochemistry the ontogeny from hatching to sexual maturity of a previously identified cell population in the preoptic area labeled by a BrdU injection at the end of embryonic period (E12) of sexual differentiation in male and female Japanese quail. After an initial increase between E12 and hatching, the density of BrdU-immunoreactive cells decreased until the beginning of puberty but then increased again during sexual maturation in the caudal preoptic area specifically. Divisions of these cells took place in the brain parenchyma as indicated by the large numbers of pairs of labeled cells. No sex difference affecting these processes could be detected at any stage of development. Large numbers of new cells thus arise around puberty in the caudal preoptic area and presumably contribute to the reorganization of this structure that precedes the emergence of adult reproductive behaviors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
Péritexte auctorial ou éditorial ? Réflexions théoriques et suggestions pratiques
in Annales de l’Université de Craiova, Série de littérature roumaine et comparée (2002), 24(1-2), 184-192Detailed reference viewed: 60 (4 ULg)
Peritoneal endometriosis and "endometriotic" nodules of the rectovaginal septum are two different entities.
; NISOLLE, Michelle ; et al
in Fertility and Sterility (1996), 66(3), 362-8
OBJECTIVES: To compare histologically and stereologically the endometriotic nodule of the rectovaginal septum to peritoneal endometriosis. DESIGN: Morphometric investigation, cytokeratin and vimentin ... [more ▼]
OBJECTIVES: To compare histologically and stereologically the endometriotic nodule of the rectovaginal septum to peritoneal endometriosis. DESIGN: Morphometric investigation, cytokeratin and vimentin content, and steroid receptor evaluation were performed on endometriotic tissue from the peritoneum (n = 52) and rectovaginal nodules (n = 68). SETTING: An academic teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Biopsies were taken from 120 patients undergoing a laparoscopy for infertility and/ or pelvic pain (52 from typical black peritoneal endometriotic implants and 68 from endometriotic nodule of the rectovaginal septum). None of the patients were treated. RESULTS: Mitotic activity was found to be significantly different in peritoneal and rectovaginal endometriosis. The evaluation suggested that the stroma is not mandatory for the invasion of glandular epithelium in the rectovaginal nodule, which is, like a adenomyoma, a circumscribed nodular aggregate of smooth muscle and glandular elements. Cytokeratin and vimentin content as well as the estrogen receptor (ER) and P receptor (PR) content were significantly lower in both types of lesion when compared with eutopic endometrium. But vimentin immunoreactivity in epithelium, as well as the ER and PR content, were significantly lower in nodules when compared with black peritoneal lesions. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that the rectovaginal endometriotic nodule is a different disease from peritoneal endometriosis and must be called rectovaginal adenomyosis or rectovaginal adenomyoma. Its histopathogenesis probably is not related to the implantation of regurgitated endometrial cells but to the metaplasia of Müllerian rests. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis, and adenomyotic nodules of the rectovaginal septum are three different entities
NISOLLE, Michelle ;
in Fertility and Sterility (1997), 68(4), 585-596
Objective: To review the histogenesis of peritoneal, ovarian, and rectovaginal endometriotic lesions. Design: The comparison of morphologic, morphometric, and histochemical data observed in each type of ... [more ▼]
Objective: To review the histogenesis of peritoneal, ovarian, and rectovaginal endometriotic lesions. Design: The comparison of morphologic, morphometric, and histochemical data observed in each type of lesion. Setting: A university hospital department of gynecology. Patient(s): Patients complaining of infertility or pelvic pain with laparoscopically proved endometriosis. Intervention(s): Laparoscopy was performed, and biopsy specimens from the endometriotic lesions were histologically studied. Result(s): Three types of endometriotic lesions must be considered: peritoneal, ovarian, and rectovaginal. Morphologic and morphometric data show similarities between eutopic endometrium and red peritoneal lesions, suggesting that these lesions are the first stage of early implantation of endometrial glands and stroma. After partial shedding, the red lesions regrow constantly. The shedding induces an inflammatory reaction, provoking scarification, and the lesions become black. The subsequent fibrosis leads to areas of white opacification that are inactive. The pathogenesis of ovarian endometriomas is a source of controversy. Although there seems to be a consensus concerning the invagination theory, there is still a contradiction between the implantation theory and the metaplasia theory. We recently showed that the mesothelium covering the ovary can invaginate into the ovarian cortex, pushing back the primordial follicles. The presence of mesothelial invagination in continuum with endometriotic tissue suggests that metaplastic histogenesis of ovarian endometriotic lesions occurs. Rectovaginal endometriotic nodules must be considered adenomyomas, consisting of smooth muscle with active glandular epithelium and scanty stroma. Immunocytochemical results show poor differentiation and hormonal independence of these lesions and indicate a close relation with their mesodermal müllerian origin. Conclusion(s): Peritoneal, ovarian and rectovaginal endometriotic lesions must be considered as three separate entities with different pathogeneses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (7 ULg)
Peritoneal endometriosis: two-dimensional and three-dimensional evaluation of typical and subtle lesions.
; NISOLLE, Michelle ;
in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1994), 734
Endometriosis most commonly affects the pelvic peritoneum close to the ovaries, including the uterosacral ligaments, the ovarian fossa peritoneum, and the perito- neum of the cul-de-sac. The increased ... [more ▼]
Endometriosis most commonly affects the pelvic peritoneum close to the ovaries, including the uterosacral ligaments, the ovarian fossa peritoneum, and the perito- neum of the cul-de-sac. The increased diagnosis of endometriosis at laparoscopy can be explained by the increased experience and ability of the surgeon to detect such subtle lesions. The greatest change has been in the case of “subtle” lesions, which increased from 15% in 1986 to 65% in 1988. The diagnosis of peritoneal endometriosis at the time of laparoscopy is often made by the observation of typically puckered black or bluish lesions. There are, in addition, numerous subtle appearances of peritoneal endometriosis. These lesions, frequently nonpigmented, were diagnosed as endometriosis following confirmation by biopsy by Jansen and Russell in 1986. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Peritoneal equilibration test with conventional ‘low pH/high glucose degradation product’ or with biocompatible ‘normal pH/low glucose degradation product’ dialysates: does it matter?
VAN OVERMEIRE, Lionel ; ; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie et al
in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2012)
Abstract Background. The evaluation of the peritoneal transport characteristics is mandatory in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This is usually performed in routine clinical practice with a peritoneal ... [more ▼]
Abstract Background. The evaluation of the peritoneal transport characteristics is mandatory in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This is usually performed in routine clinical practice with a peritoneal equilibration test (PET) using conventional dialysates, with low pH and high glucose degradation product (GDP) concentrations. An increasing proportion of patients are now treated with biocompatible dialysates, i.e. with physiological pH and lower GDP concentrations. This questions the appropriateness to perform a PET with conventional solutions in those patients. The aim of our study is to compare the results of the PET using biocompatible and conventional dialysates, respectively. Methods. Nineteen stable PD patients (13 males, 6 females; mean age: 67.95 ± 2.36 years, mean body surface area: 1.83 ± 0.04 m2, dialysis vintage: 2.95 ± 0.19 years) were included, among which 10 were usually treated with biocompatible and 9 with conventional solutions. Two PETs were performed, within a 2-week interval, in each patient. PET sequence (conventional solution first or biocompatible solution first) was randomized in order to avoid ‘time bias’. Small (urea, creatinine and glucose), middle (beta-2-microglobulin) and large molecules’ (albumin and alpha-2-macroglobulin) dialysate/plasma (D/P) concentration ratios and clearances were measured during each PET. Ultrafiltration (UF) and sodium filtration were also recorded. Results of both tests were compared by the Wilcoxon paired test. Results. No statistical difference was found between both dialysates for small molecule transport rates or for sodium filtration and UF. However, a few patients were not similarly classified for small-solute transport characteristics within the PET categories. Beta-2-microglobulin and albumin D/P ratios at different time points of the PET were significantly higher with the biocompatible, when compared with the conventional, solutions: 0.10 ± 0.03 versus 0.08 ± 0.02 (P < 0.01) and 0.008 ± 0.003 versus 0.007 ± 0.003 (P = 0.01), respectively. A similar difference was also observed for beta-2-microglobulin that was higher with biocompatible dialysates (1.04 ± 0.32 versus 0.93 ± 0.32 mL/min, respectively). Conclusion. Peritoneal transport of water and small solutes is independent of the type of dialysate which is used. This is not the case for the transport of beta-2-microglobulin and albumin that is higher under biocompatible dialysates. Vascular tonus modification could potentially explain such differences. The PET should therefore always be carried out with the same dialysate to make longitudinal comparisons possible. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
Peritoneal trypsin level in equine acute abdominal disease.
Grulke, Sigrid ; ; et al
Conference (2002, July)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Periungual lipoma: About three cases
Richert, Bertrand ; ; Choffray, Alexandre et al
in Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2004), 51(2 Suppl), 91-93
Lipomas are one of the most common benign soft tissue tumors. The usual development sites are the neck, the torso, and the legs. Lipomas of the nail unit are extremely rare. Only five cases have been ... [more ▼]
Lipomas are one of the most common benign soft tissue tumors. The usual development sites are the neck, the torso, and the legs. Lipomas of the nail unit are extremely rare. Only five cases have been reported tip to now. four in subungual locations and one in the lateral nail fold. We report three cases of peri-Lingual lipomas, one on the digit and two on the toes. Two of them exhibited the histological features of perisudoral lipomas. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg)
La périurbanisation résidentielle en Belgique à la lumière des contextes suisse et danois: enracinement, dynamiques centrifuges et régulations collectives
Halleux, Jean-Marie ; ;
in Belgeo (2002), (4), 333-354
Par rapport à ses voisins européens, la Belgique apparaît marquée par une périurbanisation à la fois plus importante et plus éclatée, ce dont résultent sans conteste de nombreux accrochages par rapport ... [more ▼]
Par rapport à ses voisins européens, la Belgique apparaît marquée par une périurbanisation à la fois plus importante et plus éclatée, ce dont résultent sans conteste de nombreux accrochages par rapport aux principes stratégiques du développement durable. Le présent article se propose d’étudier les causes de l’éclatement urbain qui affecte le territoire belge à la lumière d’une comparaison avec la Suisse et le Danemark, deux pays réputés pour avoir mis sur pied des politiques relativement efficaces de lutte contre l’étalement urbain. De cette comparaison appréhendée via les trois thématiques de la politique foncière, de la production immobilière résidentielle et du choix clair de la Belgique en faveur de la mobilité voiture, c’est l’enracinement profond de la périurbanisation belge qui apparaît. L’éclatement urbain qui y affecte le territoire s’intègre, en effet, dans une grappe de facteurs explicatifs où s’entremêlent l’influence du milieu naturel, des réticences séculaires pour les modes de vie urbains, une faible conscientisation aux enjeux de la planification physique et des choix politiques rémanents ayant fortement contribué au renforcement des dynamiques centrifuges. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 399 (42 ULg)
Perivascular cuff and spread of Treponema pallidum.
Quatresooz, Pascale ; Pierard, Gérald
in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2009), 219(3), 259-62
BACKGROUND: The incidence of syphilis is on the rise in many cities worldwide. Both the clinical and histopathological changes do not always fulfil the typical diagnostic criteria. Immunohistochemistry is ... [more ▼]
BACKGROUND: The incidence of syphilis is on the rise in many cities worldwide. Both the clinical and histopathological changes do not always fulfil the typical diagnostic criteria. Immunohistochemistry is available to identify and localize Treponema pallidum. Two main patterns of T. pallidum distribution were described in the skin, namely heavy intraepidermal infiltration and scattered pattern inside the lichenoid cell infiltrate. OBJECTIVE: To search for a third pattern consistent with dissemination of the disease. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using an antispirochete (T. pallidum and Borrelia) antibody was used in all cases of syphilis submitted to our laboratory. In addition, deposits of immunoglobulins and complement indicative of immune complexes were searched for. RESULTS: According to the cases, T. pallidum was disclosed in a combination of three patterns. The previously described epidermal and lichenoid patterns were confirmed, and a third pattern predominating in a perivascular location throughout the dermis was clearly identified in primary syphilis. The microorganisms were abundant in extracellular and intracellular locations, particularly inside endothelial cells. No deposits of immunoglobulins and complement were disclosed. CONCLUSION: The perivascular cuff of T. pallidum throughout the dermis might be representative of the dissemination phase of T. pallidum. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)