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See detailLocal Treatment for Monochrome Outdoor Painted Metal Sculptures: Assessing the suitability of conservation paints for retouching
van Basten, Nikki; Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Rivenc, Rachel

in Conservation of Sculpture Parks (2015, September)

When outdoor painted sculptures get chipped, scratched or abraded, conservators might consider local retouching treatments as an option that would protect the exposed metal substrate and restore the ... [more ▼]

When outdoor painted sculptures get chipped, scratched or abraded, conservators might consider local retouching treatments as an option that would protect the exposed metal substrate and restore the aesthetic integrity, thus postponing a very costly and invasive overall repainting. Unfortunately, matching colour gloss and texture on large monochrome surfaces is always challenging. This paper reports on research undertaken to investigate some of the materials and application techniques that could be used to improve the matching of local areas of inpainting as part of a broader maintenance strategy for painted works in sculpture parks, and discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of working with both industrial products and conservation materials. Previous work by the lead author investigated the use of industrial paints to retouch monochrome painted metal sculptures, using Claes Oldenburg’s Trowel (1971) from the Kröller-Müller Museum as a case study. Several industrial products were tested and for Trowel it was found that using a paint of the same type as the original, manipulated to modify its gloss and colour, gave the best results. However, the original paint is not always available on the market because of product discontinuation or paint formulations changing over the years, and so research on alternative products was carried out at the Getty Conservation Institute. Instead of investigating industrial paint systems, a range of conservation paints and products that are usually employed in indoor applications were tested. Although these materials are unlikely to match the durability of industrial products in outdoor settings, they offer a number of advantages that might make them appropriate for temporary treatments, including a better workability for colour and gloss adjustments, a generally easier application procedure, better availability in small quantities, and a lower cost than their industrial counterparts. For the present study, a matte industrial paint that was recently developed as a coating for Alexander Calder sculptures was used as the target surface. Various conservation retouching paints were selected and used to retouch mock-ups prepared with these matte industrial paints, which were damaged with scratches and other mechanical means to reproduce typical damage to painted sculpture. The simulated scratches and losses were first primed and filled using materials that were selected in consultation with conservators and the paint industry. Since the composition of some of these products was unclear they were analysed and determined. The retouching was then carried out as a last step, applying the paint with an airbrush and using an ‘over-the-edge spray technique’. Some of the retouching paints were modified following the advice of the manufacturer to improve workability or durability. The colour retention of the various products is currently being tested with artificial aging in a weatherometer; the adhesion of the local treatment and the compatibility with the overall paint will be tested with the mock-ups placed outdoors for an extended period of time. Preliminary results show that the workability of some of the products tested is satisfying and that the retouching, when carried out properly, reintegrates both the paint coherence and the visual aspect of the artwork. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal vs. wide-area undervoltage load shedding in the presence of induction motor loads
Otomega, Bogdan; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE PES PowerTech 2009 conference (2009, July)

In the presence of induction motor loads, long-term voltage instability may end up in a sharp voltage decrease, which makes the tuning of undervoltage load shedding more delicate. This paper first ... [more ▼]

In the presence of induction motor loads, long-term voltage instability may end up in a sharp voltage decrease, which makes the tuning of undervoltage load shedding more delicate. This paper first investigates the ability of a purely distributed load shedding scheme, previously proposed by the authors, to cope with these situations. Owing to difficulties to reconcile dependability and security, an alternative wide-area protection is considered. The latter consists of generators sending overexcitation signals to the load shedding controllers in order to allow the latter to act faster. Detailed time simulations of a test system are reported. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal-Level Monitoring in Decentralized Forest Management: Exploring the Spaces for Community Participation
Tol, Sokchea; Srey, Marona; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Beaupre, Pauline; Taylor, Janet; Carson, Toby (Eds.) Emerging Trends, Challenges and Innovations Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Cambodia (2009)

This paper explores a participatory monitoring process initiated in Kampong Thom province with 3 Community Forestry (CF) sites where CF development was facilitated by Forestry Administration (FA) staff ... [more ▼]

This paper explores a participatory monitoring process initiated in Kampong Thom province with 3 Community Forestry (CF) sites where CF development was facilitated by Forestry Administration (FA) staff and externally supported by German Technical Support-Rural Development Programme (GTZ-RDP).The paper details the methodology used and the key outputs produced during the process, it highlights the four main principles of the principle, criteria, and indicator Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) which are: (1) that forest health is maintained, (2) public well-being is improved, (3) community well-being is assured, and (4) external support is effective. The results show that in all three CF, the land integrity and the forest resource itself was improved between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Despite the positive results, many of the challenges and limitations were acknowledged including the difficulty in capturing all different points of view and opinions when there are such a large number of people involved and consulted as well as how this can lead to a slowdown within the whole process and is very expensive. The paper concludes suggesting that a local level monitoring system can help to build local capacity, improve decision-making, reduce conflict between local forest dependents and responsible authorities as well as empower local community members, especially marginalized groups. [less ▲]

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See detailLa localisation : un choix crucial - Winkellokalisatie : een doorslaggevende keuze
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Quel avenir pour la distribution en Belgique? (1992)

The article attempts to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the major types of commercial locations: innercity, suburbs, malls, suburbs and main roads

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See detailLocalisation analysis in masonry using transformation field analysis
Chettah, A.; Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Sacco, E. et al

in Engineering Fracture Mechanics (2013), 110

Transformation field analysis is used for the multi-scale analysis of cracking localisation in masonry. The evaluation of the corresponding consistent homogenised tangent stiffness required in acoustic ... [more ▼]

Transformation field analysis is used for the multi-scale analysis of cracking localisation in masonry. The evaluation of the corresponding consistent homogenised tangent stiffness required in acoustic tensor-based localisation analysis is derived. The average representative volume element mechanical response is studied for two sets of micro-mechanical material laws for mortar joints, based on damage and damage coupled with plasticity. Localisation analyses for stress proportional loading show that meaningful average localisation orientations are properly detected by the acoustic tensor-based loss of ellipticity criterion. The ability of the procedure to reproduce the failure envelope of running bond masonry subjected to uniform biaxial loads is demonstrated. The energetic aspects for the selection of localised solutions are discussed. It is shown that transformation field analysis yields meaningful homogenised localisation results, thereby allowing envisioning its use in nested multi-scale computations. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation de la laminine, fibronectine, de la E-cadhérine et des intégrines dans l’endomètre et l’endométriose
BELIARD, Aude ULg; Donnez, J; Nisolle, Michelle ULg et al

in Reproduction Humaine et Hormones (1998), 2

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See detailLocalisation des activités
Devillet, Guénaël ULg; Kessler, Laurent; Klinkenberg, Anne-Catherine et al

Report (2001)

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See detailLocalisation des centres de radiothérapie : une analyse géographique exploratoire pour la Belgique
COTTEELS, C.; PEETERS, D.; COUCKE, Philippe ULg et al

in Cancer Radiotherapie (2012), 16(7), 604612

Purpose The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the ... [more ▼]

Purpose The distance between the patient's home and a radiotherapy department may represent a hurdle for the patient and influence treatment choice. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers is in accordance with cancer incidence, taking also into account the cost of travelling to the radiotherapy department. The objective of this study is double; first, to map the current locations of radiotherapy centers across the country and second, to evaluate the observed spatial disparities with appropriate tools. Materials and methods A model of operational research (P-median) is used to suggest the optimal locations and allocations and to compare them with the current situation. This is an exploratory study with simple inputs. It helps to better understand the current geographical distribution of radiotherapy centers in Belgium as well as its possible limitations. Results–conclusion It appears that the current situation is on the average acceptable in terms of accessibility to the service and that the method presents huge potentialities for decision making so as to yield a spatial system that is both efficient and equitable. [less ▲]

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See detailLa localisation des grandes enseignes commerciales. Quelques observations à partir du cas de la Belgique
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Barata Salgueiro Teresa (Ed.) Commerce, aménagement et urbanisme commercial- Public Policy and Urban Reatil Planning (1992)

Behavior analysis of location of large commercial firms initially for the case of Belgium

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See detailLa localisation des grandes zones logistiques
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2007), (49), 31-40

The growth of logistics has recently fathered many new zones of specialized activities, called most of the times parks or logistic platforms. The objective of the article consists in understanding their ... [more ▼]

The growth of logistics has recently fathered many new zones of specialized activities, called most of the times parks or logistic platforms. The objective of the article consists in understanding their development and in identifying the logics of location. For this purpose, we have first tried to identify better the domain of activities: types of logistics, carried out operations, concerned sectors, concerned operators... Afterwards, on the basis of data mostly coming from professional circles, we have attempted to identify the factors and constraints of the new zones location, and to specify the mechanisms of the new real estate business linked to those zones, our goal consisting in bringing out the main principles of location on the scale of the countries, regions and sites choices. In the light of this first analysis, the logic seems pretty specific and takes place undoubtedly between the logic of industries and services. [less ▲]

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See detailLa localisation des industries. Enjeux et dynamiques
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

Book published by PUR - 3e édition corrigée et mise à jour (2011)

Cinquième édition (deux chez Nathan Université et trois aux PUR) d'un manuel universitaire consacré à la Localisation des industries dont l'objectif est de chercher à expliquer les enjeux et les ... [more ▼]

Cinquième édition (deux chez Nathan Université et trois aux PUR) d'un manuel universitaire consacré à la Localisation des industries dont l'objectif est de chercher à expliquer les enjeux et les dynamiques au coeur des mutations industrielles en combinant les dimensions spatiales et temporelles et en articulant des démarches empiriques et théoriques. Quatre parties : Industrie et espace géographique; Composantes et mécanismes des changements; Dynamiques spatiales à quatre échelles et Logiques de localisation. Cette nouvelle édition comprend de nouveaux développements sur les liens entre industries et développement durable et sur l'industrialisation des pays émergents [less ▲]

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See detailLa localisation des industries. Enjeux et dynamiques
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

Book published by Presses Universitaires de Rennes (2002)

Nouvelle édition d'un manuel édité par Nathan (Paris) en 1991, 1994 et 1996 et qui sera réédité ensuite par les Presses universitaires de Rennes en 2008

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See detailLa localisation des industries. Enjeux et dynamiques
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

Book published by PUR (Presses universitaires de Rennes) - Edition revue et corrigée (2008)

En moins de cinquante ans les répartitions et structures industrielles ont sans doute plus changé que durant les deux siècles précédents. En outre, les mutations ont touché un nombre sans cesse plus grand ... [more ▼]

En moins de cinquante ans les répartitions et structures industrielles ont sans doute plus changé que durant les deux siècles précédents. En outre, les mutations ont touché un nombre sans cesse plus grand de pays, de régions et de localités. L'objectif de ce livre est d'expliquer les enjeux et les dynamiques au cœur de ces mutations, en combinant les dimensions spatiales et temporelles et en articulant des démarches empiriques et théoriques. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation des industries. Essai d'analyse des composantes du facteur main-d'oeuvre. En exemple, les provinces de Liège et de Limbourg
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Etudes Géographiques = Tijdschrift van de Belgische Vereniging voor Aardrijkskundige Studies (1975), XLIV

Analysis of components of the factor labor (availability, qualifications, cost and reputation) and test to determine their role in the new locations in the provinces of Liege and Limburg

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See detailLa localisation des industries. Mutations récentes et méthodes d'analyse
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

Book published by Nathan Université (1991)

Première édition d'un manuel qui sera réédité deux fois chez Nathan (en 1994 et 1996) avant d'être refondu et édité aux Pesses Universitaires de Rennes en 2002 et 2008

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See detailLa localisation des productions agricoles : introduction méthodologique.
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (1997), (33), 129-138

First of all, the article specifies the links between agriculture and geography by emphasising both the speculiarities of the agricultural sector and the evolution of the problems concerning the ... [more ▼]

First of all, the article specifies the links between agriculture and geography by emphasising both the speculiarities of the agricultural sector and the evolution of the problems concerning the geographical researches dealing with the agricultural sector. Then, it defines the two main investigation areas of the agricultural geography : the analysis of the production distribution / sharing-out and the researches upon the factors and models of localisation. The two cases show how the authors endeavour to get devices that provide them a better understanding of the ever increasing complexity of the agricultural world. [less ▲]

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See detailLa localisation des productions agricoles, Mutations récentes et méthodes d’analyse
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

Book published by Nathan Université (1999)

Cet ouvrage, écrit dans une perspective de géographie agricole, tente de rechercher à travers tous les continents les constantes et les spécificités des productions agricoles en mettant surtout l’accent ... [more ▼]

Cet ouvrage, écrit dans une perspective de géographie agricole, tente de rechercher à travers tous les continents les constantes et les spécificités des productions agricoles en mettant surtout l’accent sur les changements récents et les logiques de localisation. Les deux premières parties traitent du secteur dans sa globalité et des grandes productions : importance et diversité régionale, mutations en cours, principaux défis. Les deux dernières sont consacrées aux localisations à travers six grands courants de pensée qui ont influencé les analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation des séquences régulatrices de la transcription. Application aux gènes de la famille de la prolactine.
Belayew, A.; Bellefroid, Eric J.; Berwaer, M. et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (1986), 47

We are studying nucleotide sequences responsible for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Our test system comprises the human genes coding for prolactin (hPRL), growth hormone (hGH-N) and ... [more ▼]

We are studying nucleotide sequences responsible for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Our test system comprises the human genes coding for prolactin (hPRL), growth hormone (hGH-N) and placental lactogen (hCS-B). We have cloned these genes and are searching within their sequences for in vitro binding sites of the human glucocorticoid receptor on the hGH-N and hCS-B genes; the in vivo activity of such DNA sequences by assaying hybrid gene expression in transfected cells; in vivo "enhancer" activity of different hPRL gene fragments linked to a marker gene and transfected in cultured cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalisation des séquences régulatrices de la transcription. Application aux gènes de la famille prolactine.
Belayew, A.; Bellefroid, Eric J.; Berwaer, M. et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (1986), 47

We are studying nucleotide sequences responsible for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Our test system comprises the human genes coding for prolactin (hPRL), growth hormone (hGH-N) and ... [more ▼]

We are studying nucleotide sequences responsible for the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Our test system comprises the human genes coding for prolactin (hPRL), growth hormone (hGH-N) and placental lactogen (hCS-B). We have cloned these genes and are searching within their sequences for in vitro binding sites of the human glucocorticoid receptor on the hGH-N and hCS-B genes; the in vivo activity of such DNA sequences by assaying hybrid gene expression in transfected cells; in vivo "enhancer" activity of different hPRL gene fragments linked to a marker gene and transfected in cultured cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)