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See detailInterrelations genetique- environnement: la broncho-pneumopathie chronique obstructive.
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Frusch, Nicolas; LOUIS, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2012), 67(5-6), 292-7

Smoking is the main environmental risk factor of COPD and accounts for 85% to 90% of COPD. However, 10-15% of COPD patients have never smoked and only a fraction of smokers ever develop COPD. Indeed ... [more ▼]

Smoking is the main environmental risk factor of COPD and accounts for 85% to 90% of COPD. However, 10-15% of COPD patients have never smoked and only a fraction of smokers ever develop COPD. Indeed, genetic and environmental (pollution, occupational and infectious) factors, also influence the risk of developing COPD. Finaly COPD must be considered as the clinical consequence of multiple complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility. The latter is not clearly understood, with the exception of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. In this article, we present the different aspects of this complex disease which is primarily environmental. [less ▲]

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See detailInterrelationship of Hypertension, Plasma Lipids and Atherosclerosis
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Carlier, P. G.; Rorive, G. L.

in Drugs (1988), 36(Suppl 2), 18-26

The relationship between hypertension and atherosclerosis has been illustrated by epidemiological, clinical and experimental observations. Typical atherosclerotic lesions develop in arterial wall when ... [more ▼]

The relationship between hypertension and atherosclerosis has been illustrated by epidemiological, clinical and experimental observations. Typical atherosclerotic lesions develop in arterial wall when hypercholesterolaemia is present. Hypertension aggravates these lesions by causing vascular structural changes. In clinical studies, however, the correction of high blood pressure does not decrease the incidence of coronary heart disease. Several hypotheses have been formulated to account for this observation: one is that reversibility of the structural vascular changes induced by hypertension is not complete when the blood pressure is lowered; another is that antihypertensive drugs have a deleterious effect on the vascular wall. [less ▲]

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See detailInterrompre ou poursuivre la grossesse à l’adolescence: facteurs de risque psychosociaux.
GRECO, Antonia ULg; REGGERS, Jean; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (2015)

précocesAbstractIntroduction. – Teenage pregnancy arouses lots of questions and remains a worldwide social and public health problem. This phenomenon isproblematic because it is often associated with ... [more ▼]

précocesAbstractIntroduction. – Teenage pregnancy arouses lots of questions and remains a worldwide social and public health problem. This phenomenon isproblematic because it is often associated with socio-economic, family and psychological difficulties.Objective. – Our study aims to identify the individual and environmental factors that influence the teenager’s decision whether to keep her child ornot.Method. – A sample of fourteen girls between 16 and 21 years old was recruited who had been or were pregnant. The girls were divided into2 groups: seven who decided to continue with their pregnancy and seven others who decided to have an abortion. This group was compared to girlswho had never been pregnant (n = 18). An interview was carried out and structured questionnaires were administered in order to evaluate individualand environmental characteristics as the age of menarche and the first sexual intercourse, the emotional and sexual education, the social and family support, the socio-cultural background and the socio-economic environment. Different other dimensions were analyzed: individual characteristics(Temperament and Character Inventory Junior, Impulsive Behaviour Scale, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory) and family characteristics (AdverseChildhood Experiences) such as childhood family strengths and adverse childhood experiences.Results and conclusions. – Our study findings showed that a precarious socio-economic environment, a lack of support and affection in thefamily, emotional deprivations, a restricted social network, low self-esteem and school disinvestments would effectively predict the continuationof a pregnancy. Childhood family strengths seem to be strongly protective against early sexual intercourse, adolescent pregnancy and long-termpsychosocial consequences. On the other hand, no particular personality feature was demonstrated. Individual characteristics would thus have lessimpact on premature pregnancies than environmental characteristics. Prevention programs must stretch beyond the use of contraception, i.e. tendtoward an intervention for psycho-socially and socio-economically at risk families, so as to support them in their educational and affective rolewith their children. Psychological help could also be brought to young girls who have had experiences of maltreatment, to favour self-esteem andraise their awareness of the consequences of sexual risk behaviour. Finally, there should be specific help for the girls during the decision-makingperiod. Counselling during this period should be attentive to the resources and the motivations of the adolescent and to the circumstances of the pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailInterruption médicamenteuse pré-anesthésique: état actuel de la question
Wolfs, C.; Sottiaux, Thierry; Lamy, Maurice ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1981), XXXVI(5), 185-193

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See detailInterruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with increased plasma cystatin C.
Mocroft, Amanda; Wyatt, Christina; Szczech, Lynda et al

in AIDS (2009), 23(1), 71-82

BACKGROUND: Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine whether participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4 cell ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Cystatin C has been proposed as an alternative marker of renal function. We sought to determine whether participants randomized to episodic use of antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4 cell count (drug conservation) had altered cystatin C levels compared with those randomized to continuous antiretroviral therapy (viral suppression) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial, and to identify factors associated with increased cystatin C. METHODS: Cystatin C was measured in plasma collected at randomization, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 months after randomization in a random sample of 249 and 250 participants in the drug conservation and viral suppression groups, respectively. Logistic regression was used to model the odds of at least 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C (1 SD) in the first month after randomization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: At randomization, mean (SD) cystatin C level was 0.99 (0.26 mg/dl) and 1.01 (0.28 mg/dl) in the drug conservation and viral suppression arms, respectively (P = 0.29). In the first month after randomization, 21.8 and 10.6% had at least 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the drug conservation and viral suppression arms, respectively (P = 0.0008). The difference in cystatin C between the treatment arms was maintained through 1 year after randomization. After adjustment, participants in the viral suppression arm had significantly reduced odds of at least 0.15 mg/dl increase in cystatin C in the first month (odds ratio 0.42; 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.74, P = 0.0023). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that interruption of antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in cystatin C, which may reflect worsened renal function. [less ▲]

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See detailInterruption prematuree des etudes ASCOT et CARDS de prevention cardio-vasculaire avec l'atorvastatine chez le sujet hypertendu ou diabetique: compromis entre ethique et statistique en medecine factuelle.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 585-90

The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA), performed in hypertensive patients with coronary risk and the Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), performed in ... [more ▼]

The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA), performed in hypertensive patients with coronary risk and the Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), performed in diabetic patients, also at coronary risk, were prematurely stopped, at the special request of the Data Safety Monitoring Board. Indeed, an interim analysis demonstrated the efficacy of atorvastatin, at a daily dosage of 10 mg as compared to placebo, in the prevention of major cardiovascular events, so that it appeared unethical to continue the study until the end. At the glance of these observations, the ethical and statistical aspects of such prevention clinical trials are discussed, in particular when the premature interruption of the ongoing study appears mandatory, with respect of the main rules of evidence-based medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailL'interscripteur et le rhapsode
Servais, Christine ULg

in Parouty-David, Françoise; Zilberberg, Claude (Eds.) Sémiotique et esthétique (2003)

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See detailIntersections on the "Map of Art": Metaphor in Ben Okri's Dangerous Love and Wilson Harris's The Mask of the Beggar
Tunca, Daria ULg

in Collier, Gordon; Davis, Geoffrey V.; Delrez, Marc (Eds.) et al The Cross-Cultural Legacy: Critical and Creative Writings in Memory of Hena Maes-Jelinek (2017)

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See detailLes intersémiotiques
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Estudos Semióticos (2013), 9(1), 1-12

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See detailInterspecific competition between three congeneric species of Carabid beetles in sympatry: a morphometric approach
Baguette, Michel; Castin, Yves; Dufrêne, Marc ULg

in Stork, Nigel (Ed.) The Role of Ground Beetles in Ecological and Environmental Studies (1990)

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See detailInterspecific hybridization for cotton improvement
Mergeai, Guy ULg

in Cotton biotechnology (1993)

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See detailInterspecific hybridization with Phaseolus vulgaris L.: embryo development and its genetics.
Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg; Silue, S.; Geerts, P. et al

in Recent Research Developments in Genetics & Breeding. Vol. 1, Part II (2004)

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See detailInterspecific recombination between two ruminant alphaherpesviruses, bovine herpesviruses 1 and 5
Meurens, F.; Keil, G. M.; Muylkens, Benoît ULg et al

in Journal of Virology (2004), 78(18), 9828-9836

Homologous recombination between different species of alphaherpesviruses has been described between herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 but has not yet been observed between other alphaherpesviruses. In the ... [more ▼]

Homologous recombination between different species of alphaherpesviruses has been described between herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 but has not yet been observed between other alphaherpesviruses. In the present study we chose to assess to what extent in vitro recombination can occur between members of a well-defined group of closely related viruses such as ruminant alphaherpesviruses. At 24 h after infection of epithelial bovine kidney cells with a double-deleted mutant of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) (containing green fluorescent protein and red fluorescent protein genes) and different ruminant alphaherpesviruses, four types of progeny viruses were detected and distinguished according to their phenotype. Frequent recombination events between identical or different strains of BoHV-1 were observed (up to 30%), whereas only two BoHV-1/BoHV-5 recombinants were identified, and no recombinants between BoHV-1 and less closely related caprine and cervine herpesviruses were detected. Restriction analysis of the genomes of the two BoHV-1/BoHV-5 recombinants showed different genetic backgrounds. One possessed a restriction pattern close to BoHV-1, whereas the other one was close to BoHV-5. This exhaustive analysis of each combination of coinfection in a unique situation of five closely related alphaherpesviruses revealed the importance of a high degree of genetic relatedness and similar parental virus growth kinetics for successful interspecific recombination. [less ▲]

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See detailInterspecific variation in bumblebee performance on pollen diet: New insights for mitigation strategies
Moerman, R.; Roger, N.; De Jonghe, R. et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(12),

Bumblebees (i.e. Bombus genus) are major pollinators of flowering wild plants and crops. Although many species are currently in decline, a number of them remain stable or are even expanding. One factor ... [more ▼]

Bumblebees (i.e. Bombus genus) are major pollinators of flowering wild plants and crops. Although many species are currently in decline, a number of them remain stable or are even expanding. One factor potentially driving changes in bumblebee distribution is the suitability of plant communities. Actually, bees probably have specific nutritional requirements that could shape their floral choices and constraint them in the current context of global change. However, most studies primarily focus on one bumblebee species at a time, making comparative studies scarce. Herein we performed comparative bioassays on three bumblebee species (i.e. Bombus hypnorum, B. pratorum and B. terrestris) fed on three different pollen diets with distinct nutritive content (Cistus, Erica and Salix pollen diets). Micro-colony performance was compared through different developmental and resource collection parameters for understanding the impact of change in pollen diet on different bumblebee species. The evidence suggests that B. terrestris is by far the most competitive species because of its performance compared to the other species, regardless of pollen diet. Our results also highlight a Bombus species effect as pollen diet impacts the micro-colonies in different ways according to the actual bumblebee species. Such interspecific variation in Bombus performance in response to a dietetic change underlines the importance of considering different bumblebee species in mitigation strategies. Such comparative studies are good advice for developing appropriate suites of plant species that can benefit threatened species while supporting stable or expanding ones. Copyright © 2016 Moerman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. [less ▲]

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See detailInterspecific variation of calls in clownfishes: degree of similarity in closely related species
Colleye, Orphal ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg; Lanterbecq, Déborah et al

in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2011), 11

Clownfishes are colorful coral reef fishes living in groups in association with sea anemones throughout the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Within their small societies, size hierarchy determines which fish have ... [more ▼]

Clownfishes are colorful coral reef fishes living in groups in association with sea anemones throughout the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Within their small societies, size hierarchy determines which fish have access to reproduction. These fishes are also prolific callers whose aggressive sounds seem to play an important role in the social hierarchy. Agonistic interactions being involved in daily behaviour suggest how acoustic communication might play an important role in clownfish group. Sounds were recorded and compared in fourteen clownfish species (some of which have never been recorded before) to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as an evolutionary driving force. Surprisingly, the relationship between fish size and both dominant frequency and pulse duration is not only species-specific; all the specimens of the 14 species are situated on exactly the same slope, which means the size of any Amphiprion can be predicted by both acoustic features. The number of pulses broadly overlaps among species, whereas the pulse period displays the most variation even if it shows overlap among sympatric species. Sound comparisons between three species (A. akallopisos, A. ocellaris and A. frenatus) having different types of teeth and body shape do not show differences neither in the acoustic waveform nor in the power spectrum. Significant overlap in acoustic features demonstrates that the sound-producing mechanism is highly conservative among species. Differences in the calls of some species are due to size dimorphism and the sound variation might be in this case a by-product. This morphological constraint does not permit a consideration of acoustic communication as the main driving force in the diversification of clownfishes. Moreover, calls are not produced to find mate and consequently are less subject to variations due to partner preference, which restricts the constraints of diversification. Calls are produced to reach and defend the competition to mate access. However, differences in the pulse period between cohabiting species show that, in some case, sounds can help to differentiate the species, to prevent competition between cohabiting species and to promote the diversification of taxa. [less ▲]

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See detailInterspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: a comparative analysis
Melotte, Geoffrey ULg; Vigouroux, Régis; Michel, Christian ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 17)

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic ... [more ▼]

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in clade diversification. All piranha species showed the same kind of sound-producing mechanism: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding the bladder ventrally. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration and dictate the fundamental frequency. It results the calling features of the eight piranha species logically share many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of multiple continuous cycles. However, the sounds of Serrasalmus elongatus (higher number of cycles and high fundamental frequency) and S. manueli (long cycle periods and low fundamental frequency) are clearly distinguishable from the other species. The sonic mechanism being largely conserved throughout piranha evolution, acoustic communication can hardly be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process. However, sounds of some species are clearly distinguishable despite the short space for variations supporting the need for specific communication. Behavioural studies are needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during spawning events. [less ▲]

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