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See detailMicroarray study of mucosal antimicrobial peptides in patients with inflammatory bowel disease before and after infliximab treatment.
Arijs, I.; Van Lommel, L.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg et al

in Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis [=JCC] (2008), 2(1), 60

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See detailMicroarrays destinés au diagnostic in-vitro des allergies
Gadisseur, Romy ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg

Conference (2009, March 02)

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See detailMicroarrays for allergy
Gadisseur, Romy ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg

Conference (2009, January 30)

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See detailMicrobeam pull-in voltage topology optimization including material deposition constraint
Lemaire, Etienne ULg; Rochus, Véronique ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2008), 197

Because of the strong coupling between mechanical and electrical phenomena existing in electromechanical microdevices, some of them experience, above a given driving voltage, an unstable behavior called ... [more ▼]

Because of the strong coupling between mechanical and electrical phenomena existing in electromechanical microdevices, some of them experience, above a given driving voltage, an unstable behavior called pull-in effect. The present paper investigates the application of topology optimization to electromechanical microdevices for the purpose of delaying this unstable behavior by maximizing their pull-in voltage. Within the framework of this preliminary study, the pull-in voltage maximization procedure is developed on the basis of electromechanical microbeams reinforcement topology design problem. The proposed sensitivity analysis requires only the knowledge of the microdevice pull-in state and of the first eigenmode of the tangent stiffness matrix. As the pull-in point research is a highly non-linear problem, the analysis is based on a monolithic finite element formulation combined with a normal flow algorithm (homotopy method). An application of the developed method is proposed and the result is compared to the one obtained using a linear compliance optimization. Moreover, as the results provided by the developed method do not comply with manufacturing constraints, a deposition process constraint is added to the optimization problem and its effect on the final design is also tested. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial biomass and C and N transformations in forest floors under European beech, sessile oak, Norway spruce and Douglas-fir at four temperate forest sites
Malchair, Sandrine ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2009), 41

The purpose of this research was to compare soil chemistry, microbially mediated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations and microbial biomass in forest floors under European beech (Fagus sylvatica L ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this research was to compare soil chemistry, microbially mediated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations and microbial biomass in forest floors under European beech (Fagus sylvatica L), sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) at four study sites. We measured soil chemical characteristics, net N mineralization, potential and relative nitrification, basal respiration, microbial and metabolic quotient and microbial biomass C and N under monoculture stands at all sites (one mixed stand). Tree species affected soil chemistry, microbial activities and biomass. but these effects 'varied between sites. Our results indicated that the effect of tree species on net N mineralization was likely to be mediated through their effect on soil microbial biomass, reflecting their influence on organic matter content and carbon availability. Differences in potential nitrification and relative nitrification might be related to the presence of ground vegetation through its influence on soil NH4 and labile C availability. Our findings highlight the need to study the effects of tree species on microbial activities at several sites to elucidate complex N cycle interactions between tree species, ground vegetation, soil characteristics and microbial processes. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial bioprocesses : current state and future prospect
Delvigne, Frank ULg

Scientific conference (2010)

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See detailMicrobial characterization of probiotics-Advisory report of the Working Group "8651 Probiotics" of the Belgian Superior Health Council (SHC).
Huys, Geert; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Delvigne, Frank ULg et al

in Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (2013)

When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its ... [more ▼]

When ingested in sufficient numbers, probiotics are expected to confer one or more proven health benefits on the consumer. Theoretically, the effectiveness of a probiotic food product is the sum of its microbial quality and its functional potential. Whereas the latter may vary much with the body (target) site, delivery mode, human target population, and health benefit envisaged microbial assessment of the probiotic product quality is more straightforward. The range of stakeholders that need to be informed on probiotic quality assessments is extremely broad, including academics, food and biotherapeutic industries, healthcare professionals, competent authorities, consumers, and professional press. In view of the rapidly expanding knowledge on this subject, the Belgian Superior Health Council installed Working Group "8651 Probiotics" to review the state of knowledge regarding the methodologies that make it possible to characterize strains and products with purported probiotic activity. This advisory report covers three main steps in the microbial quality assessment process, i.e. (i) correct species identification and strain-specific typing of bacterial and yeast strains used in probiotic applications, (ii) safety assessment of probiotic strains used for human consumption, and (iii) quality of the final probiotic product in terms of its microbial composition, concentration, stability, authenticity, and labeling. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial communities and carbon fluxes
Warwick, Vincent F; Pedro-Alios, Carlos; Curtis, Suttle et al

in Barber, David; Michaud, Josée; Fortier, Louis (Eds.) On thin ice: a synthesis of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) (2008)

The CASES program has provided a remarkable opportunity to examine the community structure and seasonal dynamics of microbial communities within coastal Arctic Ocean waters. Through the microbial ... [more ▼]

The CASES program has provided a remarkable opportunity to examine the community structure and seasonal dynamics of microbial communities within coastal Arctic Ocean waters. Through the microbial component of this program, we were able to study the diversity and activities of many forms of microscopic life, including viruses, Archea and Bacteria (known collectively as prokaryotes), and Eukarya (single-celled members, also known as protists). [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial communities associated to common bean seed - A mechanism of local adaptation of plants?
Klaedtke, Stephanie ULg; Barret, Mathieu; Chable, Véronique et al

in Chable, V; Goldringer, I; Howlett, SA (Eds.) et al Diversity strategies for organic and low input agricultures and their food systems .Book of abstracts of Solibam final congress, Nantes, 7-9 July 2014 (2014, July 08)

The effects of crop genotype and cultivation site on microbial communities associated to seed of Phaseolus vulgaris were assessed on 33 seed lots. These seed lots were obtained by multiplying 5 initial ... [more ▼]

The effects of crop genotype and cultivation site on microbial communities associated to seed of Phaseolus vulgaris were assessed on 33 seed lots. These seed lots were obtained by multiplying 5 initial seed lots of different cultivars in two contrasting environments for 2 years in 3 replicates. An additional commercial control lot was introduced the second year. The diversity of fungal and bacterial communities was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS1 region, respectively. Results showed that the structure of the fungal and the bacterial communities is significantly affected by the cultivation site. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial diversity and activity in temperate forest and grassland ecosystems
Malchair, Sandrine ULg

Doctoral thesis (2009)

Ecosystems currently face widespread biodiversity losses and other environmental disturbances, such as climate warming, related to increased anthropogenic activities. Within this context, scientists ... [more ▼]

Ecosystems currently face widespread biodiversity losses and other environmental disturbances, such as climate warming, related to increased anthropogenic activities. Within this context, scientists consider the effects of such changes on the biodiversity, and hence on the activity, of soil microorganisms. Indeed, soil microorganisms mediate a wide range of soil processes. Currently, knowledge on soil microbial diversity is still limited, partially due to technical limitations. The advent of molecular-based analyses now allows studying the soil microbial diversity. These advances in the study of soil microbial communities have lead to a growing evidence of the critical role played by the microbial community in ecosystem functioning. This relationship is supposed to be relevant for narrow processes, regulated by a restricted group of microorganisms, such as the nitrification process. This PhD thesis aimed at studying ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community structure and richness as an integrated part of soil functioning. This research aimed at investigating the effect of aboveground plant diversity on ammonia oxidizing bacteria diversity and function in forest and grassland soils with focus on the influence of (a) functional group identity of grassland plants (legumes, grasses, forbs), (b) grassland plant species richness and (c) tree species, on AOB diversity and function. Another objective of this research was to study the effect of a 3°C increase in air temperature on AOB diversity and function. The link between AOB diversity and function (potential nitrification) is also investigated. For grassland ecosystems, a microcosm experiment was realized. An experimental platform containing 288 assembled grassland communities was established in Wilrijk (Belgium). Grassland species were grown in 12 sunlit, climate controlled chambers. Each chamber contained 24 communities of variable species richness (S) (9 S=1, 9 S=3 and 6 S=9).The grassland species belonged to three functional groups: three species of each grasses (Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea SCHREB., Lolium perenne L.), forbs (non-N-fixing dicots; Bellis perennis L., Rumex acetosa L., Plantagolanceolata L.), and legumes (N-fixing dicots; Trifolium repens L., Medicago sativa L., Lotus corniculatus L.). Half of these chambers were exposed to ambient temperature and the other half were exposed to (ambient +3°C) temperature. One ambient and one (ambient+3°C) chambers were destructively harvested 4, 16 and 28 months after the start of the experiment. The influence of plant functional group identity on the nitrification process and on AOB community structure and richness (AOB diversity) was assessed in soils collected from the first two destructive amplings (chapter 2). The effect of plant species richness on AOB diversity and function was considered for soils sampled after 16 and 28 months (chapter 3). AOB function was determined by potential nitrification. AOB community structure and richness were assessed by polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of excised DGGE bands. I found that functional group identity can affect AOB community structure. In particular, the presence of legumes, both in monoculture or in mixture with forbs and grasses, lead to AOB community composition changes towards AOB clusters tolerating higher ammonium concentrations. This change in AOB community structure was only linked to increased potential nitrification under monocultures of legumes, when ammonium was supposed to be not limiting. This study revealed that physiological attributes of AOB and resource availability may be important factors in controlling the nitrification process. This research showed that the impact of plant species richness on the nitrification process could be mediated by the interactions between plants and AOB, through competition for substrate. A 3°C increase in air temperature did not affect AOB community structure, richness or function. In forest ecosystems, we studied the effect of tree species in forest sites located in Belgian and in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg covered each by several deciduous or coniferous tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein, Picea abies (L.) Karst, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco). We investigated the influence of these tree species on microbial processes (chapter 5) related to C and N cycling, particularly with emphasize on the nitrification process and on the diversity of AOB (chapter 6). The results showed that the effect of tree species on net N mineralization was likely to be mediated through their effect on soil microbial biomass, reflecting their influence on organic matter content and carbon availability. Influence of tree species on nitrification (potential and relative) might be related to the presence of ground vegetation through its influence on soil ammonium and labile C availability. AOB community structure was more site-specific than tree specific. However, within sites, AOB community structure under broadleaved trees differed from the one under coniferous trees. The effect on tree species on AOB was likely to be driven by the influence of tree species on net N mineralization, which regulates the substrate availability for AOB. The results also demonstrated that the relationship between AOB diversity and function might be related both to AOB abundance and AOB community structure and richness. This thesis showed no clear relationship between AOB community structure or richness and AOB function. However, we revealed that aboveground grassland plant richness, grassland plant functional groups and tree species influence AOB community structure and richness. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial diversity and function during different bioremediation strategies of diesel-polluted soil
Masy, Thibaut ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2015, June 16)

In numerous hydrocarbon-polluted sites, oxygen and pollutant bioavailability constitutes the main limiting factors for biodegradation because of the strong adsorption of hydrocarbons on organic soil ... [more ▼]

In numerous hydrocarbon-polluted sites, oxygen and pollutant bioavailability constitutes the main limiting factors for biodegradation because of the strong adsorption of hydrocarbons on organic soil particles (clay and peat). Therefore, several strategies such as biostimulation (with air/H2O2 and/or nutrients) or bioaugmentation are used, but often without understanding the endogenous microflora degrading capacity. This lack of differentiation between indigenous and added microorganisms could lead to poor predictability of the biodegradation efficiency. In addition, anaerobic degradation remains less applied in industrial settings for such compounds (especially for saturated hydrocarbons) as this process remains slow. In this context, the main objective of our study was to understand how the bacterial community evolves, in terms of species and degrading gene diversities, during the application of three different bioremediation strategies in a heavily diesel-polluted clay soil: (i) anaerobic natural attenuation, (ii) bioventing and (iii) bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1. In addition to the supply of new degrading genes, bioaugmentation with this biosurfactant-producing strain should facilitate the bioassimilation of desorbed hydrocarbons by the whole degrading microflora. This hypothesis is strengthened by previous results obtained during several microcosm- and pilot-scale experiments. Aerobic and anaerobic microcosms were set up with three different soil samples coming from the same polluted site. Initially, their global organic content was identical but their hydrocarbon and peat concentrations were different, which led to differential oxygen consumption. Soils were sampled every 10 days to extract the DNA to measure changes in bacterial populations (with RISA analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing) and function (with qPCR and sequencing of degrading genes). Further analyses of the hydrocarbon content by GC-MS and of the genetic diversity by MiSeq metagenomic analysis provided detailed chemical and functional microbial data related to compound degradation and relative gene increases. Initial results showed significant differences in the microbial community structure. Moreover, Rhodococci seem to be maintained in the soil after inoculation. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial Diversity and Processes in Lake Kivu (East Africa)
Llirós, M.; Darchambeau, François ULg; Garcia-Armisen, T. et al

Conference (2011)

Lake Kivu is a deep meromictic and oligotrophic tropical African lake with a permanent thermal- and haline stratification with huge accumulations of dissolved CO2 and CH4 (ca. 300 km3 and 60 km3 ... [more ▼]

Lake Kivu is a deep meromictic and oligotrophic tropical African lake with a permanent thermal- and haline stratification with huge accumulations of dissolved CO2 and CH4 (ca. 300 km3 and 60 km3, respectively) in the deep anoxic monimolimnion (from 60 o 480 m depth). Although there are a wealth of information on the ecology of small eukaryotes and their trophic role on Kivu, available information on prokaryotic planktonic assemblages is scarce. Molecular analysis of archaeal and bacterial communities showed a vertical segregation imposed by the permanent redoxcline. In relation to Bacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Green Sulfur Bacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most commonly retrieved groups. For Archaea, a marked dominance of Thaumarchaeota and Crenarchaeota (75% of all archaeal OTUs) over Euryarchaeota was observed. In the anoxic hypolimnion, Euryarchaoeta (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales) lineages together with Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group phylotypes were mainly recovered. In turn, Thaumarchaeota phylotypes were recovered in oxic and suboxic waters. CARDFISH analyses over the first 100 m revealed the dominance of Bacteria (51.4% – 95.7% of DAPI-stained cells), especially Actinobacteria (epilimnion), Betaproteobacteria (oxic-anoxic interface) and Bacteroidetes (upper hypolimnion), over Archaea (1.0% – 4.5%; maximum abundances at the oxic-anoxic interface). In turn, flow cytometry evidenced the dominance of HNA cells in the euphotic layer, whereas the proportion of LNA cells increased with depth. HNA and LNA populations were still observed in the anoxic hypolimnion suggesting facultative or strict anaerobic metabolisms. The detection of distinct depth maxima of nitrate, nitrite, archaeal amoA and Marine Thaumarchaeota 16S gene copy numbers together with regularly detection of deep maxima of 3H-Thymidine uptake, and the presence of low-light adapted GSB species point towards a strong link of N, C, and S cycles in the redoxcline of Lake Kivu. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial Ecology of Lake Kivu
Llirós, Marc; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Libert, Xavier et al

in Descy, Jean-Pierre; Darchambeau, François; Schmid, Martin (Eds.) Lake Kivu, Limnology and Biogeochemistry of a Tropical Great Lake (2012)

We review available data on archaea, bacteria and small eukaryotes in an attempt to provide a general picture of microbial diversity, abundances and microbe-driven processes in Lake Kivu surface and ... [more ▼]

We review available data on archaea, bacteria and small eukaryotes in an attempt to provide a general picture of microbial diversity, abundances and microbe-driven processes in Lake Kivu surface and intermediate waters (ca. 0–100 m). The various water layers present contrasting physical and chemical properties and harbour very different microbial communities supported by the vertical redox structure. For instance, we found a clear vertical segregation of archaeal and bacterial assemblages between the oxic and the anoxic zone of the surface waters. The presence of specific bacterial (e.g. Green Sulfur Bacteria) and archaeal (e.g. ammonia-oxidising archaea) communities and the prevailing physico-chemical conditions point towards the redoxcline as the most active and metabolically diverse water layer. The archaeal assemblage in the surface and intermediate water column layers was mainly composed by the phylum Crenarchaeota , by the recently defined phylum Thaumarchaeota and by the phylum Euryarchaeota . In turn, the bacterial assemblage comprised mainly ubiquitous members of planktonic assemblages of freshwater environments (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Betaproteobacteria among others) and other less commonly retrieved phyla (e.g. Chlorobi, Clostridium and Deltaproteobacteria). The community of small eukaryotes (<5 µm) mainly comprised Stramenopiles , Alveolata , Cryptophyta , Chytridiomycota , Kinetoplastea and Choanoflagellida, by decreasing order of richness. The total prokaryotic abundance ranged between 0.5 × 10^6 and 2.0 × 10^6 cells mL−1 , with maxima located in the 0–20 m layer, while phycoerythrin-rich Synechococcus-like picocyanobacteria populations were comprised between 0.5 × 10^5 and 2.0 × 10^5 cells mL−1 in the same surface layer. Brown-coloured species of Green Sulfur Bacteria permanently developed at 11m depth in Kabuno Bay and sporadically in the anoxic waters of the lower mixolimnion of the main basin. The mean bacterial production was estimated to 336 mg C m−2 day−1 . First estimates of the re-assimilation by bacterioplankton of dissolved organic matter excreted by phytoplankton showed high values of dissolved primary production (ca. 50% of total production). The bacterial carbon demand can totally be fuelled by phytoplankton production. Overall, recent studies have revealed a high microbial diversity in Lake Kivu, and point towards a central role of microbes in the biogeochemical and ecological functioning of the surface layers, comprising the mixolimnion and the upper chemocline. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial ecology of the closed artificial ecosystem MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative): Reinventing and compartmentalizing the Earth's food and oxygen regeneration system for long-haul space exploration missions
Hendrickx, Larissa; De Wever, Heleen; Hermans, Veronik et al

in Research in Microbiology (2006), 157

MELiSSA is a bioregenerative life support system designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the complete recycling of gas, liquid and solid wastes during long distance space exploration. The system ... [more ▼]

MELiSSA is a bioregenerative life support system designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the complete recycling of gas, liquid and solid wastes during long distance space exploration. The system uses the combined activity of different living organisms: microbial cultures in bioreactors, a plant compartment and a human crew. In this minireview, the development of a short-cut ecological system for the biotransformation of organic waste is discussed from a microorganism's perspective. The artificial ecological model—still in full development—that is inspired by Earth's own geomicrobiological ecosystem serves as an ideal study object on microbial ecology and will become an indispensable travel companion in manned space exploration. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial heterogeneity affects bioprocess robustness: Dynamic single cell analysis contribute to understanding microbial populations
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Goffin, Philippe

in Biotechnology Journal (2014), 9(1), 61-72

Heterogeneity or segregation of microbial populations has been the subject of much research, but the real impact of this phenomenon on bioprocesses remains not well understood. The main reason behind this ... [more ▼]

Heterogeneity or segregation of microbial populations has been the subject of much research, but the real impact of this phenomenon on bioprocesses remains not well understood. The main reason behind this lack of knowledge is the difficulty for monitoring microbial population heterogeneity in dynamic process conditions. The main concepts leading to microbial population heterogeneity in the context of bioprocesses have been summarized by two distinct hypotheses. The first one involves the individual history of microbial cells or “path” followed during their residence time inside process equipment. The second one involves a coordinated response of the microbial population as a bet-hedging strategy in order to cope with process-related stresses. The respective contribution of each hypothesis to microbial heterogeneity in bioprocesses is still unclear. This statement illustrates the fact that, although microbial phenotypic heterogeneity has been thoroughly investigated at the fundamental level, the implications of this phenomenon in the context of microbial bioprocesses are still subjected to debate. At this time, automated flow cytometry is the best technique for the investigation of microbial heterogeneity in process conditions. However, dedicated software and relevant biomarkers are needed for its proper integration as a bioprocess control tool. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial inoculation for improving the growth and health of micropropagated strawberry
Vestberg, Mauritz; Kukkonen, Sanna; Saari, K. et al

in Applied Soil Ecology (2004), 27(3), 243-258

Multimicrobial inoculation has been proposed as a way of protecting plants against environmental stress and increasing the sustainability of plant production. To study these possibilities in a ... [more ▼]

Multimicrobial inoculation has been proposed as a way of protecting plants against environmental stress and increasing the sustainability of plant production. To study these possibilities in a micropropagation system, microplants of strawberry, Fragaria x ananssa, were inoculated or left uninoculated with five microorganisms (Glomus mosseae BEG29, Bacillus subtilis M3, Trichoderma harzianum DB11, Pseudomonas fluorescens C7rl2 and Gliocladium catenulatum Gliomix(R)), used either singly or in dual mixtures in the presence or absence of the strawberry diseases crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum) and red stele (P. fragariae). Finnish light Sphagnum peat was used as the growth substrate in the experiments. Seven experiments were performed as two to three months pot experiments in greenhouses of research laboratories in Finland and Belgium and in a nursery in Finland. In most experiments, the inoculated microorganims were detected at sufficient densities four weeks after inoculation. Exceptions were T harzianum and G. mosseae which were detected at insufficient densities in several experiments. This might have been due to the biological and/or nutritional properties of the peat. None of the microorganisms or their mixtures caused significant growth-promoting effects in more than two experiments. Dual inoculation did not increase growth more than inoculation with single organisms. B. subtilis was the most promising growth promoting microorganism. Most of the microbial treatments decreased crown rot shoot symptoms as well as the numbers of oospores in the roots when the experiment was performed in autumn. In the summer experiment with conditions more favourable for strawberry growth, no disease control was obtained, but some of the microorganisms increased the severity of crown rot. No microbial treatment decreased shoot symptoms of red stele, but the degree of root necrosis was slightly decreased by B. subtilis and G. mosseae + G. catenulatum. The numbers of oospores of P. fragariae in strawberry roots were not decreased by any treatment, but several treatments increased them. Both growth promotion and disease control considered, the single microorganisms T harzianum, G. catenulatum and B. subtilis as well as the mixture T harzianum + G. catenulatum were the most promising treatments in this study. However, the great variation between experiments indicates that more studies are needed for optimization of the whole plant-substrate-microorganism system. The importance of microbial inoculation for ensuring subsequent growth in the field also needs to be studied. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrobial Processes for the Heavy Metal Recovery
Crine, Michel ULg; Hecq, W.

in Actes du Congrès organisé par l'Association Universitaire pour l'Environnement et le Groupe de contact FNRS "Génie chimique" (1990, April 12)

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See detailMicrobial recovery of metals from low grade materials
Frenay, Jean ULg; Remacle, Jean ULg; Crine, Michel ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Fall Meeting AIME (1985)

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