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See detailInternal dynamics, innovation and investments in sustainability
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Rammal, Hussain; Burritt, Roger

Conference (2015, March 26)

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See detailInternal encoding style and schizotypy: towards a conceptually-driven account of positive symptoms
Belayachi, Sanaa ULg; Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg et al

in Journal of Personality Disorders (2015), 29(3), 303-315

Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven ... [more ▼]

Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven and conceptually-driven processing. A chronic imbalance between these two sources of stimulus encoding is likely to be maladaptive and could underlie cognitive and behavioral disturbances similar to that observed in schizotypy, especially if the balance is tipped too far towards conceptually-driven processing (i.e., Internal encoding style). This study aimed to examine the relationships between encoding style and various dimensions of schizotypy, by using a questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which pre-existing schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes. Consistent with previous findings, our results revealed that both Cognitive-Perceptual and Disorganization dimensions were related to an internal mode of encoding, suggesting that individuals with these features may be characterized by a disposition to biases at early stages of encoding. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy and fragmentation of ions produced in electrospray sources
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Mass Spectrometry Reviews (2005), 24(4), 566-587

This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of ... [more ▼]

This review addresses the determination of the internal energy of ions produced by electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, and the influence of the internal energy on analyte fragmentation. A control of the analyte internal energy is crucial for several applications of electrospray mass spectrometry, like structural studies, construction of reproducible and exportable spectral libraries, analysis of non-covalent complexes. Sections II and III summarize the Electrospray mechanisms and source design considerations which are relevant to the problem of internal energy, and Section IV gives an overview of the interrelationships between ion internal energy, reaction time scale, and analyte fragmentation. In these three sections we tried to make the most important theoretical elements understandable by all ESI users, and their understanding requires a minimal background in physical chemistry. We then present the different approaches used to experimentally determine the ion internal energy, as well as various attempts in modeling the internal energy uptake in electrospray sources. Finally, a tentative comparison between electrospray and other ionization sources is made. As the reader will see, although many reports appeared on the subject, the knowledge in the field of internal energy of ions produced by soft ionization sources is still scarce, because of the complexity of the system, and this is what makes this area of research so interesting. The last section presents some perspectives for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy build-up in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Schulz, Eric; Karas, Michael

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (2004), 39(6), 579-593

This paper reports detailed studies on the internal energy of ions formed in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) using delayed extraction MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) and atmospheric ... [more ▼]

This paper reports detailed studies on the internal energy of ions formed in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) using delayed extraction MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) and atmospheric pressure (AP) MALDI mass spectrometric (MS) methods. We use benzylpyridinium cations as internal energy probes. Our study reveals three distinct contributions to internal energy build-up in vacuum-MALDI (classical MALDI-TOF), each having different effects on ion fragmentation. Some fragments are formed before ion extraction (i.e. no more than 100 ns after the laser impact), and they are therefore well resolved and recorded as sharp signals in the MALDI-TOFMS scan. This prompt fragmentation can have two origins: (i) in-plume thermal activation, presumably always present, and (ii) in-plume chemical activation, in the course of reactions with hydrogen radicals. In addition to early internal energy build-up associated with these well-resolved promptly formed fragments, a broad peak slightly offset to higher masses could be detected corresponding to fragments formed after the extraction has started. This second signal corresponds to a third source of internal energy in MALDI ions, (iii) the extraction-induced collisional activation of the ions with the neutral components of the plume. These three contributions are difficult to quantify in vacuum-MALDI, because of the combined influence of several parameters (nature of the matrix, spot-to-spot variability, total laser exposure, delay time, acceleration voltage) on extraction-induced fragmentation. AP-MALDI, on the other hand, has two advantages for comparative studies of analyte fragmentation. First, extraction-induced fragmentation is absent, and only the contributions of early plume activation remain. Second, the reproducibility is far better than in vacuum-MALDI. AP-MALDI is therefore expected to shed new light on the early steps of the MALDI process. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal energy content of ions in a travelling wave ion guide
Morsa, Denis ULg; Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2010)

Travelling wave ion guides (TWIGs) separate of ions according to their mobility and, at constant charge, according to their shape. The ion mobility separation itself should not modify the shape of the ... [more ▼]

Travelling wave ion guides (TWIGs) separate of ions according to their mobility and, at constant charge, according to their shape. The ion mobility separation itself should not modify the shape of the systems investigated. It was recently suggested by Shvartsburg et al. that the higher fields used in TWIGs than in traditional drift tubes would cause significant heating of the ions. We present a quantitative analysis of the amount of internal energy imparted to ions as they are separated in TWIGs. Benzylpyridinium ions were chosen as “thermometer” ions. Based on arrival time distributions, the fragment ion population is separated as a function of the place of formation: before, in, or after the TWIG. Fragmentation all along the TWIG was observed. The roles of the travelling wave’s voltage, speed, and of the gas nature and pressure will be discussed in detail as well of the consequences on instruments performances. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal functionalization in hyperbranched polyesters
Trollsas, Michaël; Hedrick, James L.; Mecerreyes, David et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1998), 35(17), 3187-3192

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See detailInternal mammary artery bypass graft for impaired coronary perfusion after neonatal arterial switch operation
Grabitz, R. G.; Messmer, B. J.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (1992), 6(7), 388-90

Myocardial ischaemia caused by perfusion impairment of translocated coronary arteries is the major cause of perioperative mortality after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great ... [more ▼]

Myocardial ischaemia caused by perfusion impairment of translocated coronary arteries is the major cause of perioperative mortality after neonatal arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries. We report the successful use of the right internal mammary artery as a bypass graft to a dominant right coronary artery to treat insufficient perfusion of this artery in a newborn. Eight months later, coronary angiography showed a full blood supply of the right coronary artery across the internal mammary anastomosis. After a follow-up period of more than 30 months, somatic development, electrocardiogram and echocardiographically determined contractility of both ventricles are practically normal indicating regular function of the bypass graft. [less ▲]

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See detailThe internal market and social rights: friends or foes?
Defossez, Alexandre ULg; Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Defossez, Alexandre; Munoz, Rodolphe; El Khadraoui, Said (Eds.) European Union and the Economic Crisis (2011)

Analyzing the relationships between the development of the internal market and European social rights faces a major challenge: avoiding caricature. The following example illustrates this point: if, on the ... [more ▼]

Analyzing the relationships between the development of the internal market and European social rights faces a major challenge: avoiding caricature. The following example illustrates this point: if, on the one hand, the Laval and Viking cases have rekindled the fear of “social dumping” throughout the Union, on the other hand, the recent developments of European citizenship case law foster the rights of all European citizens. This illustrates that the relationships between the internal market and social rights may rightly be described as “conflicting” or “friendly”, depending the issue at stake and/or the legal basis involved (freedom to provide services versus European citizenship). We’ve therefore decided to focus on what we think are “defining moments” of the relationship between the internal market and the development of social Europe. These choices may appear artificial or incomplete but we think that they encapsulate the basic tension that is going throughout the history of the European Union (EU), since the foundation of the European Economic Community (EEC) to the recent Single Market Act [less ▲]

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See detailInternal Market, competition law and industrial policy
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg; Devroe, Wouter

in De Visser, Maartje; van der Mei, Anne-Pieter (Eds.) The Treaty on European Union 1993-2013: Reflections from Maastricht (2013)

In this chapter, we outline the main developments having taken place in relation to the EU internal market (free movement, competition and industrial policy) since the entry into force of the Maastricht ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we outline the main developments having taken place in relation to the EU internal market (free movement, competition and industrial policy) since the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal particle size distribution of biofuel pellets
Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Temmerman, Michaël ULg; Westborg, Suzanne

in Fuel (2006)

Several methods for disintegration of biofuel pellets were tested and compared for their ability to break up the pellets into the original particles of the raw material. Analyses performed on softwood ... [more ▼]

Several methods for disintegration of biofuel pellets were tested and compared for their ability to break up the pellets into the original particles of the raw material. Analyses performed on softwood pellets and straw pellets concluded that wet disintegration in water at ambient temperature is insufficient for a determination of the internal particle size distribution of wood- and straw pellets. When the wet disintegration was performed with water heated to the boiling point and coupled with mechanical disintegration in terms of stirring a more complete disintegration of the pellets was obtained. Based on the results obtained in the initial study a round robin was set up including six European laboratories where the selected method was tested. In the round robin test the method combining heated water and stirring of the slurry was tested on solid biofuel pellets produced of comminute straw, deciduous wood and coniferous wood respectively. With the method a satisfactory disintegration was obtained of all three types of pellets. Further wet disintegration of coniferous pellets was compared to a dry disintegration using a hammer mill. The dry disintegration of the coniferous pellets resulted in smaller particle sizes compared to the wet disintegration using heated water and stirring of the slurry indicating a further disintegration of the original particles in the hammer mill process. Overall the wet disintegration combined with mechanical impact was found to be the most suitable method for disintegration of solid biofuel pellets. Combined with sieving analysis the method gives realistic image of the internal particle size distribution of solid biofuel pellets. [less ▲]

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See detailInternal Resonance and Stall-Flutter in a Pitch-Flap Wing in the Wind-Tunnel
Verstraelen, Edouard ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Proceedings of the SEM IMAC XXXII (2015, February)

Nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena such as store-induced LCOs, transonic buzz and stall flutter are the burden or modern aircraft: they reduce the performance and can even limit the flight envelope in both ... [more ▼]

Nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena such as store-induced LCOs, transonic buzz and stall flutter are the burden or modern aircraft: they reduce the performance and can even limit the flight envelope in both civil and military cases. Several nonlinear setups were studied experimentally in the last decades by the scientific community but most of them have pitch and plunge degrees of freedom and feature a rigid wing. In this paper, we study a new nonlinear aeroelastic apparatus that features nonlinear pitch and flap degrees of freedom, coupled with a flexible wing. The model is tested experimentally in the wind tunnel to determine its dynamic behaviour. Preliminary observations demonstrate that the system undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation due to the hardening nonlinearity followed by an amplitude jump that is the consequence of either dynamic stall (i.e. stall flutter) or internal resonance (i.e. interaction between the hardening nonlinearity and higher modes). [less ▲]

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See detailInternal structures of clusters in driven granular gas
Noirhomme, Martial ULg

Poster (2016, July)

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See detailInternally Stayed Trusses : The Search for Minimum Weight
Samyn, Philippe; Latteur, Pierre ULg

(1999, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg)
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See detailInternationaal privaatrecht geannoteerd
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Kruger, Thalia; Verhellen, Jinske et al

Book published by La Charte (2012)

This collection presents the most important statutory materials useful for the practice in Belgium of private international law. Each instrument (Belgian Acts, European Regulations and International ... [more ▼]

This collection presents the most important statutory materials useful for the practice in Belgium of private international law. Each instrument (Belgian Acts, European Regulations and International Conventions in force in Belgium) is reproduced together with comments highlighting the most important case law in relation to the provisions studied. [less ▲]

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See detailInternationaalprivaatrechtelijke aspecten van leasing
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Beselaere, Patrick (Ed.) Handboek leasing (2007)

This paper gives a general overview of the legal difficulties raised by the cross-border nature of commercial leasing agreements. The specific focus is on issues of applicable law and jurisdiction and ... [more ▼]

This paper gives a general overview of the legal difficulties raised by the cross-border nature of commercial leasing agreements. The specific focus is on issues of applicable law and jurisdiction and also on the particular problems raised by the fact that three parties or more may be involved in the operation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe International 4-m Liquid Mirror Telescope Project
Surdej, Jean ULg

in European Astronomical Society Newsletter (1999), 17

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (8 ULg)
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See detailInternational acquisitions and shareholder wealth: evidence from the Netherlands
Corhay, Albert ULg; Tourani-Rad, Alireza

in International Review of Financial Analysis (2000), 9(2), 163-174

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (6 ULg)