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See detailAssessment of olfactory function in male and female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice
Pierman, S.; Douhard, Quentin ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 99

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See detailAssessment of osteoporosis disease burden in countries currently lacking such studies
Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Radican, L et al

in BONE (1998), 23(S5), 306

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See detailAssessment of osteoporosis in daily clinical practice
Bosio-Le Goux, B.; Augendre-Ferrante, B.; Tancredi, Annalisa ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2003, November), 14(Suppl. 7), 86

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See detailAssessment of oviposition site quality by aphidophagous hoverflies: reaction to conspecific larvae
Almohamad, Raki; Verheggen, François ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Animal Behaviour (2010), 79

Aphidophagous predators adapt their foraging behaviour to the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae. We studied the effect of the presence of conspecific larvae and their tracks on the ... [more ▼]

Aphidophagous predators adapt their foraging behaviour to the presence of conspecific and heterospecific larvae. We studied the effect of the presence of conspecific larvae and their tracks on the oviposition site selection of an aphid-specific predator, Episyrphus balteatus DeGeer (Diptera: Syrphidae), in two-choice experiments using a leaf disc bioassay. Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the volatile chemicals released from odour extracts of E. balteatus larval tracks. The behavioural effects of these volatile substances on hoverfly females were also evaluated. Our experiments demonstrated that E. balteatus females were deterred from ovipositing when presented with a Vicia faba leaf with aphids and conspecific larvae. The oviposition-deterring stimulus was also active when females were presented with a leaf that contained conspecific larval tracks. A mixture of chemical compounds was found in the volatile pattern of odour extracts of larval tracks. The main volatile chemicals were 3-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylpropanoic acid, 3-hydroxy- 2-butanone, hexanoic acid and phenol. Females also laid significantly fewer eggs in response to odorant volatiles emitted from larval extracts. These results highlight that predatory hoverfly females avoid ovipositing in aphid colonies in which conspecific larvae or their tracks are already present, suggesting that this behaviour constitutes a strategy that enables females to optimize their oviposition site and reduce competition suffered by their offspring. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pain in herpes zoster: lessons learned from antiviral trials
Dworkin, R. H.; Carrington, D.; Cunningham, A. et al

in Antiviral Research (1997), 33(2), 73-85

Pain typically accompanies acute herpes zoster and, in a proportion of patients, it persists well beyond rash healing. Pain must therefore be analyzed in trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster, but ... [more ▼]

Pain typically accompanies acute herpes zoster and, in a proportion of patients, it persists well beyond rash healing. Pain must therefore be analyzed in trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster, but different methods have been used to analyze pain in recent published trials. These reports are reviewed and their methodological strengths and weaknesses examined. Based on this review, recommendations for the design and analysis of future trials of antiviral agents in herpes zoster are proposed. The principal recommendation is that antiviral efficacy should be evaluated both by distinguishing post-herpetic neuralgia from acute pain and by considering pain as a continuum. The primary endpoint should address both the prevalence and duration of post-herpetic neuralgia and should be examined in those patients who have post-herpetic neuralgia. Adopting the proposed recommendations in design and analysis of future trials should facilitate comparison across trials of the efficacy of antiviral agents in the treatment of herpes zoster. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Patient Comfort During Palliative Sedation: Is it always Reliable?
Deschepper, R; Bilsen, J; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (2014)

"When death knocks at the door of our ward, we do not easily open the door”, an intensivist once said. In the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department, care is strongly focused on cure and ... [more ▼]

"When death knocks at the door of our ward, we do not easily open the door”, an intensivist once said. In the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department, care is strongly focused on cure and resuscitation. Notwithstanding the technological progress made in intensive and emergency medicine, a substantial number of the patients admitted to the ICU cannot be saved. In these cases, it is important to make a timely shift from curative efforts to palliative care, so that futile and burdensome interventions can be avoided. When death becomes imminent, a major concern of the family members and caregivers is to assure maximal comfort during the dying process. A central aspect of good end-of-life care is to keep the patient, as much as possible, free of pain and other kinds of distress. However, many critically ill patients often suffer from symptoms such as pain and delirium. More than 50 % of critically ill patients in the ICU experience moderate to severe pain and pain in critically ill patients often remains untreated [1]. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of periodic homogenisation-based multi-scale computational schemes for quasi-brittle structural failure
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Massart, T. J.

in Computational Plasticity X - Fundamentals and Applications (2009)

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See detailAssessment of periodic homogenization-based multiscale computational schemes for quasi-brittle structural failure
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Massart, T. J.

in International Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering (2009), 7(2), 153-170

New methods for the modeling of structural failure by means of multiscale approaches were recently proposed, in which the structural description involves coarse-scale discontinuities, the behavior of ... [more ▼]

New methods for the modeling of structural failure by means of multiscale approaches were recently proposed, in which the structural description involves coarse-scale discontinuities, the behavior of which is fed by representative volume element (RVE) computations. Their main asset consists in identifying the material response, including the failure behavior of the material, from fine-scale material parameters and computations. One of the distinctions between the available approaches relates to the boundary conditions applied on the RVE. The methods based on classical computational homogenization usually make use of periodic boundary conditions. This assumption remains a priori debatable for the localized behavior of quasi-brittle materials. For the particular case of periodic materials (masonry), the level of approximation induced by the periodic assumption is scrutinized here. A new displacement discontinuity-enhanced-scale transition is therefore outlined based on energetic consistency requirements. The corresponding multiscale framework results are compared to complete fine-scale modeling results used as a reference, showing a good agreement in terms of limit load, and in terms of failure mechanisms both at the fine-scale and at the overall structural level. © 2008 by Begell House, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pesticide application method efficiency by high-speed image analysis
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Denis, Thierry; Perriot, Benjamin et al

Conference (2012, July 08)

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method efficiency. Retention on blackgrass leaves was assessed by an image analysis method. The setup consists of a high-speed camera shooting drop impact on horizontal leaf target. An herbicide (Archipel® [125 g/ha] + Actirob® [1 l/ha]) was sprayed at the usual volume of 150 l/ha and at a reduced volume of 65 l/ha. Adjuvants use (Epsotop® [1%] + Heliosol® [0.5%]) was also evaluated at 65 l/ha to highlight the effect of mixture surface tension modification. Drop properties before impact were extracted by image analysis and a phase diagram derived. Volumetric proportions of impact types are determined inside 11 energy classes to assess the effect of formulation and application method. The volume median diameter (VMD) before impact was slightly decreased by the reduction to 65 l/ha because of nozzle and pressure changes and also by the use of the adjuvants leading to the reduction of surface tension. Without adjuvants the reduction to 65l/ha increased the proportion of adhesion while rebound remained unchanged and fragmentation decreased. With adjuvants, drop fragmentation occurs for a lower energy class but the proportion of fragmentation also decreases with because of reduced VMD. A slight effect on the transitions between impact classes was observed because of formulation concentration change at reduced volume/hectare. A major effect of adjuvants on retention was highlighted as bouncing disappeared. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pfcrt 72-76 haplotypes eight years after chloroquine withdrawal in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Mvumbi, Dieudonné; BOREUX, Raphaël ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg et al

in Malaria Journal (2013), 12

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases, as monotherapies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases, as monotherapies had become ineffective in many parts of the world. As a result, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) withdrew chloroquine (CQ) from its malaria treatment policy in 2002 and an artesunate (AS)-amodiaquine (AQ) combination became the ACT of choice in DRC in 2005. AQ-resistance (AQR) has been reported in several parts of the world and mutations in codons 72-76 of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene have been strongly correlated with resistance, especially mutations encoding the SVMNT haplotype. This haplotype was first identified in Southeast Asia and South America but was recently reported in two African countries neighbouring DRC. These facts raised two questions: the first about the evolution of CQ resistance (CQR) in DRC and the second about the presence of the SVMNT haplotype, which would compromise the use of AQ as a partner drug for ACT. METHODS: A total of 213 thick blood films were randomly collected in 2010 from a paediatric clinic in Kinshasa, DRC. Microscopy controls and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed for Plasmodium species identification. Haplotypes of the pfcrt gene were determined by sequencing. RESULTS: The K76T mutation was detected in 145 out of 198 P. falciparum-positive samples (73.2%).In these 145 resistant strains, only the CVIET haplotype was detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to assess the molecular markers of resistance to CQ and AQ after the introduction of ACT in DRC. The results suggest first that CQR is decreasing, as wild-type pfcrt haplotypes were found in only 26.8% of the samples and secondly that the SVMNT haplotype is not yet present in Kinshasa, suggesting that AQ remains valid as a partner drug for ACT in this region. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment Of Pichia Anomala (Strain K) Efficacy Against Blue Mould Of Apples When Applied Pre- Or Post-Harvest Under Laboratory Conditions And In Orchard Trials
Lahlali, R.; Massart, Sébastien ULg; De Clercq, D. et al

in European Journal of Plant Pathology (2009), 123(1), 37-45

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See detailAssessment of plasma profile of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) in sheep with a heterologous (anti-caPAG(55+59)) RIA diagnosing and its potential for pregnancy
Ledezma-Torres, R. A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg; Holtz, W.

in Theriogenology (2006), 66(4), 906-912

The purpose of the present investigation was to generate pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG)-profiles throughout pregnancy in a heterogenous sample of sheep using a radioimmunoassay with a ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the present investigation was to generate pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG)-profiles throughout pregnancy in a heterogenous sample of sheep using a radioimmunoassay with a heterologous antibody (anti-caPAG55,59, #708) and utilize them for the purpose of pregnancy detection. From 2 weeks after the introduction of males into the breeding herd until 4 weeks after parturition, weekly blood samples were collected from 66 pregnant and 25 non-pregnant ewes of various breeds. Between 3 and 5 weeks after conception, plasma PAG levels increased, remained almost stable until week 17, then continued to increase, culminating in a drastic surge during the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. By 4 weeks of gestation, the plasma PAG level exceeded the level typical for non-pregnant ewes by five standard deviations, permitting a reliable pregnancy diagnosis. Plasma PAG levels were higher in twin-bearing ewes than in ewes carrying a single lamb, differences getting more evident as pregnancy proceeded. Neither breed and parity of the mother nor sex and weight of lambs home exerted a significant effect. The heterologous assay system utilizing a caprine antibody proved to deliver results that are more consistent and less depending on various variables than those used in other studies. It may be concluded that, at the present state of development, the assay provides a reliable means of diagnosing pregnancy in sheep from the 4th week after they have been bred onward. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of postoperative nausea using a visual analogue scale.
Boogaerts, J G; Vanacker, E; Seidel, Laurence ULg et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica (2000), 44(4), 470-4

BACKGROUND: Assessment of postoperative nausea intensity is difficult because nausea is a subjective and unpleasant sensation. We propose using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) device to increase the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Assessment of postoperative nausea intensity is difficult because nausea is a subjective and unpleasant sensation. We propose using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) device to increase the efficiency and precision in the assessment of nausea. We carried out a pilot study on postoperative patients suffering from nausea to measure the degree of agreement between the VAS scores and those given on a 4-point verbal descriptive scale (VDS). METHODS: Postoperative nausea was evaluated by means of a classical VAS (0-10 cm) device and a 4-point VDS (0=no nausea, 1=mild, 2=moderate, 3=severe) in 128 surgical spontaneously complaining patients. Evaluation was repeated 45 min after rescue medication given if nausea was intractable, lasted more than 10 min or at the request of the patient. Ordinal logistic regression was used to measure the association between VAS and VDS and to determine cut-off points on the VAS. RESULTS: The VAS device was easily understood and used by patients. VAS scores decreased significantly from 5.5+/-2.3 to 1.4+/-1.8 after rescue medication (P=0.002). Application of ordinal logistic regression to pre- and post-medication data combined yielded an agreement of 86% between VAS and VDS and the cut-off points on the VAS were estimated as follows: 0-1 (no nausea), 1+/-4 (mild), 4+/-7 (moderate) and 7+/-10 (severe). CONCLUSION: The VAS method proved to be useful for assessing quantitative nausea intensity and for testing the efficacy of rescue medication. It was found that a cut-off value of 4 on the VAS may be considered as a critical threshold triggering anaesthesiologists or nurses to administer rescue medication. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of postprandial hepatic glycogen synthesis from uridine diphosphoglucose kinetics in obese and lean non-diabetic subjects.
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Schneiter, P.; Scheen, André ULg et al

in International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders (2000), 24(10), 1297-302

BACKGROUND: Obese patients are frequently characterized by insulin resistance and decreased insulin-mediated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle. Whether they also have impaired postprandial hepatic ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Obese patients are frequently characterized by insulin resistance and decreased insulin-mediated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle. Whether they also have impaired postprandial hepatic glycogen synthesis remains unknown. AIM: To determine whether postprandial hepatic glycogen synthesis is decreased in obese patients compared to lean subjects. METHODS: Lean and obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were studied over 4h after ingestion of a glucose load. Hepatic uridine diphosphoglucose kinetics were assessed using 13C-galactose infusion, with monitoring of urinary acetaminophen-glucuronide isotopic enrichment to estimate hepatic glycogen kinetics. RESULTS: Estimated net hepatic glycogen synthesis amounted to 18.6 and 22.6% of the ingested load in lean and obese subjects, respectively. CONCLUSION: Postprandial hepatic glycogen metabolism is not impaired in non-diabetic obese subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations in swamp buffalo samples from fetal and maternal origins by using interspecies antisera.
Nguyen, V. H.; Barbato, O.; Bui, X. N. et al

in Animal Science Journal (2012), 83(10), 683-689

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) constitute a large family of glycoproteins found in the outer placental epithelial cell layer of the placenta in Eutherian species. In ruminants, they are noted to ... [more ▼]

Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) constitute a large family of glycoproteins found in the outer placental epithelial cell layer of the placenta in Eutherian species. In ruminants, they are noted to be structurally closely related among the different species. This study was designed to determine PAG concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma, allantoic and amniotic fluids in buffalo species. Antisera (AS) generated in rabbits against distinct PAG molecules were used in three RIA-PAG systems: RIA-1 (raised against bovine PAG67kDa; AS#497), RIA-2 (raised against caprine PAG55+62kDa; AS#706) or RIA-3 (raised against buffalo PAG; AS#859). Samples were collected at slaughterhouse (n = 67). PAG concentrations determined by RIA-2 gave significantly higher results in both allantoic and amniotic fluids (12.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml and 24.0 ± 7.3 ng/ml, respectively). Regarding maternal and fetal plasma, PAG concentrations obtained by RIA-2 (21.8 ± 2.4 ng/ml and 20.2 ± 2.5 ng/ml, respectively) and RIA-3 (25.0 ± 2.2 ng/mL and 21.9 ± 3.2 ng/ml, respectively) were higher than those obtained by RIA-1 (15.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml and 16.1 ± 1.8 ng/ml, respectively). The correlation among the three systems was very high. The study clearly reveals the ability of PAG-RIA systems to determine PAG concentration in swamp buffalo samples. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of proliferative and colony-forming capacity after successive in vitro divisions of single human CD34+ cells initially isolated in G0.
GOTHOT, André ULg; Pyatt, R.; McMahel, J. et al

in Experimental hematology (1998), 26(7), 562-70

Exit of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from the G0 phase of the cell cycle in response to in vitro cytokine stimulation is a limiting step in successful ex vivo expansion. Simultaneous ... [more ▼]

Exit of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from the G0 phase of the cell cycle in response to in vitro cytokine stimulation is a limiting step in successful ex vivo expansion. Simultaneous DNA/RNA staining with Hoechst 33342 and pyronin Y was used to separate human bone marrow CD34+ cells residing in G0 (G0CD34+) from those cycling in G1 and S/G2+M. Compared with CD34+ cells isolated in G1, G0CD34+ cells were characterized by a delayed response to cytokine stimulation and were enriched for long-term hematopoietic culture-initiating cells. We next compared the activation kinetics of individually sorted G0CD34+ cells stimulated with stem cell factor (SCF), flt3-ligand (FL), or interleukin-3 (IL-3) as single factors. In a novel clonal proliferation assay, the functional status of cells that had remained quiescent after an initial 7-day period and of those that had completed successive division cycles under each of these three factors was evaluated by assessment of subsequent proliferative capacity and maintenance of colony-forming cell precursor (pre-CFC) activity. All three cytokines were equally able to support the survival of primitive HPCs in the absence of cell division. Cells that did not respond to any cytokine stimulation for 7 days retained higher proliferative and pre-CFC activities than dividing cells. The hematopoietic function of cells that divided in response to SCF, FL, or IL-3 decreased after each division cycle. However, G0CD34+ cells displayed a heterogeneous response pattern to cytokine stimulation whereby SCF appeared to have a superior ability to promote the cycling of cells with high proliferative and pre-CFC activities. These results indicate that HPCs reside in opposing hierarchies of hematopoietic potential and responsiveness to cytokine stimulation. The data also begin to indicate relationships between cellular division in response to different stimuli and maintenance of hematopoietic function. [less ▲]

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