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See detailIn vivo studies on the mononuclear phagocyte system Fc receptor function in rheumatoid arthritis. Correlations with clinical and immunological variables
Malaise, Michel ULg; Foidart, J. B.; Hauwaert, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (1985), 12(1), 33-42

The mononuclear phagocyte system Fc receptor function was assessed in 13 control subjects and 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by intravenous injection of IgG coated (IgG-RBC) or of heat-damaged ... [more ▼]

The mononuclear phagocyte system Fc receptor function was assessed in 13 control subjects and 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by intravenous injection of IgG coated (IgG-RBC) or of heat-damaged (HD-RBC) 99rnTc-Iabeled autologous erythrocytes. Although the clearance half-times of control and RA erythrocytes were not significantly different, the spleen to liver uptake ratios per surface area (S/Ls), determined by quantitative scintigraphic analysis, were significantly lower in RA patients than in controls. The S/Lswere significantly correlated with the Steinbrocker stages Ir = 0.92; p < 0.01), the disease duration (r = 0.73; p < 0.01) and the total immunoglobulin levels (r = 0.73; p < 0.01). The Clq binding activity of the sera was inversely correlated with the spleen (r = 0.90; p < 0.01) and liver uptakes (r = 0.73; p < 0.02). Our results therefore show an alteration of the Fc receptor function of splenic and hepatic mononuclear phagocytes in RA patients. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo study of enhancing factors for guided bone formation
Biewer, Bob; Van Heusden, Alain ULg; Rompen, Eric ULg

in Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1997), 11

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See detailIn vivo study of enhancing factors for guided bone formation.
Biewer, Bob; Van Heusden, Alain ULg; Rompen, Eric ULg

Poster (1997)

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See detailIN VIVO STUDY OF THE SV2A PROTEIN IN AN EPILEPTIC RAT MODEL
Serrano Navacerrada, Maria Elisa ULg; Becker, Guillaume ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

Poster (2017)

Introduction Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurological disorders, affecting more than 60 million people worldwide [1]. New and effective antiepileptic drugs mainly target the SV2A protein [2] but its ... [more ▼]

Introduction Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurological disorders, affecting more than 60 million people worldwide [1]. New and effective antiepileptic drugs mainly target the SV2A protein [2] but its actual role is still largely unknown. [18F]UCB-H was developed as a tool to study in vivo the brain expression of this isoform [3, 4]. Due to the fact that only post-mortem studies were reported so far [5] the present pilot study was undertaken in order to evaluate for the first time in vivo in rats the SV2A expression in the validated Kaïnic Acid (KA) epilepsy model [6]. Methods Three male Sprague-Dawley were used, one injected with saline (Sham) and two with multiple KA systemic injections (5mg/kg x 3) [9]. SV2A brain levels were estimated at day 75, when spontaneous seizures started to appear. Animals were anesthetized (2.5 to 3 % isoflurane), and scanned for 1 hour with [18F]UCB-H (41 ± 5 MBq IV tail vein) in a Focus 120 microPET system and with MRI (9.4T Agilent, anatomical T2). Coregistration was done with PMOD 3.6 software. Data were expressed in SUV and areas under the curve were calculated for the different regions. Results [18F]UCB-H microPET images showed an important reduction (20-30%) for SV2A after KA injections mainly localized in amygdala, hippocampus, lateral parietal association cortex and cingulate cortex. The rest of the brain was globally unchanged. MRI revealed atrophy and inflammation in amygdala and hippocampus. Conclusions These preliminary results in KA treated rats presenting spontaneous seizures showed that [18F]UCB-H microPET was able to detect important reductions for the SV2A proteins in relevant regions for epilepsy [5]. Accordingly to this, we can infer that the KA model in rats deserves for further development and validation as a tool for the study of epilepsy. [18F]UCB-H appears as a valuable tool to follow in vivo SV2A proteins through longitudinal protocols and in turn to better understand its actual role in epilepsy. References/acknowledgements This work was funded by University of Liège, F.R.S.-FNRS, Walloon Region and UCB Pharma. Alain Plenevaux is research director from F.R.S.-FNRS. [1] Alexopoulos, Epileptology, 2004 [2] Hamann et al., Eur J Pharmacol, 2008 [3] Bretin et al., Molecular Imaging and Biology, 2015 [4] Warnock et al., J Nucl Med., 2014 [5] Wang et al., J Mol Neurosci., 2014 [6] Hellier et al., Epilepsy Res., 1998 [less ▲]

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See detailIN VIVO STUDY OF THE SV2A PROTEIN IN THE KAINIC ACID EPILEPSY RAT MODEL
Serrano Navacerrada, Maria Elisa ULg; Becker, Guillaume ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

Poster (2017)

Introduction Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurological disorders [1]. Antiepileptic drugs mainly target the SV2A protein [2] but its actual role is still largely unknown. [18F]UCB-H was developed to ... [more ▼]

Introduction Epilepsy is one of the commonest neurological disorders [1]. Antiepileptic drugs mainly target the SV2A protein [2] but its actual role is still largely unknown. [18F]UCB-H was developed to study in vivo SV2A brain proteins [3, 4]. The present pilot study was undertaken to evaluate for the first time in vivo in rats SV2A expression in the Kaïnic Acid (KA) epilepsy model [5]. Although this model is well studied in mice, few reports were devoted to rats. Imaging-wise, rats are very interesting thanks to a bigger brain size (reduction of the partial volume effect). Methods Three male Sprague-Dawley were used, one injected with saline and two with multiple KA injections (3 x 5mg/kg) [6]. 75 days later, when spontaneous seizures started to appear, microPET (Focus 120 ) was performed under isoflurane anesthesia (2.5-3 % in air) for 1 hour with [18F]UCB-H (41 ± 5 MBq IV tail vein) followed by MRI (9.4T Agilent, anatomical T2). Coregistration was done with PMOD 3.6 software. Data were expressed as SUV and areas under the curve were calculated for the different regions. Results [18F]UCB-H microPET images showed an important reduction (20-30%) for SV2A after KA injections mainly localized in amygdala, hippocampus, lateral parietal association cortex and cingulate cortex. The rest of the brain was globally unchanged. MRI revealed atrophy and inflammation in amygdala and hippocampus. Conclusions These preliminary results obtained in KA treated rats showed that [18F]UCB-H was able to detect important modifications for SV2A in relevant regions for epilepsy and appears as a valuable tool to follow in vivo SV2A through longitudinal studies. KA model in rats deserves for further development and validation as a tool for the study of epilepsy. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo transfection of bovine leukemia provirus into sheep.
Willems, Luc ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Kerkhofs, P. et al

in Virology (1992), 189(2),

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See detailIn Vivo Tumorigenesis Was Observed after Injection of In Vitro Expanded Neural Crest Stem Cells Isolated from Adult Bone Marrow
Wislet, Sabine ULg; Poulet, Christophe ULg; Neirinckx, Virginie ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(10), 46425

Bone marrow stromal cells are adult multipotent cells that represent an attractive tool in cellular therapy strategies. Several studies have reported that in vitro passaging of mesenchymal stem cells ... [more ▼]

Bone marrow stromal cells are adult multipotent cells that represent an attractive tool in cellular therapy strategies. Several studies have reported that in vitro passaging of mesenchymal stem cells alters the functional and biological properties of those cells, leading to the accumulation of genetic aberrations. Recent studies described bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) as mixed populations of cells including mesenchymal (MSC) and neural crest stem cells (NCSC). Here, we report the transformation of NCSC into tumorigenic cells, after in vitro long-term passaging. Indeed, the characterization of 6 neural crest-derived clones revealed the presence of one tumorigenic clone. Transcriptomic analyses of this clone highlighted, among others, numerous cell cycle checkpoint modifications and chromosome 11q down-regulation (suggesting a deletion of chromosome 11q) compared with the other clones. Moreover, unsupervised analysis such as a dendrogram generated after agglomerative hierarchical clustering comparing several transcriptomic data showed important similarities between the tumorigenic neural crest-derived clone and mammary tumor cell lines. Altogether, it appeared that NCSC isolated from adult bone marrow represents a potential danger for cellular therapy, and consequently, we recommend that phenotypic, functional and genetic assays should be performed on bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells before in vivo use, to demonstrate whether their biological properties, after ex vivo expansion, remain suitable for clinical application. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo, in vitro, in silico: computational tools for tissue engineering
Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Truscello, S.; Demol, Jan et al

in proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Innovation for Sustainable Production i-SUP (2010)

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See detailIn what ways do natural resources influence the dynamics of armed conflicts?
Lara Guerrero, Larisa Viridiana ULg

in Retos Internacionales (2014), 10

Natural resources have a determinant role in conflicts. Natural resources can in fact motivate the initiation, duration, or finalisation of a conflict. By analysing the most representative civil conflicts ... [more ▼]

Natural resources have a determinant role in conflicts. Natural resources can in fact motivate the initiation, duration, or finalisation of a conflict. By analysing the most representative civil conflicts in African countries after the Cold War, this essay explores the role of resources in each phase of the conflict. The essay looks specifically at the role of natural resources in the initiation, escalation, deescalation and cessation of conflicts (Jeong, 2008). It is concluded that resources can: motivate and shape the type of conflict taking place, determine the duration and intensity of the conflict, influence the peace and reconstruction processes after the end of the conflict. [less ▲]

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See detail(In)sécurités linguistiques francophones en Belgique
Dassargues, Alix ULg

Conference (2013, May 15)

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See detail(In)sécurités linguistiques francophones en Belgique : du taux d’insécurité aux facteurs d’(in)sécurité
Dassargues, Alix ULg

in L'insécurité en question : défis, enjeux et perspectives (2015, March)

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See detail(In)visible Bodies: Crossing Racial Lines in the Graphic Novel
Dony, Christophe ULg

Conference (2011)

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See detail(In)Visible Bodies: Rewriting the Politics of Passing in Incognegro, a Graphic Mystery by Mat Johnson and Warren Pleece
Dony, Christophe ULg

Conference (2013, January 03)

How can passing across racial lines be described and conveyed in the comics form? Can the medium develop specific strategies to comment on the themes of transgression and crossing inherent to the trope of ... [more ▼]

How can passing across racial lines be described and conveyed in the comics form? Can the medium develop specific strategies to comment on the themes of transgression and crossing inherent to the trope of passing? This paper shows how the graphic novel Incognegro (2008) goes beyond the traditional socio-historical analysis of passing and plays thematically, generically, and visually with the politics of the trope. Incognegro, set in the US in the early 1930s, depicts a light-skinned African American reporter who passes for white in order to investigate lynchings of blacks in the deep South. Because white papers do not consider these events to be news, the reporter condemns these dreadful acts in the column titled “Incognegro” that he writes for a New York-based newspaper, The New Holland Herald. Thus he risks his life using his “passing abilities” to protect the rights of the community he is trying to defend from white hegemony. In this way, Incognegro challenges the conventional tragic mulatto figure that passes for white to avoid racism and violence or to improve his/her social status. In addition, it echoes the common black trickster figure who practices “masking” to outwit his enemies or opponents, and calls into question the biological, social, and cultural representations of race as perceived by the white dominant group. Here the racial passer functions as an “outsider from within” who can challenge the black vs. white binary model. Moreover, the text subverts narrative paradigms from superhero comics and detective fiction to point out the arbitrariness of racial ideologies and the fallibility of notions of justice and truth. This subversion is further complicated by the comic’s “color free” art (black and white, sans halftones or gray tones), which defies essentialist representations of race. In sum, Incognegro argues that the ambiguities of racial categorization are best represented through a similarly ambiguous literary genre—one that not only challenges generic norms and traditions but also “writes back” to both the mainstream and alternative wings of American comics production. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-capillary derivatization with (-)-1-(9-fluorenyl)ethyl chloroformate as chiral labeling agent for the electrophoretic separation of amino acids.
Fradi, Ines ULg; Farcas, Elena ULg; Said, Azza Ben et al

in Journal of chromatography. A (2014), 1363

An original micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using in-capillary derivatization with a chiral labeling reagent was developed for the separation of amino acid (AA) derivatives. The ... [more ▼]

An original micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method using in-capillary derivatization with a chiral labeling reagent was developed for the separation of amino acid (AA) derivatives. The potential of (-)-1-(9-fluorenyl)-ethyl chloroformate (FLEC) as in-capillary derivatization agent is described for the first time. Several parameters for in-capillary derivatization and subsequent MEKC separation were systematically investigated using experimental designs. Firstly experimental conditions for in-capillary derivatization were optimized using face-centered central composite design (FCCD). Mixing voltage and time as well as concentration of the labeling solution were investigated. Efficient labeling was achieved by sequential injection of AAs and FLEC labeling solution followed by the application of a voltage of 0.2kV for 570s. The background electrolyte (BGE) composition was then optimized in order to achieve selectivity. A FCCD was performed with two factors, namely the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration and the percentage of propan-2-ol (IPA). The separation of 12 pairs of derivatized AA (FLEC-AA) diastereomers was achieved with resolution values comprised between 3 and 20. Furthermore, an efficient derivatization and separation of 29 FLEC-AA derivatives were achieved in a single run using a buffer made up of 40mM sodium tetraborate, 21mM SDS and 8.5% IPA. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) sample. [less ▲]

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See detailAn In-Depth Comparison of Latency-Reversing Agent Combinations in Various In Vitro and Ex Vivo HIV-1 Latency Models Identified Bryostatin-1+JQ1 and Ingenol-B+JQ1 to Potently Reactivate Viral Gene Expression.
Darcis, Gilles; Kula, Anna; Bouchat, Sophie et al

in PLoS pathogens (2015), 11(7), 1005063

The persistence of latently infected cells in patients under combinatory antiretroviral therapy (cART) is a major hurdle to HIV-1 eradication. Strategies to purge these reservoirs are needed and ... [more ▼]

The persistence of latently infected cells in patients under combinatory antiretroviral therapy (cART) is a major hurdle to HIV-1 eradication. Strategies to purge these reservoirs are needed and activation of viral gene expression in latently infected cells is one promising strategy. Bromodomain and Extraterminal (BET) bromodomain inhibitors (BETi) are compounds able to reactivate latent proviruses in a positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb)-dependent manner. In this study, we tested the reactivation potential of protein kinase C (PKC) agonists (prostratin, bryostatin-1 and ingenol-B), which are known to activate NF-kappaB signaling pathway as well as P-TEFb, used alone or in combination with P-TEFb-releasing agents (HMBA and BETi (JQ1, I-BET, I-BET151)). Using in vitro HIV-1 post-integration latency model cell lines of T-lymphoid and myeloid lineages, we demonstrated that PKC agonists and P-TEFb-releasing agents alone acted as potent latency-reversing agents (LRAs) and that their combinations led to synergistic activation of HIV-1 expression at the viral mRNA and protein levels. Mechanistically, combined treatments led to higher activations of P-TEFb and NF-kappaB than the corresponding individual drug treatments. Importantly, we observed in ex vivo cultures of CD8+-depleted PBMCs from 35 cART-treated HIV-1+ aviremic patients that the percentage of reactivated cultures following combinatory bryostatin-1+JQ1 treatment was identical to the percentage observed with anti-CD3+anti-CD28 antibodies positive control stimulation. Remarkably, in ex vivo cultures of resting CD4+ T cells isolated from 15 HIV-1+ cART-treated aviremic patients, the combinations bryostatin-1+JQ1 and ingenol-B+JQ1 released infectious viruses to levels similar to that obtained with the positive control stimulation. The potent effects of these two combination treatments were already detected 24 hours post-stimulation. These results constitute the first demonstration of LRA combinations exhibiting such a potent effect and represent a proof-of-concept for the co-administration of two different types of LRAs as a potential strategy to reduce the size of the latent HIV-1 reservoirs. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-depth phenotyping of a Donnai-Barrow patient helps clarify proximal tubule dysfunction.
Dachy, Angelique; Paquot, Francois ULg; Debray, François-Guillaume ULg et al

in Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) (2015), 30(6), 1027-31

BACKGROUND: The megalin/cubilin/amnionless complex is essential for albumin and low molecular weight (LMW) protein reabsorption by renal proximal tubules (PT). Mutations of the LRP2 gene encoding megalin ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The megalin/cubilin/amnionless complex is essential for albumin and low molecular weight (LMW) protein reabsorption by renal proximal tubules (PT). Mutations of the LRP2 gene encoding megalin cause autosomal recessive Donnai-Barrow/facio-oculo-acoustico-renal syndrome (DB/FOAR), which is characterized by LMW proteinuria. The pathophysiology of DB/FOAR-associated PT dysfunction remains unclear. CLINICAL CASE: A 3-year-old girl presented with growth retardation and proteinuria. Clinical examination was unremarkable, except for a still-opened anterior fontanel and myopia. Psychomotor development was delayed. At 6, she developed sensorineural hearing loss. Hypertelorism was noted when she turned 12. Blood analyses, including renal function parameters, were normal. Urine sediment was bland. Proteinuria was significant and included albumin and LMW proteins. Immunoblotting analyses detected cubilin and type 3 carbonic anhydrase (CA3) in the urine. Renal ultrasound was unremarkable. Optical examination of a renal biopsy did not disclose any tubular or glomerular abnormality. Electron microscopy revealed that PT apical endocytic apparatus was significantly less developed. Immunostaining for megalin showed a faint signal in PT cytosol contrasting with the distribution of cubilin at the apical membrane. The diagnostic procedure led to identifying two mutations of the LRP2 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The functional loss of megalin in DB/FOAR causes PT dysfunction characterized by increased urinary shedding of CA3 and cubilin. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-depth study of 16CygB using inversion techniques
Buldgen, Gaël ULg; Salmon, Sébastien ULg; Reese, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 596

Context. The 16Cyg binary system hosts the solar-like Kepler targets with the most stringent observational constraints. Indeed, we benefit from very high quality oscillation spectra, as well as ... [more ▼]

Context. The 16Cyg binary system hosts the solar-like Kepler targets with the most stringent observational constraints. Indeed, we benefit from very high quality oscillation spectra, as well as spectroscopic and interferometric observations. Moreover, this system is particularly interesting since both stars are very similar in mass but the A component is orbited by a red dwarf, whereas the B component is orbited by a Jovian planet and thus could have formed a more complex planetary system. In our previous study, we showed that seismic inversions of integrated quantities could be used to constrain microscopic diffusion in the A component. In this study, we analyse the B component in the light of a more regularised inversion. <BR /> Aims: We wish to analyse independently the B component of the 16Cyg binary system using the inversion of an indicator dedicated to analyse core conditions, denoted t[SUB]u[/SUB]. Using this independent determination, we wish to analyse any differences between both stars due to the potential influence of planetary formation on stellar structure and/or their respective evolution. <BR /> Methods: First, we recall the observational constraints for 16CygB and the method we used to generate reference stellar models of this star. We then describe how we improved the inversion and how this approach could be used for future targets with a sufficient number of observed frequencies. The inversion results were then used to analyse the differences between the A and B components. <BR /> Results: The inversion of the t[SUB]u[/SUB] indicator for 16CygB shows a disagreement with models including microscopic diffusion and sharing the chemical composition previously derived for 16CygA. We show that small changes in chemical composition are insufficient to solve the problem but that extra mixing can account for the differences seen between both stars. We use a parametric approach to analyse the impact of extra mixing in the form of turbulent diffusion on the behaviour of the t[SUB]u[/SUB] values. We conclude on the necessity of further investigations using models with a physically motivated implementation of extra mixing processes including additional constraints to further improve the accuracy with which the fundamental parameters of this system are determined. [less ▲]

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See detailIN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR UV RADIOMETER LYRA / PROBA-2
Stockman, Yvan ULg; Defise, Jean-Marc ULg; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

(2010, October 05)

LYRA is a solar radiometer, part of the PROBA-2 micro-satellite payload. The PROBA-2 mission has been launched on 02 November 2009 with a Rockot launcher to a Sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 725 ... [more ▼]

LYRA is a solar radiometer, part of the PROBA-2 micro-satellite payload. The PROBA-2 mission has been launched on 02 November 2009 with a Rockot launcher to a Sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 725 km. Its nominal operation duration is two years with possible extension of 2 years. LYRA monitors the solar irradiance at a high cadence (> 20Hz) in four soft X-Ray to VUV large passbands: the “Lyman-Alpha” channel, the “Herzberg” continuum range, the “Aluminium” and “Zirconium” filter channels. The radiometric calibration is traceable to synchrotron source standards. LYRA benefits from wide bandgap detectors based on diamond. It is the first space assessment of these revolutionary UV detectors for astrophysics. [less ▲]

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