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See detailNeurochirurgie et Pays en Voie de Développement
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2007, June 27)

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See detailNeurochirurgie pédiatrique
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2007, January)

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See detailThe Neurocognitive Underpinnings of Multitasking Capacities in Persons Diagnosed with Schizophrenia
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 10)

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular during multitasking activities. Multitasking refers to activities where the person has ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular during multitasking activities. Multitasking refers to activities where the person has to: carry out and alternate between different tasks that vary in terms of priority, difficulty and duration; define the tasks’ targets; and where the person is faced with unexpected problems during the realization of these tasks (Burgess, 2000). However, the neurocognitive underpinnings of multitasking have never been explored in schizophrenia. Further, only two cognitive models exist in the literature, based on a student sample (Logie et al., 2011) and a neurological sample (Burgess et al., 2000). Both of these models suggest three primary constructs including Memory, Planning and Intent. However, there are several limitations related to the way multitasking was evaluated in these studies. We thus developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting – the Computerized Meeting Preparation Task (CMPT). Using this new task, and based on previous studies (Burgess et al., 2000; Logie et al., 2011), the aim of the present study was to evaluate a new cognitive model of multitasking ability and that takes into account certain cognitive processes that are not integrated in existing models. Fifty-seven individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 41 matched healthy controls completed the CMPT. Participants were also evaluated with a battery of cognitive tests. The results suggest that the CMPT has a good sensitivity. Moreover, structural equation modelling confirmed the three underlying constructs of multitasking (Memory, Planning and Intent) which are underpinned by several cognitive functions and multitasking aspects. Taken together, this new cognitive model and the CMPT could be a good basis for cognitive intervention on multitasking. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurodegenerative and morphogenic changes in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy do not depend on the expression of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin.
Bouilleret, V.; Schwaller, B.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg et al

in Neuroscience (2000), 97(1), 47-58

The functional role of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin D-28k for epileptogenesis and long-term seizure-related alterations of the hippocampal formation was assessed in ... [more ▼]

The functional role of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin D-28k for epileptogenesis and long-term seizure-related alterations of the hippocampal formation was assessed in single- and double-knockout mice, using a kainate model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. The effects of a unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid were assessed at one day, 30 days, and four months post-injection, using various markers of GABAergic interneurons (GABA-transporter type 1, GABA(A)-receptor alpha1 subunit, calretinin, calbindin D-28k, somatostatin, and neuropeptide Y). Parvalbumin-deficient, parvalbumin/calbindin-deficient, and parvalbumin/calretinin-deficient mice exhibited no difference in cytoarchitecture of the hippocampal formation and in the number, distribution, or morphology of interneurons compared to wild-type mice. Likewise, mutant mice were not more vulnerable to acute kainate-induced excitotoxicity or to long-term effects of recurrent focal seizures, and exhibited the same pattern of neurochemical alterations (e.g., bilateral induction of neuropeptide Y in granule cells) and morphogenic changes (enlargement and dispersion of dentate gyrus granule cells) as wild-type animals. Quantification of interneurons revealed no significant difference in neuronal vulnerability among the genotypes.These results indicate that the calcium-binding proteins investigated here are not essential for determining the neurochemical phenotype of interneurons. Furthermore, they are not protective against kainate-induced excitotoxicity in this model, and do not appear to modulate the overall level of excitability of the hippocampus. Finally, seizure-induced changes in gene expression in granule cells, which normally express high levels of calcium-binding proteins, apparently were not affected by the gene deletions analysed [less ▲]

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See detailNeurodevelopmental outcome related to cerebral risk factors in children after neonatal arterial switch operation.
Hovels-Gurich, H. H.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Sigler, M. D. et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2001), 71(3), 881-8

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries is an important topic needing prospective assessment. METHODS: A group of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries is an important topic needing prospective assessment. METHODS: A group of 33 unselected children (3.0 to 4.6 years) operated on as neonates with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass and a control group of 32 age-matched healthy children (3.0 to 4.8 years) underwent evaluation of socioeconomic and clinical neurological status and a standardized test comprising all areas of child development. Results of patients were related to those of the control group, to population norms, and to preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative cerebral risk factors. RESULTS: Clinical neurological status was normal in 26 patients (78.8%) and reduced in 7 (21.2%). Complete developmental score and the subscores for motor function, visual perception, learning and memory, cognitive function, language, and socioemotional functions were not different compared to population norms. Compared to the patients, the children of the control group scored higher on tests of complete development, cognition, and language, but also on socioeconomic status. Complete developmental score and the scores for motor, cognitive, and language functions were weakly inversely related to the duration of circulatory arrest, but not to the duration of bypass. Cerebral risk factors such as serum levels of the neuron-specific enolase, perinatal acidosis, perinatal asphyxia, peri- and postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency, or clinical seizures were not correlated to the test results. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal arterial switch operation with combined circulatory arrest and low flow bypass is associated with neurological impairment, but not with reduced development as assessed by formal testing of motor, cognitive, language, and behavioral functions. Perioperative serum level of the neuron-specific enolase is not a valid marker for later developmental impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroendocrine aspects of the thymus
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Maggi, Mario; Johnston, C. A. (Eds.) Horizons in Endocrinology (1988)

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See detailNeuroendocrine aspects of the thymus
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (1988)

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See detailNeuroendocrine aspects of the thymus
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Maggi, Mario; Jonhston, Colin A. (Eds.) Horizons in Endocrinology (1988)

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See detailNeuroendocrine control of the immune response
Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg; Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Whalley, L. J.; Page, M. L. (Eds.) Stress, immunity and disease (1989)

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See detailNeuroendocrine Control of the Onset of Puberty: Secretion of Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone from Rat Hypothalamic Explants
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; Gerard, Arlette ULg; Fawe, L. et al

in Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica. Supplement (1991), 372

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See detailNeuroendocrine disruption of pubertal timing and interactions between homeostasis
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; rasier, Gregory; Lebrethon, Marie-Christine ULg et al

in Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology (2010), 324(1-2), 110-120

The involvement of environmental factors such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the timing of onset of puberty is suggested by recent changes in age at onset of puberty and pattern of ... [more ▼]

The involvement of environmental factors such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the timing of onset of puberty is suggested by recent changes in age at onset of puberty and pattern of distribution that are variable among countries, as well as new forms of sexual precocity after migration. However, the evidence of association between early or late pubertal timing and exposure to EDCs is weak in humans, possibly due to heterogeneity of effects likely involving mixtures and incapacity to assess fetal or neonatal exposure retrospectively. The neuroendocrine system which is crucial for physiological onset of puberty is targeted by EDCs. These compounds also act directly in the gonads and peripheral sex-steroid sensitive tissues. Feedbacks add to the complexity of regulation so that changes in pubertal timing caused by EDCs can involve both central and peripheral mechanisms. In experimental conditions, several neuroendocrine endpoints are affected by EDCs though only few studies including from our laboratory aimed at EDC involvement in the pathophysiology of early sexual maturation. Recent observations support the concept that EDC cause disturbed energy balance and account for the obesity epidemic. Several aspects are linking this system and the reproductive axis: coexisting neuroendocrine and peripheral effects, dependency on fetal/neonatal programming and the many factors cross-linking the two systems, for instance leptin, adiponectin, Agouti Related Peptide (AgRP). This opens perspectives for future research and, hopefully, measures preventing the disturbances of homeostasis caused by EDCs. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroendocrine disruption: the emerging concept.
Trudeau, Vance L; Kah, Olivier; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews (2011), 14(5-7), 267-9

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See detailNeuroendocrine evaluation of catecholaminergic neurotransmission in mania
Ansseau, Marc ULg; Von Frenckell, Rémi; Cerfontaine, Jean-Luc et al

in Psychiatry Research (1987), 22

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See detailNeuroendocrine hormones and the immune system
Kelly, Paul; Blalock, J. Edwin; Chrousos, George P. et al

in Cuello, A. Claudio; Collier, Brian (Eds.) Pharmacological Sciences: Perspectives for Research and Therapy in the Late 1990s (1995)

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See detailNeuroendocrine Mechanism of Onset of Puberty. Sequential Reduction in Activity of Inhibitory and Facilitatory N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg; Gerard, Arlette ULg; Alvarez Gonzalez, Maria-Luz ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Investigation (1992), 90(5), 1736-44

In humans and in several animal species, puberty results from changes in pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus. In particular, the frequency of pulsatile GnRH ... [more ▼]

In humans and in several animal species, puberty results from changes in pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus. In particular, the frequency of pulsatile GnRH secretion increases at the onset of puberty, as can be shown by using hypothalamic explants of male rats of 15 and 25 d. Previous observations from us and others suggested that the initiation of puberty could involve a facilitatory effect of excitatory amino acids mediated through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. We found that GnRH secretion could be activated through NMDA receptors only around the time of onset of puberty (25 d). The aim of this study was to clarify why this activation did not occur earlier (at 15 d) and could no longer be observed by the end of puberty (at 50 d). We studied GnRH secretion in the presence of MK-801, a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors or AP-5, a competitive antagonist. We showed that, in the hypothalamus of immature male rats (15 d), a highly potent inhibitory control of pulsatile GnRH secretion in vitro was mediated through NMDA receptors. These data were confirmed in vivo because administration of the antagonist MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg) to immature male rats resulted in early pubertal development. Onset of puberty (25 d) was characterized by the disappearance of that NMDA receptor-mediated inhibition, thus unmasking a facilitatory effect also mediated through NMDA receptors. During puberty, there was a reduction in activity of this facilitatory control which was no longer opposed by its inhibitory counterpart. We conclude that a sequential reduction in activity of inhibitory and facilitatory NMDA receptors provides a developmental basis for the neuroendocrine mechanism of onset of puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroendocrine mechanisms controlling female puberty: new approaches, new concepts.
Ojeda, S.; Roth, C.; Mungenast, A. et al

in International Journal of Andrology (2006), 29

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See detailNeuroendocrine microenvironments in the immune system
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (1988)

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See detailNeuroendocrine regulation of GnRH release in induced ovulators.
Bakker, Julie ULg; Baum, M. J.

in Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2000), 21(3), 220-62

GnRH is the key neuropeptide controlling reproductive function in all vertebrate species. Two different neuroendocrine mechanisms have evolved among female mammals to regulate the mediobasal hypothalamic ... [more ▼]

GnRH is the key neuropeptide controlling reproductive function in all vertebrate species. Two different neuroendocrine mechanisms have evolved among female mammals to regulate the mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) release of GnRH leading to the preovulatory secretion of LH by the anterior pituitary gland. In females of spontaneously ovulating species, including rats, mice, guinea pigs, sheep, monkeys, and women, ovarian steroids secreted by maturing ovarian follicles induce a pulsatile pattern of GnRH release in the median eminence that, in turn, stimulates a preovulatory LH surge. In females of induced ovulating species, including rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camels, the preovulatory release of GnRH, and the resultant preovulatory LH surge, is induced by the receipt of genital somatosensory stimuli during mating. Induced ovulators generally do not show "spontaneous" steroid-induced LH surges during their reproductive cycles, suggesting that the positive feedback actions of steroid hormones on GnRH release are reduced or absent in these species. By contrast, mating-induced preovulatory surges occasionally occur in some spontaneously ovulating species. Most research in the field of GnRH neurobiology has been performed using spontaneous ovulators including rat, guinea pig, sheep, and rhesus monkey. This review summarizes the literature concerning the neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling GnRH biosynthesis and release in females of several induced ovulating species, and whenever possible it contrasts the results with those obtained for spontaneously ovulating species. It also considers the adaptive, evolutionary benefits and disadvantages of each type of ovulatory control mechanism. In females of induced ovulating species estradiol acts in the brain to induce aspects of proceptive and receptive sexual behavior. The primary mechanism involved in the preovulatory release of GnRH among induced ovulators involves the activation of midbrain and brainstem noradrenergic neurons in response to genital-somatosensory signals generated by receipt of an intromission from a male during mating. These noradrenergic neurons project to the MBH and, when activated, promote the release of GnRH from nerve terminals in the median eminence. In contrast to spontaneous ovulators, there is little evidence that endogenous opioid peptides normally inhibit MBH GnRH release among induced ovulators. Instead, the neural signals that induce a preovulatory LH surge in these species seem to be primarily excitatory. A complete understanding of the neuroendocrine control of ovulation will only be achieved in the future by comparative studies of several animal model systems in which mating-induced as well as spontaneous, hormonally stimulated activation of GnRH neurons drives the preovulatory LH surge. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neuroendocrine thymic microenvironment
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg; Adam, Francine et al

in Journal of Endocrinology (1986), 111 (Suppl.)

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See detailThe neuroendocrine thymus. Abundant occurrence of oxytocin-, vasopressin-, and neurophysin-like peptides in the thymus
Moll, Ute M.; Lane, Bernard L.; Robert, Françoise et al

in Histochemistry (1988), 89

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)