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See detailMolecular identification of three sympatric species of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, A-flavicollis, A-alpicola) in western Europe (Muridae : Rodentia)
Michaux, Johan ULg; Kinet, Séverine ULg; Filippucci, M. G. et al

in Molecular Ecology Notes (2001), 1(4), 260-263

The woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and yellow-necked fieldmouse (Apodelnus flavicollis) are sympatric and even syntopic in many regions throughout their European range. Their field discrimination on the ... [more ▼]

The woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and yellow-necked fieldmouse (Apodelnus flavicollis) are sympatric and even syntopic in many regions throughout their European range. Their field discrimination on the basis of external characters is a real challenge for many fields of research. The problem is even more complicated in the Alpine chain where they live sympatrically with a third similar species: A. alpicola. A rapid and simple method is proposed to discriminate the three species in processing field-collected biopsies as well as ethanol-preserved museum samples. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular imaging through in combinaison with quantitative proteomic approaches unraveling the molecular players of breast cancer adaptation to anti-angiogenic therapy.
Cimino, Jonathan ULg; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Calligaris, David ULg et al

Poster (2012, June 22)

Breast carcinoma is the most common and second leading cause of cancer mortality in women. The recognition of the “angiogenic switch” as a rate-limiting secondary step in tumorigenesis led to extensive ... [more ▼]

Breast carcinoma is the most common and second leading cause of cancer mortality in women. The recognition of the “angiogenic switch” as a rate-limiting secondary step in tumorigenesis led to extensive pre-clinical researches on angiogenesis and finally the approval of VEGF-neutralizing antibodies (bevacizumab) and VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKs:Sunitinib). The Sunitinib has been used clinically in patients with breast cancer refractory to other therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, like the cytotoxic therapies, these drugs do not produce lasting effects and resistance to treatment appeared clinically. Questions have emerged about the failure of anti-angiogenic therapy in clinic and the limitations of predictive preclinical models, and also about the molecular assessment of all stages of tumor adaptation and metastatic disease. To this end, we applied quantitative proteomics and imaging mass spectrometry tools to visualize and study the profiles of proteins and small molecules associated with tumor treated or not with Sunitinib using a novel preclinical model of breast carcinoma cells. In this project, we first developed a reproducible model of resistance to Sunitinib of human triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells expressing luciferase gene. Cells were subcutaneously injected into mice RAG1-/- and divided into four experimental groups including, control mice treated with vehicle or Sunitinib for 30 days and sacrificed 1 days after treatment withdrawal or when tumor reached a volume of 300 mm3. In the second step. Tumors were analyzed using a nanoAcquity UPLC Synapt TM HDMS TM G1 (Waters, Manchester,UK) and Mass Spectrometry Imaging. For quantitative proteomic analyses of tumors, a bioinformatics analysis was used with the Protein lynx global server 2.2.5 software. Imaging mass spectrometry was performed on tissue sections of tumors and organs subsequently colonized by metastases. Matrix sublimation was used to coat tumor sections (14 µm-tick) with 1.5 Diaminonaphthalene for lipids analysis and Sinapinic acid for entire proteins analysis. Ion cartographies were recorded with a Solarix 9.4T FTMS instrument for lipids and with an Ultraflex II TOF-TOF instrument for entire proteins (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) with a spatial resolution of 100 µm. Global protemic revealed different protein profiles between tumor treated or not with Sunitinib. The Mass Spectrometry Imaging detected differences in intensity and location of some proteins and lipids are also associated with some histological features including inflammatory, necrotic and angiogenic areas. Bioinformatics analysis will be applied to ensure the integration of all data in order to provide the basis for identifying molecular pathways activated during the acquisition of refractoriness to drug treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular inhibition of cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.; Sobel, M. E. et al

in Princess Takamatsu Symposia (1991), 22

A group of coordinated cellular processes, not just one gene product, is responsible for invasion and metastasis, the most life-threatening aspect of cancer. It is now recognized that negative factors may ... [more ▼]

A group of coordinated cellular processes, not just one gene product, is responsible for invasion and metastasis, the most life-threatening aspect of cancer. It is now recognized that negative factors may be just as important as positive elements. Genetic changes causing an imbalance of growth regulation lead to uncontrolled proliferation necessary for both primary tumor and metastasis expansion. However, unrestrained growth does not, by itself, cause invasion and metastasis. This phenotype may require additional genetic changes. Thus, tumorigenicity and metastatic potential have both overlapping and separate features. Invasion and metastasis can be facilitated by proteins which stimulate tumor cell attachment to host cellular or extracellular matrix determinants, tumor cell proteolysis of host barriers, such as the basement membrane, tumor cell locomotion, and tumor cell colony formation in the target organ for metastasis. Facilitory proteins may act at many levels both intracellularly and extracellularly, but are counterbalanced by factors which can block their production, regulation or action. A common theme has emerged: in addition to loss of growth control, an imbalanced regulation of adhesion, proteolysis, and motility appears to be required for invasion and metastasis. Re-equilibrating the expression of the genes involved in these tumor invasion related events could potentially constitute the basis for new anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.; Sobel, M. E. et al

in Proceedings of the 22nd Princess Takamatsu Symposia 1991 CRC Press (1982)

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See detailMolecular interactions involving urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor (uPAR) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), as new targets for tumour therapy
Frankenne, F.; Noël, Agnès ULg; Bajou, Khalid ULg et al

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets (1999), 3(3), 469-48113

In the promotion of cancer progression, a classical role had previously been ascribed to the plasminogen activation system on the basis of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) proteolytic activity and ... [more ▼]

In the promotion of cancer progression, a classical role had previously been ascribed to the plasminogen activation system on the basis of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) proteolytic activity and plasminogen activation triggering a focalised pericellular activation cascade involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As a result, many pharmaceutical companies have undertaken the development of synthetic uPA inhibitors. However, during the last few years, data have accumulated that uPA, as well as urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are likely to play an essential role in tumour progression through non-proteolysis-related activities. Such activities endow them with new and likely key functions in tumour progression-associated events, such as cellular adhesion, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Since these activities essentially depend upon protein-protein interactions, they represent new therapeutic targets. [less ▲]

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See detailA molecular investigation to identify phytoplasmas associated with fruit trees.
Aldaghi, M.; Kummert, J.; Roussel, S. et al

in Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences (2005), 70(3), 253-255

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See detailMolecular investigation to identity of phytoplasma associated with pear and apricot trees in Tunisia
Aldaghi, M.; Kummert, J.; Roussel, S. et al

Poster (2005)

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See detailMolecular layers underlying cytoskeletal remodelling during cortcial development
Heng, Julian; Chariot, Alain ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg

in Trends in Neurosciences (2010)

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See detailMolecular Layers underlying cytoskeletal remodelling during cortical development
Heng, J.; Chariot, Alain ULg; Nguyen, Laurent

in Trends in Neurosciences (2010), 33

During neural development, the cytoskeleton of newborn neurons is subjected to extensive and dynamic remodelling to facilitate the sequential steps of neurogenesis, cell migration and terminal ... [more ▼]

During neural development, the cytoskeleton of newborn neurons is subjected to extensive and dynamic remodelling to facilitate the sequential steps of neurogenesis, cell migration and terminal differentiation. As we begin to elucidate the molecular mechanisms which precipitate these functions, it is clear that while common factors may be required, different configurations of the cytoskeleton prefigure the correct execution of each step, such that we can define cohorts of proteins whose functions are indispensable for the control of neuronal migration but not terminal differentiation. It has also emerged that these combinatorial protein functions are predetermined by regulated gene expression, as well as precise subcellular localisation of their protein products. We present this view in the context of recent striking data on how the cytoskeleton is regulated during the maturation of cortical neurons within the developing brain. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular manipulation with atomic force microscopy
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Willet, Nicolas ULg

Book published by Taylor & Francis group – CRC Press (2012)

With the invention of scanning probe techniques in the early 1980s, scientists can now play with single atoms, single molecules, and even single bonds. Force, dynamics, and function can now be probed at ... [more ▼]

With the invention of scanning probe techniques in the early 1980s, scientists can now play with single atoms, single molecules, and even single bonds. Force, dynamics, and function can now be probed at the single-molecule level. Molecular Manipulation with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) presents a series of topics that discuss concepts and methodologies used to manipulate and study single (bio)molecules with AFM. The first part is dedicated to the pulling of single molecules with force spectroscopy to investigate molecular interactions, mechanics, and mechanochemical processes, and the second part to the manipulation, repositioning, and targeted delivery of single molecules on substrates. Single molecule manipulation is an exciting area of research which made important breakthroughs in nanoscience and which could find potential applications in a diverse range of disciplines, including chemistry, biology, physics, material and polymer science, and engineering. New and experienced AFM researchers looking for applications beyond imaging will find a wealth of information in this informative volume. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular mapping of Factor XIIIa-enriched dendrocytes in the skin (Review).
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Medicine (2008), 22(4), 403-9

The human dermis contains a series of dendritic cells which express different phenotypes including Factor XIIIa immunoreactivity. This compound is related to a blood coagulation factor participating in ... [more ▼]

The human dermis contains a series of dendritic cells which express different phenotypes including Factor XIIIa immunoreactivity. This compound is related to a blood coagulation factor participating in angiogenesis, in the final stages of the clotting cascade and in wound healing. In normal skin, Factor XIIIa is expressed in specific dermal dendrocytes (DD) derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage or from a mesenchymal origin. DD are located predominantly around the microvasculature in the adventitial dermis, at the dermo-epidermal junction, and around skin appendages, but normally not within the epidermis. Increased numbers of Factor XIIIa+ DD are present in a host of specific cutaneous inflammatory and fibrotic conditions. In tumor pathology, immunophenotypic differences are found between dermatofibromas and other fibrohistiocytic entities, most notably dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. In addition, Factor XIIIa+ DD are likely to be involved in the progression and regression of some malignancies including cutaneous melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid hormone action
Lan, N. C.; Nguyen, T.; Cathala, G. et al

in Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology (1982), 14 Suppl 3

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See detailMolecular mechanisms of type I collagen-induced apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Assent, Delphine ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2013, September 27)

Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop ... [more ▼]

Objective: As invading breast carcinoma cells breach the underlying basement membrane, they become confronted with a dense three-dimensional reactive stroma dominated by type I collagen. To develop metastatic capabilities, invading tumour cells must acquire the capacity to negotiate this hostile microenvironment. By enmeshing cells in a dense fibrillar network, type I collagen acts as a physical barrier for cell migration as well as an endogenous antigrowth signal, partly by inducing apoptosis in epithelial cells. Aberrant cell survival resulting from an acquired resistance toward apoptosis represents a prominent hallmark of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms implicated in collagen-induced apoptosis remain poorly defined. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which type I collagen induces apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells and identify MMP-14, a membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase, as a key anti-apoptotic factor. Methods: To investigate the induction of apoptosis by collagen, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells overexpressing or not MMP-14 were plated on plastic plates or embedded within three dimensional type I collagen gels (Col3D). Cell death was evaluated by measuring cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragments (Cell Death Detection ELISA). The percentage of cells with an apoptotic nuclear morphology was also determined. The interactions between cancer cells and Col3D were analyzed by confocal microscopy and the impact of Col3D on the transcriptome of cancer cells was investigated using Illumina HT-12 BeadArrays. Results: When cultured within Col3D gels, MCF-7 cells displayed a round morphology and a cell death characterized by a Z-VAD-FMK-dependent chromatin condensation, nuclear segmentation and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation was induced. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with MMP-14 cDNA promoted the interactions between cells and collagen and prevented apoptosis. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that culturing MCF-7 cells within Col3D altered the expression of about 700 genes, irrespective of MMP-14 expression. Col3D modulated the expression of several apoptosis-related genes. Interestingly, MMP-14 activity was sufficient to prevent the Col3D-dependent induction of Bcl2-Interacting Killer (BIK), a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Conclusions: Our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which a collagen-rich microenvironment triggers apoptosis in invading breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MMP-14 promotes tumour progression by circumventing apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular modeling of phthalates – PPARs interactions
Kambia, Nicolas; Renault, Nicolas; Dilly, Sébastien ULg et al

in Journal of Enzyme Inhibition & Medicinal Chemistry (2008), 23(5), 611-616

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) that is used in plastic tubes, in medical and paramedical devices as well as in food storage packaging. The ... [more ▼]

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) that is used in plastic tubes, in medical and paramedical devices as well as in food storage packaging. The toxicological profile of DEHP has been evaluated in a number of experimental animal models and has been extensively documented. Its toxicity is in part linked to the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa). As a response, an intensive research for a new, biologically inert plasticizer has been initiated. Among the alternative studied, tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TEHTM) or trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) has attracted increasing interest. However, very little information is available on their biological effects. We proceeded to dock TOTM, DEHP and its metabolites in order to identify compounds that are likely to interact with PPARa and PPARg binding sites. The results obtained hint that TOTM is not able to bind to PPARs and should therefore be safer than DEHP. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular modeling of the amphipathic helices of the plasma apolipoproteins.
Brasseur, Robert ULg; Lins, Laurence ULg; Vanloo, B. et al

in Proteins (1992), 13(3), 246-57

In this paper we propose a classification of the amphipathic helical repeats occurring in the plasma apolipoprotein sequences. It is based upon the calculation of the molecular hydrophobicity potential ... [more ▼]

In this paper we propose a classification of the amphipathic helical repeats occurring in the plasma apolipoprotein sequences. It is based upon the calculation of the molecular hydrophobicity potential around the helical segments. The repeats were identified using a new autocorrelation matrix, based upon similarities of hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of the amino acid residues within the apolipoprotein sequences. The helices were constructed by molecular modeling, the molecular hydrophobicity potential was calculated, and isopotential contour lines drawn around the helices yielded a three-dimensional visualization of the hydrophobicity potential. Two classes of apolipoproteins could be differentiated by comparing the hydrophobic angles obtained by projection of the isopotential contour lines on a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the helix. The isopotential contour lines around apo AI, AIV, and E are more hydrophilic than hydrophobic, whereas they are of similar intensity for apo AII, CI, and CIII. In both cases discoidal lipid-protein complexes are generated, with the amphipathic helices around the edge of the lipid core. The long axis of the helices is oriented parallel to the phospholipid acyl chains and the hydrophilic side of the helix toward the aqueous phase. As a result of the differences in hydrophobicity potential, the contact between the hydrophobic side of the helices and the phospholipid acyl chains is larger for apo AII, CI, and CIII than for the other apolipoproteins. This might account for the greater stability of the discoidal complexes generated between phospholipids and these apoproteins. [less ▲]

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