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See detailNeurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) improves the matching of diaphragmatic electrical activity and tidal volume in comparison to pressure support (PS)
Piquilloud, L; Chiew, YS; Bialais, E et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2011), 37 (Suppl 1)

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See detailNeuregulin signaling regulates neural precursor growth and the generation of oligodendrocytes in vitro
Calaora, Viviane; Rogister, Bernard ULg; Bismuth, Karen et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2001), 21

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See detailNeuregulin-1 modulates the differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro trough an interaction with the Swi/Snf complex.
Pirotte, Dorothée ULg; Wislet, Sabine ULg; cloes, J. M. et al

in Molecular & Cellular Neuroscience [=MCN] (2010)

The neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) gene is translated into several protein isoforms, which are either secreted or membrane-anchored. In vitro, neural stem cells (NSC) express mainly the cystein-rich-domain NRG (CRD ... [more ▼]

The neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1) gene is translated into several protein isoforms, which are either secreted or membrane-anchored. In vitro, neural stem cells (NSC) express mainly the cystein-rich-domain NRG (CRD-NRG) isoform, a membrane-anchored type III form. This isoform exhibits a cystein-rich-domain, which constitutes a second transmembrane domain and can be cleaved to release both a signaling EGF-containing domain (ECD) at the cell surface and an intracellular domain (ICD). The main goal of this paper was to determine the exact role of ECD and ICD in NSC survival and differentiation. Using an siRNA approach, we demonstrated that CRD-NRG inhibition was followed by a decrease in NSC proliferation and of neuronal or oligodendroglial differentiation. Overexpression of ICD but not ECD was followed by a decrease in NSC proliferation and an increase in neuronal and oligodendroglial differentiation. Moreover, we showed that ICD physically interacted in cultured NSC with BRM and BAF57, two members of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, and that ICD stimulation of neuronal cell differentiation is dependent on the presence of BAF57. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuro-imagerie fonctionnelle métabolique par émission de positons chez l'homme
Salmon, Eric ULg; Frackowiak, R. S.

in Revue Neurologique (1990), 146(8-9), 459-77

Positron emission tomography allows an in vivo assessment of various physiological and biochemical processes, for example cerebral blood flow, metabolism, or interactions between ligands and receptors ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography allows an in vivo assessment of various physiological and biochemical processes, for example cerebral blood flow, metabolism, or interactions between ligands and receptors. Data quantification and interpretation rest on models describing in a simple way the behavior of the labelled molecules. The general principles are common, but each model has limitations. The different methods are first validated in and applied to normal populations under resting conditions. New techniques for rapid assessments of blood flow and metabolism make it possible to measure cerebral activation after sensori-motor, mental or pharmacological stimulation. This should allow the study of recovery or plasticity of the lesioned brain, after a stroke for example. PET measurements of cerebral blood flow, oxygen consumption and extraction, and cerebral blood volume are particularly well suited to investigate the physiopathology of cerebrovascular diseases. Remote metabolic disturbances give information on interregional cerebral connections, and on clinico-metabolic correlations. In epilepsy, PET is useful in localizing the epileptogenic focus in partial epilepsy: it is hypometabolic interictally. The meaning of the hypometabolism has still to be established. New information about the neurochemistry of the epileptogenic focus should become available from studies of benzodiazepine, excitatory amino acid or opiate systems, for example. PET has already enabled pathophysiological hypotheses to be tested in status epilepticus. Disturbances of metabolism and neurotransmission systems have been observed at various stages and in various types of neurodegenerative diseases. The modifications are not only an early reflection of anatomopathological lesions, but could give more direct information on the pathogenesis or symptomatology of these diseases and hence lead to new therapeutic endeavours, such as appropriate replacement therapy analogous by to dopatherapy in Parkinson's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailLa neuro-imagerie: au-delà des images, une modélisation du fonctionnement cérébral humain
Maquet, Pierre ULg

in Medecine sciences : M/S (2011), 27(1), 5-6

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See detailLa neuro-imagerie: un outil diagnostique des etats de conscience alteree.
Thonnard, Marie ULg; Boly, Mélanie ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurelie et al

in Medecine Sciences : M/S (2011), 27(1), 77-81

Vegetative and minimally conscious states diagnosis remained a major clinical challenge. New paradigms such as measurement of the global cerebral metabolism, the structural and functional integrity of ... [more ▼]

Vegetative and minimally conscious states diagnosis remained a major clinical challenge. New paradigms such as measurement of the global cerebral metabolism, the structural and functional integrity of fronto-parietal network, or the spontaneous activity in resting state have been shown to be helpful to disentangle vegetative from minimally conscious patients. Active neuroimagery paradigms also allow detecting voluntary and conscious activity in non-communicative patients. The implementation of these methods in clinical routine could permit to reduce the current high rate of misdiagnosis (40%). [less ▲]

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See detailLa neuro-urologie
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2011, January 12)

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See detailNeuroanatomical Distribution and Variations across the Reproductive Cycle of Aromatase Activity and Aromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula Hypoleuca)
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Silverin, B.; Baillien, M. et al

in Hormones & Behavior (1998), 33(3), 180-96

The anatomical distribution and seasonal variations in aromatase activity and in the number of aromatase-immunoreactive cells were studied in the brain of free-living male pied flycatchers (Ficedula ... [more ▼]

The anatomical distribution and seasonal variations in aromatase activity and in the number of aromatase-immunoreactive cells were studied in the brain of free-living male pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). A high aromatase activity was detected in the telencephalon and diencephalon but low to negligible levels were present in the optic lobes, cerebellum, and brain stem. In the diencephalon, most aromatase-immunoreactive cells were confined to three nuclei implicated in the control of reproductive behaviors: the medial preoptic nucleus, the nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. In the telencephalon, the immunopositive cells were clustered in the medial part of the neostriatum and in the hippocampus as previously described in another songbird species, the zebra finch. No immunoreactive cells could be observed in the song control nuclei. A marked drop in aromatase activity was detected in the anterior and posterior diencephalon in the early summer when the behavior of the birds had switched from defending a territory to helping the female in feeding the nestlings. This enzymatic change is presumably controlled by the drop in plasma testosterone levels observed at that stage of the reproductive cycle. No change in enzyme activity, however, was seen at that time in other brain areas. The number of aromatase-immunoreactive cells also decreased at that time in the caudal part of the medial preoptic nucleus but not in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (an increase was even observed), suggesting that differential mechanisms control the enzyme concentration and enzyme activity in the hypothalamus. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in diencephalic aromatase activity contribute to the control of seasonal variations in reproductive behavior of male pied flycatchers but the role of the telencephalic aromatase in the control of behavior remains unclear at present. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomical Distribution of Testosterone-Metabolizing Enzymes in the Japanese Quail
Schumacher, M.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Brain Research (1987), 422(1), 137-48

We describe a very sensitive and precise assay which allows one to study the metabolism of testosterone (T) in small brain nuclei dissected out according to the method of Palkovits and Brownstein. With ... [more ▼]

We describe a very sensitive and precise assay which allows one to study the metabolism of testosterone (T) in small brain nuclei dissected out according to the method of Palkovits and Brownstein. With this method, the neuroanatomical distributions of aromatase, and 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductase activities were studied in adult male quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The different enzymes show different neuroanatomical distributions. Production of estradiol-17 beta (E2) was highest in the sexually dimorphic nucleus preopticus medialis (POM). We showed previously that the preoptic aromatase activity is higher in male than in female quail. As the POM is a central and very large structure within the preoptic area, the present results suggest a relationship between the neuroanatomical and the biochemical sex differences. By contrast, the production of 5 alpha-DHT was highest in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHY), the bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (BPC) and the lateral septum (SL). The 5 beta-reductase activity was highest in the lateral septum and in the ventral part of the archistriatum (AV). Moreover, there was a rostral to caudal decrease in 5 beta-reductase activity in the hypothalamus. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomical Specificity in the Autoregulation of Aromatase-Immunoreactive Neurons by Androgens and Estrogens: An Immunocytochemical Study
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Brain Research (1992), 574(1-2), 280-90

Testosterone (T) increases brain aromatase activity (AA) in quail and other avian and mammalian species. It was shown both in quail and in rat that this enzymatic induction results from a synergistic ... [more ▼]

Testosterone (T) increases brain aromatase activity (AA) in quail and other avian and mammalian species. It was shown both in quail and in rat that this enzymatic induction results from a synergistic action of androgens and estrogens. These studies provide little information on possible anatomical or cellular specificity of the effect. Using a polyclonal antiserum against human placental aromatase, we have previously identified aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) neurons in the quail brain and demonstrated that T increases the number of ARO-ir cells in the quail preoptic area (POA) supporting previous evidence that T increases AA in the brain. However, which T metabolites are involved, the actual mechanism of regulation and the possibility of anatomical specificity for these effects are not yet clear. In the present study, we disassociated the effects of androgens and estrogens in aromatase induction by comparing ARO-ir neurons of quail treated with T alone or T in the presence of a potent aromatase inhibitor (R76713), which has been shown to depress AA levels and to suppress T-activated copulatory behavior. T increased the number of ARO-ir cells in POA, bed nucleus striae terminalis (BNST) and tuberal hypothalamus (Tu). The T effect was inhibited by concurrent treatment with aromatase inhibitor in Tu, but not in POA and BNST. This differential effect of the aromatase inhibitor fits in very well with our previous studies of the co-localization of aromatase and estrogen receptors. The T effect was blocked by R76713 in areas where ARO-ir and estrogen receptor-ir are generally co-localized (Tu) and was not affected in areas with mainly ARO-ir positive, estrogen receptor-ir negative cells (POA, BNST). This suggests anatomical differences in the expression or clearance of aromatase which may be differentially sensitive to androgens and estrogens and dependent upon the presence of sex steroid receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomical Specificity in the Co-Localization of Aromatase and Estrogen Receptors
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Surlemont, C. et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1991), 22(2), 143-57

The relative distributions of aromatase and of estrogen receptors were studied in the brain of the Japanese quail by a double-label immunocytochemical technique. Aromatase immunoreactive cells (ARO-ir ... [more ▼]

The relative distributions of aromatase and of estrogen receptors were studied in the brain of the Japanese quail by a double-label immunocytochemical technique. Aromatase immunoreactive cells (ARO-ir) were found in the medial preoptic nucleus, in the septal region, and in a large cell cluster extending from the dorso-lateral aspect of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus to the tuber at the level of the nucleus inferioris hypothalami. Immunoreactive estrogen receptors (ER) were also found in each of these brain areas but their distribution was much broader and included larger parts of the preoptic, septal, and tuberal regions. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, the majority of the ARO-ir cells (over 75%) also contained immunoreactive ER. By contrast, very few of the ARO-ir cells were double-labeled in the preoptic area and in the septum. More than 80% of the aromatase-containing cells contained no ER in these regions. This suggests that the estrogens, which are formed centrally by aromatization of testosterone, might not exert their biological effects through binding with the classical nuclear ER. The fact that significant amounts of aromatase activity are found in synaptosomes purified by differential centrifugation and that aromatase immunoreactivity is observed at the electron microscope level in synaptic boutons suggests that aromatase might produce estrogens that act at the synaptic level as neurohormones or neuromodulators. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomical specificity in the expression of the immediate early gene c-fos following expression of appetitive and consummatory male sexual behaviour in Japanese quail
Taziaux, Mélanie ULg; Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Dejace, C. et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2006), 23(7), 1869-1887

We investigated the neural sites related to the occurrence of appetitive (ASB) and consummatory (CSB) aspects of male sexual behaviour in Japanese quail. Castrated males treated with testosterone were ... [more ▼]

We investigated the neural sites related to the occurrence of appetitive (ASB) and consummatory (CSB) aspects of male sexual behaviour in Japanese quail. Castrated males treated with testosterone were exposed for 5 min to one of four experimental conditions: (i) free interaction with a female (CSB group); (ii) expression of rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements in response to the visual presentation of a female (ASB-F group); (iii) or a male (ASB-M group), and (iv) handling as a control manipulation. Brains were collected 90 min after the start of behavioural tests and stained by immunocytochemistry for the FOS protein. An increase in FOS expression was observed throughout the rostro-caudal extent of the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in CSB males, whereas the view of a female (ASB-F) induced an increased FOS expression in the rostral POM only. In the CSB group, there was also an increase in FOS expression in the bed nucleus striae terminalis, and both the CSB and ASB-F groups exhibited increased FOS expression in aspects of the ventro-lateral thalamus (VLT) related to visual processing. Moreover, both the CSB and ASB-M groups showed increased FOS expression in the lateral septum. These data provide additional support to the idea that there is a partial anatomical dissociation between structures involved in the control of both aspects of male sexual behaviour and independently provide data consistent with a previous lesion study that indicated that the rostral and caudal POM differentially control the expression of ASB and CSB in quail. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomical specificity of sex differences in expression of aromatase mRNA in the quail brain
Voigt, C.; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2007), 33(2), 75-86

In birds and mammals, aromatase activity in the preoptic-hypothalamic region (HPOA) is usually higher in males than in females. It is, however, not known whether the enzymatic sex difference reflects the ... [more ▼]

In birds and mammals, aromatase activity in the preoptic-hypothalamic region (HPOA) is usually higher in males than in females. It is, however, not known whether the enzymatic sex difference reflects the differential activation of aromatase transcription or some other control mechanism. Although sex differences in aromatase activity are clearly documented in the HPOA of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), only minimal or even no differences at all were observed in the number of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and in the medial part of the bed nucleus striae terminalis (BSTM). We investigated by in situ hybridization the distribution and possible sex differences in aromatase mRNA expression in the brain of sexually active adult quail. The distribution of aromatase mRNA matched very closely the results of previous immunocytochemical studies with the densest signal being observed in the POM, BSTM and in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). Additional weaker signals were detected in the rostral forebrain, arcopallium and mesencephalic regions. No sex difference in the optical density of the hybridization signal could be found in the POM and MBH but the area covered by mRNA was larger in males than in females, indicating a higher overall expression in males. In contrast, in the BSTM, similar areas were covered by the aromatase expression in both sexes but the density of the signal was higher in females than in males. The physiological control of aromatase is thus neuroanatomically specific and with regard to sex differences, these controls are at least partially different if one compares the level of transcription, translation and activity of the enzyme. These results also indirectly suggest that the sex difference in aromatase enzyme activity that is present in the quail HPOA largely results from differentiated controls of enzymatic activity rather than differences in enzyme concentration. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomie chimique de la moelle épinière humaine.
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Revue Neurologique (1988), 144(11), 630-42

Modern neuroanatomical methods, specifically immunocytochemistry and receptor autoradiography, have greatly increased our knowledge on the organization of the human nervous system. This review, based on ... [more ▼]

Modern neuroanatomical methods, specifically immunocytochemistry and receptor autoradiography, have greatly increased our knowledge on the organization of the human nervous system. This review, based on the literature and largely on personal results, is devoted to the chemical neuroanatomy of the normal human spinal cord. It provides a comprehensive overview of the differential distribution of various chemical messengers, their metabolizing enzymes and their receptors (acetylcholine, amino acids, monoamines, neuropeptides) in the neuronal laminae of the spinal gray matter. At the level of the dorsal horn, lamina II, i.e. Rolando's substantia gelatinosa, is characterized by a heavy concentration of several transmitters and receptors. Within the intermediate gray matter the autonomic nuclei receive a dense peptidergic input, e.g. substance P, enkephalin and VIP afferents. In the ventral horn close contacts are numerous between serotonergic or peptidergic (SP, TRH, enkephalins...) fibers and motoneuronal perikarya or dendrites. The present knowledge on the putative role of certain neurotransmitters in spinal functions is summarized. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomie chimique de la moelle épinière humaine: application à des cas pathologiques dans la sclérose latérale amyotrophique
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Revue Neurologique (1988), 144(11), 630-42

Modern neuroanatomical methods, specifically immunocytochemistry and receptor autoradiography, have greatly increased our knowledge on the organization of the human nervous system. This review, based on ... [more ▼]

Modern neuroanatomical methods, specifically immunocytochemistry and receptor autoradiography, have greatly increased our knowledge on the organization of the human nervous system. This review, based on the literature and largely on personal results, is devoted to the chemical neuroanatomy of the normal human spinal cord. It provides a comprehensive overview of the differential distribution of various chemical messengers, their metabolizing enzymes and their receptors (acetylcholine, amino acids, monoamines, neuropeptides) in the neuronal laminae of the spinal gray matter. At the level of the dorsal horn, lamina II, i.e. Rolando's substantia gelatinosa, is characterized by a heavy concentration of several transmitters and receptors. Within the intermediate gray matter the autonomic nuclei receive a dense peptidergic input, e.g. substance P, enkephalin and VIP afferents. In the ventral horn close contacts are numerous between serotonergic or peptidergic (SP, TRH, enkephalins...) fibers and motoneuronal perikarya or dendrites. The present knowledge on the putative role of certain neurotransmitters in spinal functions is summarized. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuroanatomie chimique du thymus et des organes lymphoïdes
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (1987)

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See detailNeuroanesthésie
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2006, November)

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See detailNeurobiological and genetic aspects of alcohol addiction: a special focus on acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Scientific conference (2007)

Although alcoholism is one of the most common forms of addiction, its neurobiological mechanisms still remain unclear. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the interaction of multiple ... [more ▼]

Although alcoholism is one of the most common forms of addiction, its neurobiological mechanisms still remain unclear. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the interaction of multiple neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, endogenous opioids and endocannabinoids. Additionally, long term changes in these neurotransmitter systems are believed to promote the development of alcoholism, probably through specific alterations of brain regions involved in motivation. In humans, it has been clearly demonstrated that alcohol dependence is a genetically heritable disease, at least to some extent. Twin and adoptions studies indicate that 50-60% of the phenotypic variations in alcohol dependence are accounted for by a genetic component. Among the multiple genes that are possibly involved in the development of alcohol dependence and addiction, there is very strong evidence that genes related to the metabolism of ethanol play a major role. For example, genetic polymorphisms in alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes strongly affect alcoholism susceptibility in humans. In recent years, several studies have also provided evidence that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, contributes to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In rodents such as rats and mice, low doses of brain acetaldehyde induce reinforcing and stimulant effects, although high concentrations of peripheral blood acetaldehyde produce adverse reactions. These results led to the controversial theory that acetaldehyde mediates or at least contributes to the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurobiological bases of suicidality in major depression
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Scwartz, Sophie; Dang Vu, Thanh et al

in World Journal of Biological Psychiatry (2009), 9(Suppl. 1),

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See detailA Neurobiologically Inspired Model of Working Memory Based on Neuronal Synchrony and Rythmicity
Sougné, Jacques ULg; French, R. M.

in Bullinaria, J.A.; Glasspool, D.W.; Houghton, G. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop: Connectionist Representations (1997)

The connectionist model of reasoning presented here, INFERNET, implements a working memory that is the activated part of long-term memory. This is achieved by making use of temporal properties of the node ... [more ▼]

The connectionist model of reasoning presented here, INFERNET, implements a working memory that is the activated part of long-term memory. This is achieved by making use of temporal properties of the node spikes. A particular solution of the problem of multiple instantiation is proposed. This model makes predictions that have been tested experimentally and the results of these experiments are reported here. These results would seem to challenge modular models of memory. [less ▲]

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