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See detailMultisegmented radiation therapy as an alternative to 3D conformal radiation therapy, with special reference to breast cancer tangential fields
GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Kovacs, P.; Farkas, R. et al

in Nowotwory (2007), 57(3), 291-293

The paper compares the techniques of 3DCRT and MSCRT in terms of PTV coverage and doses to OARs. The study population consisted of 175 breast cancer patients in whom treatement was analysed in regard to ... [more ▼]

The paper compares the techniques of 3DCRT and MSCRT in terms of PTV coverage and doses to OARs. The study population consisted of 175 breast cancer patients in whom treatement was analysed in regard to the use of lateral and medial tangential fields. Although we have failed to establish statistical significance at the P=0.05 levelthe results look clinically promising in favour of MSCRT. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisegmented tangential breast fields: A rational way to treat breast cancer
GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Kovács, P.; Sebestyén, Z. et al

in Strahlentherapie und Onkologie (2008), 184(5), 262-269

Purpose: Using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and multisegmented conformal radiation therapy (MS-CRT) for breast cancer treatment, the dose coverage of the planning target volume ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and multisegmented conformal radiation therapy (MS-CRT) for breast cancer treatment, the dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) and the radiation burden on the organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated. Material and Methods: 3D-CRT and MS-CRT were planned for 436 unilateral breasts (217 left). All patients were treated with MS-CRT between 2005 and 2007. For PTV delineation and beam orientation, supportive structures were applied. The mean PTV was 1,130 cm 3 (in ten patients > 2,200 cm3). Three-dimensional planning with weight-optimized medial and lateral open fields at a total dose of 50.4/1.8 Gy was followed by multisegmented planning with a reasonably high-dose-level dose cloud to define the medial subfield, and renewed optimization. This was repeated for the lateral subfield with a final optimization. For PTV coverage evaluation, the ICRU 50 was considered: the PTV portions receiving 95-107%, < 95% and > 107% of the prescribed dose (PTVD95- 107%, PTV<D95% and PTV>D107%), and the PTV maximal dose (PTVDmax). To compare the OAR radiation burdens, the mean doses to the ipsi-/contralateral lung, contralateral breast, and whole heart were documented. Results: The multisegmented plans furnished significantly (p < 0.0001) better target coverage (PTVD95-107% 82.8% vs. 90.9%, PTV<D95% 11.4% vs. 8.8%, PTV>D107% 5.9% vs. 0.3% and PTVDmax 56.6 vs. 54.3 Gy). The mean OAR doses remained almost unchanged: ipsilateral lung 10.5 versus 10.4 Gy, contralateral lung 0.4 versus 0.4 Gy, contralateral breast 0.8 versus 0.8 Gy, and whole heart (for left-sided cancers) 4.8 versus 4.8 Gy. The subfields required a mean of 9.8 MU (monitor units), i.e., a mean total 7.6 MU increment. The planning took 10-20 min, and the delivery 5-10 min. Conclusion: MS-CRT is a good alternative to breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and seems adequate for right-sided cancers, whereas left-sided cancers necessitate a longer follow-up of heart-related side effects before a final assessment. © 2008 Urban & Vogel. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisegmented tangential breast fields: an effective step towards IMRT without a significantly higher secondary cancer risk
GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Kovács, Péter; Bellyei, Szabolcs et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2006), 81(suppl 1), 172

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See detailMultisensor flight simulation with emphasis on synthesis of IR imagery
Bonjean, Maxime E.; Schiefele, Jeff; Verly, Jacques ULg

Conference (2005)

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See detailMultisite Observations of delta Scuti Stars 7 Aql and 8 Aql (a New delta Scuti Variable): The Twelfth STEPHI Campaign in 2003
Fox Machado, L.; Michel, Eric; Pérez Hernández, F. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2007), 134

We present an analysis of the pulsation behavior of the delta Scuti stars 7 Aql (HD 174532) and 8 Aql (HD 174589), a new variable star, observed in the framework of the STEPHI XII campaign during 2003 ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of the pulsation behavior of the delta Scuti stars 7 Aql (HD 174532) and 8 Aql (HD 174589), a new variable star, observed in the framework of the STEPHI XII campaign during 2003 June and July; 183 hr of high-precision photometry were acquired by using four-channel photometers at three sites on three continents during 21 days. The light curves and amplitude spectra were obtained following a classical scheme of multichannel photometry. Observations in different filters were also obtained and analyzed. Six and three frequencies have been unambiguously detected above a 99% confidence level in the range 190-300 muHz and 100-145 muHz in 7 Aql and 8 Aql, respectively. A comparison of observed and theoretical frequencies shows that 7 Aql and 8 Aql may oscillate with p-modes of low radial orders, typical among delta Scuti stars. In terms of radial oscillations the range of 8 Aql goes from n=1 to 3, while for 7 Aql the range spans from n=4 to 7. Nonradial oscillations have to be present in both stars as well. The expected range of excited modes according to a nonadiabatic analysis goes from n=1 to 6 in both stars. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisite photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi
Briquet, Maryline ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2012)

We present an asteroseismic study of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi. Based on extensive ground-based multisite photometry and spectroscopy, the pulsational, rotational and chemical properties of ... [more ▼]

We present an asteroseismic study of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi. Based on extensive ground-based multisite photometry and spectroscopy, the pulsational, rotational and chemical properties of the star were derived and stellar models accounting for the observed characteristics were computed. We discuss our results showing that the combination of asteroseismology and spectropolarimetry can allow us to probe the impact of a magnetic field on the physics of mixing inside stellar interiors. [less ▲]

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See detailA multisite photometric study of two unusual β Cep stars: the magnetic V2052 Oph and the massive rapid rotator V986 Oph
Handler, G.; Shobbrook, R. R.; Uytterhoeven, K. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2012), 424

We report a multisite photometric campaign for the β Cep stars V2052 Oph and V986 Oph. 670 h of high-quality differential photoelectric Strömgren, Johnson and Geneva time-series photometry was obtained ... [more ▼]

We report a multisite photometric campaign for the β Cep stars V2052 Oph and V986 Oph. 670 h of high-quality differential photoelectric Strömgren, Johnson and Geneva time-series photometry was obtained with eight telescopes on five continents during 182 nights. Frequency analyses of the V2052 Oph data enabled the detection of three pulsation frequencies, the first harmonic of the strongest signal, and the rotation frequency with its first harmonic. Pulsational mode identification from analysing the colour amplitude ratios confirms the dominant mode as being radial, whereas the other two oscillations are most likely l = 4. Combining seismic constraints on the inclination of the rotation axis with published magnetic field analyses we conclude that the radial mode must be the fundamental mode. The rotational light modulation is in phase with published spectroscopic variability, and consistent with an oblique rotator for which both magnetic poles pass through the line of sight. The inclination of the rotation axis is 54° < i < 58° and the magnetic obliquity 58° < β < 66°. The possibility that V2052 Oph has a magnetically confined wind is discussed. The photometric amplitudes of the single oscillation of V986 Oph are most consistent with an l = 3 mode, but this identification is uncertain. Additional intrinsic, apparently temporally incoherent light variations of V986 Oph are reported. Different interpretations thereof cannot be distinguished at this point, but this kind of variability appears to be present in many OB stars. The prospects of obtaining asteroseismic information for more rapidly rotating β Cep stars, which appear to prefer modes of higher l, are briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisite spectroscopic seismic study of the β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi: inhibition of mixing by its magnetic field
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Neiner, C.; Aerts, C. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2012), 427

We used extensive ground-based multisite and archival spectroscopy to derive observational constraints for a seismic modelling of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi. The line-profile variability is ... [more ▼]

We used extensive ground-based multisite and archival spectroscopy to derive observational constraints for a seismic modelling of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi. The line-profile variability is dominated by a radial mode (f1 = 7.148 46 d-1) and by rotational modulation (P_rot = 3.638 833 d). Two non-radial low-amplitude modes (f2 = 7.756 03 d-1 and f3 = 6.823 08 d-1) are also detected. The four periodicities that we found are the same as the ones discovered from a companion multisite photometric campaign and known in the literature. Using the photometric constraints on the degrees ℓ of the pulsation modes, we show that both f_2 and f_3 are prograde modes with (ℓ, m) = (4, 2) or (4, 3). These results allowed us to deduce ranges for the mass (M ∈ [8.2, 9.6] M_sun) and central hydrogen abundance (X_c ∈ [0.25, 0.32]) of V2052 Oph, to identify the radial orders n1 = 1, n2 = -3 and n3 = -2, and to derive an equatorial rotation velocity v_eq ∈ [71, 75] km s-1. The model parameters are in full agreement with the effective temperature and surface gravity deduced from spectroscopy. Only models with no or mild core overshooting (α_ov ∈ [0, 0.15] local pressure scale heights) can account for the observed properties. Such a low overshooting is opposite to our previous modelling results for the non-magnetic β Cep star θ Oph having very similar parameters, except for a slower surface rotation rate. We discuss whether this result can be explained by the presence of a magnetic field in V2052 Oph that inhibits mixing in its interior. [less ▲]

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See detailMultispectral Imaging in Cathodoluminescence Microscopy
Charlier, Bernard ULg; De Colnet, Laurence; Pirard, Eric ULg

in Proceedings - Annual Meeting - Belgian Soc. Microscopy (2001)

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See detailMultispectral imaging of ore minerals in optical microscopy
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Mineralogical Magazine (2004), 68(2), 323-333

Multispectral imaging of ore minerals under the microscope is a logical extension of quantitative colour analysis and microspectrophotometric analysis of minerals. This paper describes, step by step, how ... [more ▼]

Multispectral imaging of ore minerals under the microscope is a logical extension of quantitative colour analysis and microspectrophotometric analysis of minerals. This paper describes, step by step, how the proper calibration of a scientific video camera can be performed in order to obtain precise reflectance measurements at each pixel within the field of view. After having reviewed the different sources of noise and aberration, practical formulae are presented that allow for the acquisition of a set of images at different wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The advantage of using a multispectral image acquisition system based on narrow bandwidth (10 nm) interference filters is discussed and quantitatively compared to colour imaging using tri-stimulus (red, green, blue) filters. Images taken from major sulphide parageneses are shown as examples of well contrasted multispectral images. Finally, the potential for automatic identification of ore minerals is discussed with reference to supervised multivariate image classification algorithms similar to those used in remote sensing. Additional comments on extending the principles for handling optical anisotropy and developing a multiradial imaging system are made. [less ▲]

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See detailMultispectral observations of Jupiter's Aurora
Waite, J. H.; Grodent, Denis ULg; Mauk, B. M. et al

in Advances in Space Research (2000), 26(10), 1453-1475

Remote sensing of Jupiter's aurora from x-ray to radio wavelengths has revealed much about the nature of the jovian aurora and about the impact of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling on the upper atmosphere ... [more ▼]

Remote sensing of Jupiter's aurora from x-ray to radio wavelengths has revealed much about the nature of the jovian aurora and about the impact of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling on the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, As indicated by the combination of x-ray and ultraviolet observations, both energetic heavy ions and electrons energized in the outer magnetosphere contribute to auroral excitation. Imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope in the ultraviolet and with the InfraRed Telescope Facility at infrared wavelengths shows several distinct regions of interaction: 1) a dusk sector where turbulent auroral patterns extend well into the polar cap; 2) a morning sector generally characterized by a single spatially confined auroral are originating in the outer or middle magnetosphere of Jupiter; 3) diffuse emissions associated with the Io plasma - spectroscopy has provided important information about the thermal structure of Jupiter's auroral atmosphere and the altitude distribution of auroral particle energy deposition, while Lyman alpha line profiles yield clues to the nature of thermospheric dynamical effects. Galileo observations at visible wavelengths on the nightside offer a new view of the jovian aurora with unprecedented spatial information. Infrared observations have added much to the understanding of thermal structure at all latitudes, the dynamics of the thermospheric wind system, and auroral morphology, and may hold the key to understanding the role of Joule heating in Jupiter's thermosphere. ROSAT observations have revealed soft x-ray emissions from Jupiter's lower latitudes as well as from the auroral zones, implying that energetic particle precipitation also occurs at low latitudes in regions magnetically linked to the inner radiation belts. In this review, multispectral observations of jovian auroral emissions are presented within a theoretical/modeling framework that is intended to provide some insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and its effects on the upper atmosphere. (C) 2000 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMultispectral simultaneous diagnosis of Saturn's aurorae throughout a planetary rotation
Lamy, L.; Prangé, R.; Pryor, W. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2013), 118

From 27 to 28 January 2009, the Cassini spacecraft remotely acquired combined observations of Saturn's southern aurorae at radio, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, while monitoring ion injections in ... [more ▼]

From 27 to 28 January 2009, the Cassini spacecraft remotely acquired combined observations of Saturn's southern aurorae at radio, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, while monitoring ion injections in the middle magnetosphere from energetic neutral atoms. Simultaneous measurements included the sampling of a full planetary rotation, a relevant timescale to investigate auroral emissions driven by processes internal to the magnetosphere. In addition, this interval coincidentally matched a powerful substorm-like event in the magnetotail, which induced an overall dawnside intensification of the magnetospheric and auroral activity. We comparatively analyze this unique set of measurements to reach a comprehensive view of kronian auroral processes over the investigated timescale. We identify three source regions for the atmospheric aurorae, including a main oval associated with the bulk of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR), together with polar and equatorward emissions. These observations reveal the coexistence of corotational and subcorototational dynamics of emissions associated with the main auroral oval. Precisely, we show that the atmospheric main oval hosts short-lived subcorotating isolated features together with a bright, longitudinally extended, corotating region locked at the southern SKR phase. We assign the substorm-like event to a regular, internally driven, nightside ion injection possibly triggered by a plasmoid ejection. We also investigate the total auroral energy budget, from the power input to the atmosphere, characterized by precipitating electrons up to 20 keV, to its dissipation through the various radiating processes. Finally, through simulations, we confirm the search-light nature of the SKR rotational modulation and we show that SKR arcs relate to isolated auroral spots. We characterize which radio sources are visible from the spacecraft and we estimate the fraction of visible southern power to a few percent. The resulting findings are discussed in the frame of pending questions as the persistence of a corotating field-aligned current system within a subcorotating magnetospheric cold plasma, the occurrence of plasmoid activity, and the comparison of auroral fluxes radiated at different wavelengths. [less ▲]

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See detailA multistage field test of wheelchair users for evaluation of fitness and prediction of peak oxygen consumption
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Francaux, M.; Colinet, Cédrik et al

in Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development (2002), 39(6, Nov-Dec), 685-692

An incremental multistage field test (MFT) for wheelchair users was developed to evaluate physical fitness and predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Using auditory feedback, the participants (n = 37 ... [more ▼]

An incremental multistage field test (MFT) for wheelchair users was developed to evaluate physical fitness and predict peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Using auditory feedback, the participants (n = 37) were directed to wheel around an octagonal course, increasing their velocity every minute until exhaustion. Wheelchair velocity and metabolic parameters were recorded with the use of a speedometer and a portable spirometer system. The average number of exercise levels performed (MFT score) was 9.17 +/- 5.81, resulting in a peak heart rate (HR) of 99.0 +/- 13.9% of the theoretical maximum. A test-retest analysis (n = 10) showed that the MFT was reliable regarding MFT score, peak VO2, and peak HR reached. Stepwise multiple regression based on individual, wheelchair, propulsion technique, and physiological parameters revealed that the MFT score was the best and only predictor of peak VO2 (mL/min/kg) (= 18.03 + 0.78 MFT score, r(2) = 0.59). The MFT assesses wheelchair mobility and estimates peak VO2 encountered during the test. [less ▲]

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See detailA multistage process to enhance cellobiose production from cellulosic materials
Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Boquel, Pascal; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2010), 160(8), 2300-2307

Cellobiose, a disaccharide, is a valuable product that can be obtained from cellulose hydrolysis. In this study, a simple methodology is presented to enhance the production and improve the selectivity of ... [more ▼]

Cellobiose, a disaccharide, is a valuable product that can be obtained from cellulose hydrolysis. In this study, a simple methodology is presented to enhance the production and improve the selectivity of cellobiose during enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The approach consisted of a multistage removal of filtrate via vacuum filtration and resuspension of the retentate. By this process, the remaining solid was further hydrolyzed without additional enzyme loading. Compared to the continuous hydrolysis process, the production of cellobiose increased by 45%. Increased selectivity of cellobiose is due to the loss of beta-glucosidases in the filtrate, while enhanced productivity is likely due to mitigated product inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailMultistage stochastic programming: A scenario tree based approach to planning under uncertainty
Defourny, Boris ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Sucar, L. Enrique; Morales, Eduardo F.; Hoey, Jesse (Eds.) Decision Theory Models for Applications in Artificial Intelligence: Concepts and Solutions (2011)

In this chapter, we present the multistage stochastic programming framework for sequential decision making under uncertainty. We discuss its differences with Markov Decision Processes, from the point of ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we present the multistage stochastic programming framework for sequential decision making under uncertainty. We discuss its differences with Markov Decision Processes, from the point of view of decision models and solution algorithms. We describe the standard technique for solving approximately multistage stochastic problems, which is based on a discretization of the disturbance space called scenario tree. We insist on a critical issue of the approach: the decisions can be very sensitive to the parameters of the scenario tree, whereas no efficient tool for checking the quality of approximate solutions exists. In this chapter, we show how supervised learning techniques can be used to evaluate reliably the quality of an approximation, and thus facilitate the selection of a good scenario tree. The framework and solution techniques presented in the chapter are explained and detailed on several examples. Along the way, we define notions from decision theory that can be used to quantify, for a particular problem, the advantage of switching to a more sophisticated decision model. [less ▲]

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See detailMultitasking capacities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: A preliminary examination of their neurocognitive underpinnings and ability to predict real world functioning
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

in Psychiatry Research (2014), 217

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to an absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls completed the computerized task. Patients were also evaluated with a cognitive battery, measures of symptomatology and real world functioning. To examine the ecological validity, 14 other patients were recruited and were given the computerized version and a real version of the meeting preparation task. Results showed that performance on the computerized task was significantly correlated with executive functioning, pointing to the major implication of these cognitive processes in multitasking situations. Performance on the computerized task also significantly predicted up to 50% of real world functioning. Moreover, the computerized task demonstrated good ecological validity. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating multitasking capacities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in order to predict real world functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailMultitasking capacities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: A preliminary examination of their neurocognitive underpinnings and ability to predict real world functioning
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

in Psychiatry Research (2014), 217

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular during multitasking activities. However, at present, patients' multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to an absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls completed the computerized task. Patients were also evaluated with a cognitive battery, measures of symptomatology and real world functioning. To examine the ecological validity, 14 other patients were recruited and were given the computerized version and a real version of the meeting preparation task. Results showed that performance on the computerized task was significantly correlated with executive functioning, pointing to the major implication of these cognitive processes in multitasking situations. Performance on the computerized task also significantly predicted up to 50% of real world functioning. Moreover, the computerized task demonstrated good ecological validity. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating multitasking capacities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in order to predict real world functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailMultitasking capacities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia: A preliminary examination of their neurocognitive underpinnings and ability to predict real world functioning
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

in Schizophrenia Research (2014, April), 153(Supl. 1), 344

Background: Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Moreover, patients seem to demonstrate particular difficulties during complex and ... [more ▼]

Background: Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Moreover, patients seem to demonstrate particular difficulties during complex and multitasking activities, such as cooking a meal (Semkovska et al., 2004). Multitasking refers to activities where the person has to: carry out and alternate between different tasks that vary in terms of priority, difficulty and duration; define the tasks’ targets; and where the person is faced with unexpected problems during the realization of these tasks (Burgess, 2000). However, at present, patients’ multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to an absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting – the Computerized Meeting Preparation Task (CMPT) Methods: Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls completed the CMPT. During the CMPT, participants found themselves in a virtual room that they had to prepare for a meeting while respecting a list of instructions (the placement of the guests, the needed objects, the desired drinks, etc.). Patients were also evaluated with an extensive cognitive battery (assessing executive functions, attention, processing speed and memory), measures of symptomatology and real world functioning. To examine the ecological validity of the CMPT, 14 others patients were recruited and were given the computerized version and a real version of the meeting preparation task. Results: Results demonstrated that performance on the CMPT significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for the total time to complete task, planning efficiency, and the respect of the instructions. Moreover, these variables were significantly correlated with executive functioning (i.e. cognitive flexibility and planning), suggesting the major implication of these cognitive processes in multitasking activities. Performance on the CMPT also significantly predicted up to 50% of real world functioning. Finally, performances on the computerized version and the real version of the meeting preparation task were highly correlated, suggesting good ecological validity. Discussion: In this study, we created a novel task involving the multitasking nature of real world activities. The results demonstrated that this approach provides a good indication of the real world functioning in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Moreover, results suggest a particular implication of executive functioning in multitasking activities. These findings suggest the importance of evaluating multitasking capacities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in order to predict real world functioning. [less ▲]

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