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See detailAssessment of determinants for osteoporosis in elderly men.
Scholtissen, Sophie ULg; Guillemin, F.; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Osteoporosis International (2009), 20(7), 1157-66

SUMMARY: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine and quantify some determinants associated to low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly men. This study showed that ageing, a lower body mass ... [more ▼]

SUMMARY: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine and quantify some determinants associated to low bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly men. This study showed that ageing, a lower body mass index (BMI), a higher blood level of C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-1), family history of osteoporosis, and/or fracture and prior fracture were associated with bone mineral density. INTRODUCTION: Our aims were to identify some determinants associated to low bone mineral density in men and to develop a simple algorithm to predict osteoporosis. METHODS: A sample of 1,004 men aged 60 years and older was recruited. Biometrical, serological, clinical, and lifestyle determinants were collected. Univariate, multivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the discriminant performance of the algorithm. RESULTS: In the multiple regression analysis, only age, BMI, CTX-1, and family history of osteoporosis and/or fracture were able to predict the femoral neck T-score. When running the procedure with the total hip T-score, prior fracture also appeared to be significant. With the lumbar spine T-score, only age, BMI, and CTX-1 were retained. The best algorithm was based on age, BMI, family history, and CTX-1. A cut-off point of 0.25 yielded a sensibility of 78%, a specificity of 59% with an area under the curve of 0.73 in the development and validation cohorts. CONCLUSION: Ageing, a lower BMI, higher CTX-1, family history, and prior fracture were associated with T-score. Our algorithm is a simple approach to identify men at risk for osteoporosis. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of developmental outcome of preterm babies
Battisti, Oreste ULg

in Archives de Pédiatrie (1998), 5

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See detailAssessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis with F-18-FDG PET
Beckers, Catherine ULg; Ribbens, Clio ULg; Andre, Béatrice ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2004), 45(6), 956-964

The aim of this study was to assess synovitis by F-18-FDG PET in an individual joint analysis and in a global analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity and to compare F-18-FDG PET parameters ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to assess synovitis by F-18-FDG PET in an individual joint analysis and in a global analysis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity and to compare F-18-FDG PET parameters with clinical, biologic, and sonographic (US) rheumatoid parameters. Methods: Three hundred fifty-six joints were assessed in 21 patients with active RA: the knees in all subjects and either wrists as well as metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in 13 patients, or ankles and the first metatarsophalangeal joints in the remaining 8 patients. PET analysis consisted of a visual identification of F-18-FDG uptake in the synovium and measurements of standardized uptake values (SUVs). Independent assessors performed the clinical and US examinations. Results: PET positivity was found in 63% of joints, whereas 75%, 79%, and 56% were positive for swelling, tenderness, and US analysis, respectively. Both the rate of PET-positive joints and the SUV increased with the number of positive parameters present (swelling, tenderness, US positivity) and with the synovial thickness. The mean SUV was significantly higher in joints where a power Doppler signal was found. In a global PET analysis, the number of PET-positive joints and the cumulative SUV were significantly correlated with the swollen and tender joint counts, the patient and physician global assessments, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein serum levels, the disease activity score and the simplified disease activity index, the number of US-positive joints, and the cumulative synovial thickness. Conclusion: F-18-FDG PET is a unique imaging technique that can assess the metabolic activity of synovitis and measure the disease activity in RA. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of ease of use and experience of the new paediatric triple-chamber bag for parenteral nutrition for preterm infants
Rigo, J; Marlowe, ML; Bonnot, D et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2011), 37(S2), 396

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See detailAssessment of endoscopic activity lndex and biological lnflammatory markers in clinically active Crohn's disease with normal C-reactive protein serum level
Denis, Marie-Armelle; Reenaers, Catherine ULg; Fontaine, Fernand et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2007), 13(9), 1100-1105

Background: Patients with clinically active Crohn's disease (CD), defined by a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) > 150, may have normal Greactive protein (CRP) serum levels. In such cases, it is ... [more ▼]

Background: Patients with clinically active Crohn's disease (CD), defined by a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) > 150, may have normal Greactive protein (CRP) serum levels. In such cases, it is difficult to know whether these patients have really active disease or rather functional symptoms. This distinction is important to decide the most appropriate treatment. The aim of our work was to assess intestinal and colonic lesions in such patients and to look for biological markers potentially associated with endoscopic activity of the disease. Methods: We included 28 consecutive CD patients with CDAI >150 and a normal CRP level. These patients underwent a full colonoscopy with Crohn's Disease Endoscopy Index of Severity (CDEIS) calculation, fecal calprotectin, blood fibrinogen, acid a-I glycoprotein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate measurement. The Harvey-Bradshaw score was also calculated. Serum ILI beta, IL6, IL8, sIL2R, and sTNFR2 were measured. Results: The median CDAI was 181 (151-485). Almost all (92.9%) these patients had endoscopic lesions, but the majority had only mild lesions (CDEIS : 6). No correlation was found between CDEIS and any of the clinical or biological markers. However, all the patients with significant endoscopic lesions (defined by a CDEIS >6) had previous surgical intestinal resection and lesions involving the anastomosis. Conclusions: Patients with elevated CDAT and normal CRP have only mild mucosal lesions of CD. Most significant lesions may be observed at the anastomosis and proximal to it in previously operated patients. None of the biological markers tested was associated with these endoscopic lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of equine diaphragm strength and activation using transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation
Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Linden, Annick ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement (1995), 18

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See detailAssessment of erythromycin toxicity on activated sludge via batch experiments and microscopic techniques (epifluorescence and CLSM)
Louvet, Jean-Noël ULg; Helouin, Yannick; Attik, Ghania et al

in Process Biochemistry (2010), 45

This study investigates erythromycin toxicity toward activated sludge as a function of exposure time and antibiotic concentration. Batch experiments were conducted and microscopic techniques ranging from ... [more ▼]

This study investigates erythromycin toxicity toward activated sludge as a function of exposure time and antibiotic concentration. Batch experiments were conducted and microscopic techniques ranging from bright-field microscopy to epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), combined with a fluorescent viability indicator (BacLight ® Bacterial Viability Kit, Molecular Probes), allowed us to study erythromycin time-kill activity. The erythromycin toxicity was observed at lower concentration when exposure time increased. A 4 .g/L erythromycin concentration was toxic to heterotrophic bacteria on a 5-day time exposure, and a 5 mg/L concentration inhibited nitrification. These findings are in agreement with the microscopic studies, which showed a latency time before the lower antibiotic concentrations began to kill bacteria. Microscope slide wells were used as micro-reactors in which erythromycin concentration ranged from 0.1 to 1 mg/L. After 45 min there were 94% (SD 3.8) of living bacteria in control micro-reactors, 67% (SD 3.1) in micro-reactors that contained 0.1 mg/L erythromycin and 37% (SD 18.6) in micro-reactors that contained 1 mg/L erythromycin. CLSM allowed visualization of isolated stained cells in the three-dimensional structure of damaged flocs [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Eurocode 5 charring rate calculation methods
Cachim, Paulo; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference Structures in Fire (2008)

The basic hypothesis for the assessment of fire resistance of wood structures is that for temperatures above 300 ºC, wood is no longer able to sustain any load. Consequently, the determination of the ... [more ▼]

The basic hypothesis for the assessment of fire resistance of wood structures is that for temperatures above 300 ºC, wood is no longer able to sustain any load. Consequently, the determination of the location of the 300 ºC isotherm, the charring depth, is decisive for the result of fire resistance calculation methods. Charring rate of wood is dependent of numerous factors, such as wood species (density, permeability or composition), moisture or direction of burning (along or across the grain). Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several methods for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures that are divided into simplified and advanced. In this paper simplified and advanced methods are compared regarding the calculation of the charring depth. Finite element simulations have been performed, using the proposed wood properties of Eurocode 5 using finite element code SAFIR. The influence of parameters such as wood density, moisture or anisotropy has been investigated. The results obtained with finite element calculations were then compared with Eurocode 5 simplified models. Some inconsistencies between methods have been observed. This paper presents proposals to overcome some of the inconsistencies as well as to extend the applicability of the models. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of Eurocode 5 charring rate calculation methods
Cachim, Paulo; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire Technology (2010), 46

The base hypothesis for the assessment of fire resistance of timber structures by simple calculation models is that for temperatures above 300 ºC, timber is no longer able to sustain any load ... [more ▼]

The base hypothesis for the assessment of fire resistance of timber structures by simple calculation models is that for temperatures above 300 ºC, timber is no longer able to sustain any load. Consequently, the determination of the location of the 300 ºC isotherm, the charring depth, is decisive for the result of fire resistance calculation methods. Charring rate of timber is dependent of numerous factors, such as wood species (density, permeability or composition), moisture or direction of burning (along or across the grain). Eurocode 5, Part 1-2, presents several methods for the calculation of fire resistance of timber structures that are divided into simplified and advanced. In this paper simplified and advanced methods are compared regarding the calculation of the charring depth and residual cross section strength. Finite element simulations have been performed, employing the proposed timber properties of Eurocode 5 using finite element code SAFIR. The influence of parameters such as timber density and moisture has been investigated. The results obtained with finite element calculations were then compared with Eurocode 5 simplified models. Some inconsistencies between methods have been observed. This paper presents some proposals to overcome some of the inconsistencies as well as to extend the applicability of the models. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of existing formulas for equivalent damping to use in direct displacement-based design
Degée, Hervé ULg; Bento, R.; Massena, B.

in Proceedings of the 14th World Conference on Erthquake Engineering (2008)

It is generally stated that an accurate evaluation of the equivalent viscous damping is a crucial step in the DirectDisplacement-Based Design (DDBD) methodology. A wrong assessment of equivalent viscous ... [more ▼]

It is generally stated that an accurate evaluation of the equivalent viscous damping is a crucial step in the DirectDisplacement-Based Design (DDBD) methodology. A wrong assessment of equivalent viscous dampingcan indeed lead to important errors on the actual ductility demand of the structural elements. The objective of thepresent contribution is to assess and compare different existing formulas for the evaluation of the equivalent damping and to provide information on the impact of choosing one or another formulation on the seismicdesign. It is more precisely focused on the very recent proposals of Dwairi – Kowalsky and Blandon –Priestley. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds in epidemiological studies on breast cancer : a literature review and perspectives for the CECILE study
Bachelet, D.; Verner, M.-A.; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, C. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2010), 65(1), 49-57

Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplastic disease in women representing 50,000 new cases each year in France. The well-established risk factors, as those related to the reproductive history, cannot ... [more ▼]

Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplastic disease in women representing 50,000 new cases each year in France. The well-established risk factors, as those related to the reproductive history, cannot account for all cases of breast cancer. Other environmental or lifestyle factors need to be explored in depth. Persistent organochlorine compounds (OCs) have attracted attention because of their endocrine disrupting properties that make them possible risk factors for breast cancer, but most epidemiological studies did not report an association between OC concentrations in blood or adipose tissue and breast cancer risk. In these studies, OC levels were measured in biological samples obtained at the time of cancer diagnosis or only a few years before. In this paper, we review the studies on dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) exposures in relation to breast cancer. We discuss the relevance of OC biological measurements as lifelong exposure indicators, and we describe a new method for assessing exposure to OCs in epiderniological studies. Most studies were carried out recently and reported OC concentrations that were substantially lower than those reported during the 1960s and 1970s. We make the assumption that these OC levels were not reliable indicators, as they were not measured during etiologically relevant periods in a woman's lifetime, i.e. during the prenatal period, the puberty or the period before a first full-term pregnancy, which are regarded as key periods of vulnerability of mammary gland cells to carcinogens. This may have resulted in non differential exposure misclassification and hence in the absence of an observed association between OC levels and breast cancer in most epidemiological studies. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models allow estimating persistent organic pollutant lifetime toxicokinetics profiles retrospec- tively in women, by taking into account individual differences in metabolism and key events that affect OC kinetics such as lactation and weight variations. PBPK models will be applied to the participants of a large French population-based case-control study including 1080 cases and 1055 controls. Exposure misclassification could have prevented from observing an association between exposure to OCs and breast cancer risk. PBPK models could be used as a novel way of assessing exposure to OCs and to investigate the impact of internal exposure at different time windows on breast cancer incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailASSESSMENT OF FATIGUE RELIABILITY FOR JACKET-TYPE OFFSHORE PLATFORMS CONSIDERING DYNAMIC BEHAVOIR
Reza Khedmati, Mohammad; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Amrane, Amirouche ULg et al

in Proceedings of the ASME 2013 32nd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering OMAE 2013 (2013, June)

In order to traditionally investigate the strength of marine structures, the structure is subjected to a maximum static load. However, the marine structures are usually suffering environmental forces ... [more ▼]

In order to traditionally investigate the strength of marine structures, the structure is subjected to a maximum static load. However, the marine structures are usually suffering environmental forces varying with time. Wave forces are the most important time dependent loading that causes fatigue in structural elements and joints. In this paper different methods base on S-N curve and linear elastic failure mechanics are presented. The governing equations and theories that are used in each method are expressed and the application of each method will be discussed. The two main methods of deterministic analyses are: stressbased approach (S-N curve approach) and linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) approaches. These approaches are applicable to different analyzing strategies, ie the first approach is used for cases in which general form of fatigue is dominant, but the latter involves the calculations of reliability as functions of crack geometry and its boundary conditions. The SPD12C jacket platform is also modeled as a case study and the results of fatigue reliability analysis are presented. In this paper a comprehensive method is presented to accurately predict the reliability of offshore platforms. This method is based on S-N curve and the results are compared with the fatigue life of joints. Due to nonlinear interaction of soil and piles and the other affecting parameters such as flexibility of joints, non Gaussian procedure of loading, and nonlinearity of reaction force, the precise analyzing of stress levels will be impossible and a complex numerical analysis could only give limited information about the statistical properties of stress. In order to perform the fatigue analysis and predicting the cycles of stress SACS was used which is known as a powerful software in designing and analyzing offshore structures. In this paper the whole structure was modeled subjected to different forces such as wave and sea currents. The effects of parameters such as marine growth and interaction of soil and piles are also included. The latter is shown to have a significant effect on determination of fatigue life of the platform. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of gestation, lactation and fasting on stable isotope ratios in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris)
Habran, Sarah ULg; Debier, Cathy; Crocker, Dan E. et al

in Marine Mammal Sciences (2010), 26(4), 880-895

Effects of physiological processes such as gestation, lactation and nutritional stress on stable isotope ratios remain poorly understood. To determine their impact, we investigated these processes in ... [more ▼]

Effects of physiological processes such as gestation, lactation and nutritional stress on stable isotope ratios remain poorly understood. To determine their impact, we investigated these processes in simultaneously fasting and lactating northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values were measured in blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. As long- and short-term integrators of diet, blood cells and serum may reflect foraging data or energy reserves from late gestation and lactation, respectively. Limited changes in isotopic signatures of maternal blood over the lactating period were highlighted. Nitrogen isotope fractionation associated with mother-to-offspring transfer of nutrients was generated between mother and offspring during gestation and lactation. This fractionation was tissue and time-specific, it varied between early and late lactation from +0.6‰ to +1.3‰ in blood cells and from +1.1‰ to nonsignificant value in serum. Therefore, if pups appear to be good proxies to investigate the female trophic ecology especially for C sources, much more caution is required in using δ15N values. Further studies are also needed to better define the relative impact of fasting and lactation on the enrichment or depletion of isotopes in different tissues. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of glucose metabolism in humans with the simultaneous use of indirect calorimetry and tracer techniques.
Tappy, L.; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Tounian, P. et al

in Clinical Physiology (1995), 15(1), 1-12

Concomitant measurements of sytemic glucose delivery and carbohydrate oxidation are frequently performed in human investigations. Systemic glucose delivery (SGD) is usually determined using dilution of ... [more ▼]

Concomitant measurements of sytemic glucose delivery and carbohydrate oxidation are frequently performed in human investigations. Systemic glucose delivery (SGD) is usually determined using dilution of infused glucose tracers; net carbohydrate oxidation rate (net CHOOX) can be calculated from respiratory gas exchanges and urinary nitrogen excretion (indirect calorimetry); alternatively, glucose oxidation can be measured from labelled CO2 production during infusion of carbon-labelled glucose tracers. In this paper, the theory underlying the use of each of these techniques is briefly reviewed and qualitative differences are outlined. SGD represents the sum of hepatic glucogenolysis, gluconeogenesis from amino acids or glycerol, and, according to the glucose tracer used, glucose cycles (glucose-phosphate cycle, fructose-phosphate cycle, Cori and glucose-alanine cycles); systemic delivery of exogenous glucose after oral or i.v. glucose administration is also measured. Net CHOOX represents oxidation of glucose arising from hepatic or muscle glycogen or from exogenous glucose; it does not take into account oxidation of glucose formed from amino acids or glycerol, which is included in net protein or lipid oxidation. In contrast, isotopic determination of glucose oxidation corresponds to oxidation of glucose originating from hepatic glycogen breakdown, of exogenously administered glucose, and of glucose formed from amino acids and glycerol. Non-oxidative glucose disposal, calculated as SGD-net CHOOX, corresponds to the sum of gluconeogenesis from amino acids or glycerol (which are included in net protein and lipid oxidation), glucose cycles, and glycogen synthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of grazing rates in Daphnia galeata
Thys, Isabelle; Pandolfini, Eliana; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

Conference (1999, September 14)

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See detailAssessment of hallucinations
Bell, Vaughan; Raballo, Andrea; Laroi, Frank ULg

in Laroi, Frank; Aleman, André (Eds.) Hallucinations: A guide to treatment and management (2010)

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