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See detailMycotoxins in stored Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in Tibet Autonomous Region (People’s Republic of China.
Haubruge, Eric ULg; Chasseur, Camille

in Mountain Research & Development (2003), 23

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See detailMyelin-Derived Lipids Modulate Macrophage Activity by Liver X Receptor Activation
Bogie, Jeroen F. J.; Timmermans, Silke; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2012), 7(9), 44998

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which macrophages and microglia play a central role. Foamy macrophages and microglia, containing ... [more ▼]

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which macrophages and microglia play a central role. Foamy macrophages and microglia, containing degenerated myelin, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis lesions. Recent studies have described an altered macrophage phenotype after myelin internalization. However, it is unclear by which mechanisms myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype can influence lesion progression. Here we demonstrate, by using genome wide gene expression analysis, that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages have an enhanced expression of genes involved in migration, phagocytosis and inflammation. Interestingly, myelin internalization also induced the expression of genes involved in liver-X-receptor signaling and cholesterol efflux. In vitro validation shows that myelin-phagocytosing macrophages indeed have an increased capacity to dispose intracellular cholesterol. In addition, myelin suppresses the secretion of the pro-inflammatory mediator IL-6 by macrophages, which was mediated by activation of liver-X-receptor b. Our data show that myelin modulates the phenotype of macrophages by nuclear receptor activation, which may subsequently affect lesion progression in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. [less ▲]

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See detailMyelination and myelinating cells in culture
Moonen, Gustave ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Ophtalmologie (1983), 208(PT 1), 57-62

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See detailMyélinolyse centrale du pont, son cadre nosographique parmi les lésions neuropathologiques dues à l'alcoolisme
Reznik, Michel ULg; LIFRANGE, Eric ULg; MOUCHETTE, R. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1987), 42

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See detailMyeloid HIF-1alpha prevents airway allergy in mice by promoting macrophage-mediated immunosuppression
Toussaint, Marie ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 1st Scientific Meeting of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2011, December 09)

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See detailMyeloid Hif1alpha counteracts allergic airway sensitization in mice through macrophage-mediated immunoregulation
Toussaint, Marie ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Abstract book of Keystone Symposium "Myeloid Cells: Regulation and Inflammation" (2013)

Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) has important roles in promoting pro-inflammatory and bactericidal functions in myeloid cells. Conditional genetic ablation of its major subunit Hif1alpha in the myeloid ... [more ▼]

Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF) has important roles in promoting pro-inflammatory and bactericidal functions in myeloid cells. Conditional genetic ablation of its major subunit Hif1alpha in the myeloid lineage consequently results in decreased inflammatory responses in classical models of acute inflammation in mice. In contrast, we observed that mice conditionally deficient for Hif1alpha in myeloid cells display enhanced sensitivity to the development of airway allergy to the experimental allergen ovalbumin as well as to house dust mite antigens. Following allergen exposure, these mice indeed developed enhanced allergen-specific T cell responses due to augmented activation of lung dendritic cells. Further analyses supported the idea that upon allergen exposure, MyD88-dependent upregulation of Hif1alpha boosts the expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine Interleukin (IL)-10 by lung interstitial macrophages. Interstitial macrophage-derived IL-10 in turn counteracts allergen-induced lung dendritic cell activation, consequently preventing the development of allergen-specific T cell responses. Thus, this study supports that, in addition to its known pro-inflammatory activities, myeloid Hif1alpha possesses immunoregulatory functions implicated in the prevention of airway allergy. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloid hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha prevents airway allergy in mice through macrophage-mediated immunoregulation
Toussaint, Marie ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Mucosal Immunology (2013), 6(3), 485-97

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has important roles in promoting pro-inflammatory and bactericidal functions in myeloid cells. Conditional genetic ablation of its major subunit Hif1alpha in the myeloid ... [more ▼]

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has important roles in promoting pro-inflammatory and bactericidal functions in myeloid cells. Conditional genetic ablation of its major subunit Hif1alpha in the myeloid lineage consequently results in decreased inflammatory responses in classical models of acute inflammation in mice. By contrast, we report here that mice conditionally deficient for Hif1alpha in myeloid cells display enhanced sensitivity to the development of airway allergy to experimental allergens and house-dust mite antigens. We support that upon allergen exposure, MyD88-dependent upregulation of Hif1alpha boosts the expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 by lung interstitial macrophages (IMs). Hif1alpha-dependent IL-10 secretion is required for IMs to block allergen-induced dendritic cell activation and consequently for preventing the development of allergen-specific T-helper cell responses upon allergen exposure. Thus, this study supports that, in addition to its known pro-inflammatory activities, myeloid Hif1alpha possesses immunoregulatory functions implicated in the prevention of airway allergy. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloid infection links epithelial and B cell tropisms of murid herpesvirus-4.
Frederico, Bruno; Milho, Ricardo; May, Janet S. et al

in PLoS Pathogens (2012), 8(9), 1002935

Gamma-herpesviruses persist in lymphocytes and cause disease by driving their proliferation. Lymphocyte infection is therefore a key pathogenetic event. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is a rhadinovirus that ... [more ▼]

Gamma-herpesviruses persist in lymphocytes and cause disease by driving their proliferation. Lymphocyte infection is therefore a key pathogenetic event. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) is a rhadinovirus that like the related Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus persists in B cells in vivo yet infects them poorly in vitro. Here we used MuHV-4 to understand how virion tropism sets the path to lymphocyte colonization. Virions that were highly infectious in vivo showed a severe post-binding block to B cell infection. Host entry was accordingly an epithelial infection and B cell infection a secondary event. Macrophage infection by cell-free virions was also poor, but improved markedly when virion binding improved or when macrophages were co-cultured with infected fibroblasts. Under the same conditions B cell infection remained poor; it improved only when virions came from macrophages. This reflected better cell penetration and correlated with antigenic changes in the virion fusion complex. Macrophages were seen to contact acutely infected epithelial cells, and cre/lox-based virus tagging showed that almost all the virus recovered from lymphoid tissue had passed through lysM(+) and CD11c(+) myeloid cells. Thus MuHV-4 reached B cells in 3 distinct stages: incoming virions infected epithelial cells; infection then passed to myeloid cells; glycoprotein changes then allowed B cell infection. These data identify new complexity in rhadinovirus infection and potentially also new vulnerability to intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailMyelome multiple et infection a VIH/SIDA : a propos de trois observations.
Elira Dokekias, A.; Moutschen, Michel ULg; Purhuence, M. F. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(2), 95-7

HIV infection rages at the endemic state in Sub Saharan African and especially in Congo Brazzaville. We report the observation of three female patients infected with HIV and developing multiple myeloma ... [more ▼]

HIV infection rages at the endemic state in Sub Saharan African and especially in Congo Brazzaville. We report the observation of three female patients infected with HIV and developing multiple myeloma. The three patients were treated at the University hospital of Brazzaville between 2000 and 2002. In two cases multiple myeloma was discovered after the diagnosis of HIV infection. In the other case, the diagnosis of HIV infection was posterior to the occurrence of multiple myeloma. HIV infection was symptomatic in two cases who received consequently antiviral treatment. Multiple myeloma was diagnosed at an advanced stage in the three cases. The paraprotein was an IgG in two cases and an IgA in the other one. The CD4 counts before treatment were around 200/mm3 in two cases and within normal limits in the third case. Viral load was not measured. VMCP and VAMCP regimens were administered without major complications and under anti-infectious prophylaxis. The follow-up is still insufficient to assess the medium-term evolution and to determine the prognosis of multiple myeloma. The description of these three cases confirms the involvement of HIV in B cell lymphoma genesis. [less ▲]

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See detailLe myélome
Fillet, Georges ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1978), 33

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See detailMyeloperoxidase activity decreases in equine semen freezing extenders
Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Niesten, Ariane ULg et al

in Amir, Arav (Ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd Cryo Congress (2013, March 23)

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils, and associated with decreased post-thaw motility of equine semen. This study aimed to compare MPO activity in pure ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils, and associated with decreased post-thaw motility of equine semen. This study aimed to compare MPO activity in pure equine freezing extender, raw and post-thaw semen. Active MPO Concentration (AMC) was measured with Specific Immunologic Extraction Followed by Enzymatic Detection in 20 ejaculates. Raw semen intra cellular AMC was determined in the supernatant after membrane lysis, each pellet containing 100x106 spermatozoa. AMC was also assayed in supernatants of semen frozen following a conventional method using INRA FreezeTM (IMV, France). Effect of freezing procedure on AMC was tested by experimentally adding 500ng of purified active MPO (Calbiochem, Germany) in 4 samples either with 5ml of PBS or INRA FreezeTM before assay. AMC was higher in sperm-rich pellet (0.306ng/ml) than in post-thaw semen (0.002ng/ml) (p=0.058). After experimental MPO addition, no activity variation was observed during the freezing procedure (after dilution, 1, 2 hours of cooling and post-thawing) within the same medium. Purified MPO activity was decreased in INRA FreezeTM when compared to PBS at all timings of sampling (p=0.0286). When all samples were pooled, remaining activity in INRA FreezeTM was 23.93±13.13%. MPO fixation on large proteins contained in the extender experimentally reduces AMC, as previously observed in plasma. However, AMC decrease observed during semen freezing is more important than after experimental addition. That could be explained by a MPO interaction with seminal plasma, a partial MPO release or a MPO inactivation during equine semen freezing. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloperoxidase and elastase as markers of leukocyte activation during cardiopulmonary bypass in humans
Faymonville, Marie ULg; Pincemail, Joël ULg; Duchateau, J. et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (1991), 102

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See detailMyeloperoxidase and its products in synovial fluid of patients with treated or untreated rheumatoid arthritis.
Nzeusseu Toukap, A.; Delporte, C.; Noyon, C. et al

in Free radical research (2014), 48(4), 461-5

Abstract Objective. Plasma and synovial myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its products were strongly associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, it is well known that there is ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective. Plasma and synovial myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its products were strongly associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, it is well known that there is a link between oxidative stress and cytokines. The present study aims at investigating the link between synovial MPO (and its products), interleukin (IL)-18, which is involved in the degradation of articular cartilage in RA, and IL-8, which is involved in recruitment and activation of neutrophils during inflammation. Effects of the treatment of RA on the biological parameters were also investigated. Methods. Patients (n = 105) were studied including 39 patients with OA, 33 with RA and 33 with RA receiving a specific treatment. Disease activity score (DAS-28) was calculated whereas MPO antigen/activity, neutrophils, chloro-tyrosine (Cl-Tyr), homocitrulline (Hcit), IL-8, and IL-18 were measured in synovial fluid (SF) and CRP was measured in serum. Results. DAS-28 and CRP levels were not significantly different between groups. MPO activity, and MPO, Cl-Tyr, and Hcit levels were significantly higher in SF of RA patients than OA patients. MPO specific activity (MPO activity/antigen ratio) was significantly lower in treated than in untreated RA patients as was IL-8. MPO activity and concentration were correlated with IL-8 and IL-18 in untreated but not in treated RA patients. Conclusions. MPO level is related to IL-8 and IL-18 levels in untreated RA patients. A link has been shown between treatment and decrease of IL-8, MPO specific activity and Hcit in SF. The causal role of MPO in SF inflammation and how treatment can affect MPO specific activity need further investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloperoxidase as an indicator of endometritis in the mare: preliminary results
Parrilla Hernandez, Sonia ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Ponthier, Jérôme ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2012, August), 47(suppl 5), 65

Diagnosis of endometritis in the mare is routinely based on the presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) on endometrial smears. Studies show a relation between PMNs and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme ... [more ▼]

Diagnosis of endometritis in the mare is routinely based on the presence of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) on endometrial smears. Studies show a relation between PMNs and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme released by PMNs during degranulation or after cell lysis, in many fluids and tissues. The aims of this study were to assess the presence and concentration of MPO in the mare’s uterus, and to investigate its relation with PMNs. Thirty-six cycles from 28 mares (ages ranging from 6 to 22 years) were used. Endometrial cytological samples were obtained with a small volume uterine flush and either a uterine cotton swab or a cytobrush, when a follicle >35 mm was observed by ultrasound. The smears were stained with Diff-QuickÒ and one or more PMNs per field (400·) was diagnosed as endometritis. The supernatant of the flushes was used to measure MPO concentration with a specific equine MPO ELISA assay. Our results showed the presence of MPO in the equine uterus during oestrus (mean = 2839 + 2785). MPO concentrations were signifi- cantly (p < 0.05) higher in samples with positive cytological results. Occasionally, some samples with negative cytological results showed high MPO concentration, but the opposite was never observed. Clinical signs of endometritis are not always present, or they may be delayed. An early diagnostic improves the success of treatment. Our results show that high quantities of MPO in endometrial samples indicate the presence of PMNs. Further studies are needed to determine if MPO concentration could be routinely used as a tool of early detection of endometritis. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloperoxidase Assay in Plasma and Peritoneal Fluid of Horses with Gastrointestinal Disease
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Gangl, Monika et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (2008), 72(1), 37-42

Gastrointestinal disorders, especially strangulating intestinal obstructions, are still a major cause of illness and death in the horse. Circulating lipopolysaccharides may activate both neutrophils and ... [more ▼]

Gastrointestinal disorders, especially strangulating intestinal obstructions, are still a major cause of illness and death in the horse. Circulating lipopolysaccharides may activate both neutrophils and monocytes. The activated neutrophils release myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific enzyme with strong oxidative activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate MPO concentrations in the plasma and peritoneal fluid (PF) of horses with colic and to check the hypothesis that these concentrations would be higher in a case of strangulating obstruction than in cases of nonstrangulating disease. By using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for equine MPO, we determined the MPO concentrations in horses admitted to a clinic for colic. Horses with nonstrangulating or strangulating obstruction of the large intestine (NSLI or SLI), strangulating obstruction of the small intestine (SSI), or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were compared with healthy horses. The horses with SLI, SSI, or IBD had significantly higher MPO levels in plasma and PF than did those in the other 2 groups. The mean plasma level was significantly higher in the horses with NSLI than in the healthy horses. High MPO values in PF indicated necrotic bowel. These results show that neutrophil activation occurs during nonstrangulating and strangulating intestinal obstruction in horses and that the plasma and PF MPO concentrations may be a marker of the severity of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloperoxidase concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and those with recurrent airway obstruction
Art, Tatiana ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; Lekeux, Pierre ULg et al

in Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research = Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire (2006), 70(4), 291-296

The aim of this work was to measure the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected from horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), both in crisis and in ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to measure the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid collected from horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), both in crisis and in remission, as well as from healthy horses. Seven horses with RAO were exposed to moldy hay until the maximum change in pleural pressure was greater than 1.5 kPa. At that point, BAL was performed, and the total cell counts and percentages in the fluid were immediately determined. To measure the MPO concentration in BAL-fluid supernatant, we used a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with polyclonal antibodies against equine MPO. The tests were repeated on the horses with RAO after they had spent 2 mo on pasture. Six healthy horses serving as controls underwent the same tests. The absolute and relative neutrophil counts and the MPO concentration in the BAL fluid were significantly greater in the horses with an RAO crisis than in the control horses. After 2 mo on pasture, the horses that had been in RAO crisis were clinically normal, and their neutrophil counts and MPO levels in BAL fluid had significantly decreased; during remission their neutrophil counts were not significantly different from those in the healthy horses, but their MPO concentration remained significantly higher. This study showed that determining the MPO concentration in a horse's BAL fluid is technically possible and that during remission from RAO the concentration remains higher than normal. Thus, MPO may be a marker of neutrophil presence and activation in the lower airways. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloperoxidase in Equine Semen: Concentration and Localization during Freezing Processing
Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Desvals, Maud; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (2012), (32), 32-37

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in and released by neutro- phils during degranulation or after lysis. Post-thaw semen contains MPO, and concen- tration of this enzyme is associated ... [more ▼]

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in and released by neutro- phils during degranulation or after lysis. Post-thaw semen contains MPO, and concen- tration of this enzyme is associated with decreased motility. The aim of this study was to determine kinetics of MPO concentration during freezing, its origin, and its impact on frozenethawed semen. Forty ejaculates were used. Semen was frozen using the classical freezing procedure. MPO concentrations were assayed in fresh semen, after centrifuga- tion, and after cooling down to 4 C. Post-thaw MPO assay results and spermogram characteristics were determined. MPO immunocytochemistry was performed on 4 different ejaculates at each step of freezing procedure. MPO concentration increased after cooling down to 4 C and thawing compared with fresh semen. As temperature decreased, MPO was higher or tended to be higher in post-thaw poor quality samples. Nonsperm cells showed various degrees of MPO immunostaining and were observed as epithelial cells with nuclear pyknosis and keratinization. MPO immunostaining increased in medium and decreased in nonsperm cells during freezing. Our study shows that MPO concentration in equine semen increases when temperature decreases. We hypothesize that nonsperm cells present in fresh semen could release MPO. [less ▲]

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See detailMyeloperoxidase-Dependent LDL Modifications in Bloodstream Are Mainly Predicted by Angiotensin II, Adiponectin, and Myeloperoxidase Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study in Men
Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Karim; Delporte, Cédric; Van Antwerpen, Pierre et al

in Mediators of Inflammation (2013), 2013

The present paradigm of atherogenesis proposes that low density lipoproteins (LDLs) are trapped in subendothelial space of the vascular wall where they are oxidized. Previously, we showed that oxidation ... [more ▼]

The present paradigm of atherogenesis proposes that low density lipoproteins (LDLs) are trapped in subendothelial space of the vascular wall where they are oxidized. Previously, we showed that oxidation is not restricted to the subendothelial location. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages, can modify LDL (Mox-LDL) at the surface of endothelial cells. In addition we observed that the activation of the endothelial cells by angiotensin II amplifies this process. We suggested that induction of the NADPH oxidase complex was a major step in the oxidative process. Based on these data, we asked whether there was an independent association, in 121 patients, between NADPH oxidase modulators, such as angiotensin II, adiponectin, and levels of circulating Mox-LDL. Our observations suggest that the combination of blood angiotensin II, MPO activity, and adiponectin explains, at least partially, serum Mox-LDL levels. [less ▲]

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