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See detailMulti-wavelength study of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 - III. Long slit spectroscopy: micro-lensing probes the QSO structure
Sluse, Dominique ULg; Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 468(3), 885-901

Aims. We discuss and characterize micro-lensing among the 3 brightest lensed images (A-B-C) of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (a quadruply imaged AGN) by means of long slit optical and NIR ... [more ▼]

Aims. We discuss and characterize micro-lensing among the 3 brightest lensed images (A-B-C) of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (a quadruply imaged AGN) by means of long slit optical and NIR spectroscopy. Qualitative constraints on the size of different emission regions are derived. We also perform a spectroscopic study of two field galaxies located within 1.6 arcmin radius from the lens. Methods. We decompose the spectra into their individual emission components using a multi-component fitting approach. A complementary decomposition of the spectra enables us to isolate the macro-lensed fraction of the spectra independently of any spectral modelling. Results. 1. The data support micro-lensing de-amplification of images A and C. Not only is the continuum emission microlensed in those images but also a fraction of the Broad Line emitting Region (BLR). 2. Micro-lensing of a very broad component of Mg II emission line suggests that the corresponding emission occurs in a region more compact than the other components of the emission line. 3. We find evidence that a large fraction of the Fe II emission arises in the outer parts of the BLR. We also find a very compact emitting region in the ranges 3080-3540 angstrom and 4630-4800 angstrom that is likely associated with Fe II. 4. The [O III] narrow emission line regions are partly spatially resolved. This enables us to put a lower limit of similar to 110h(-1) pc on their intrinsic size. 5. Analysis of Mg II absorption found in the spectra indicates that the absorbing medium is intrinsic to the quasar, has a covering factor of 20%, and is constituted of small clouds homogeneously distributed in front of the continuum and BLRs. 6. Two neighbour galaxies are detected at redshifts z = 0.10 and z = 0.289. These galaxies are possible members of galaxy groups reported at those redshifts. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-wavelength study of the gravitational lens system RXS J113155.4-123155. I. Multi-epoch optical and near infrared imaging
Sluse, Dominique ULg; Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Altieri, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2006), 449

Aims.RXS J113155.4-123155 (z=0.66) is a quadruply imaged lensed quasar with a resolved Einstein Ring. The goal of this paper is to provide a full characterization of this system, and more particularly ... [more ▼]

Aims.RXS J113155.4-123155 (z=0.66) is a quadruply imaged lensed quasar with a resolved Einstein Ring. The goal of this paper is to provide a full characterization of this system, and more particularly accurate astrometry and photometry. These observational constraints constitute a mandatory ingredient for the precise determination of the lens mass profile, the derivation of the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] from time delay measurements and investigations on the presence of massive substructures in the lensing galaxy.Methods.Visible and near-infrared imaging observations of RXS J113155.4-123155 were carried out at various epochs using several ground based telescopes and the HST. The frames have been deconvolved using the MCS algorithm. A Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid (SIE) + external shear has been used to model the lensing galaxy potential. Results. MCS deconvolution enables us to separate the flux of the QSO (point-like images) from that of its host galaxy and to accurately track the flux variations of the point-like images in various filters. The deconvolved frames unveil several multiply imaged structures in the Einstein ring and an unidentified object in the vicinity of the lensing galaxy. We discuss the lightcurves and the chromatic flux ratio variations and deduce that both intrinsic variability and microlensing took place during a span longer than one year. We demonstrate that microlensing may easily account for the so called anomalous flux ratios presented in the discovery paper. However, the observed flux ratios are still poorly reproduced when modeling the lens potential with a SIE+shear. We argue that this disagreement can hardly be explained by milli-lensing caused by substructures in the lensing galaxy. A solution proposed in Paper II consists in a more complex lens model including an octupole term to the lens gravitational potential. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multi-wavelength study with the ESO VLT of comet 103P/Hartley2 at the time of the EPOXI encounter
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in EPSC Abstracts 2011 (2011)

We report on simultaneous optical and infrared spectroscopic observations of the Jupiter Family comet 103P/Hartley2 performed with the UT-1 and UT-2 8-m Unit Telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope ... [more ▼]

We report on simultaneous optical and infrared spectroscopic observations of the Jupiter Family comet 103P/Hartley2 performed with the UT-1 and UT-2 8-m Unit Telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). These coordinated observations were carried on during several nights (2010 Nov. 5, 9, 10 and 11 UT) around the NASA EPOXI encounter with the comet on Nov. 4 [1] and in support to the key program « Water and related chemistry in the Solar System » (HssO) [2] of the Herschel Space Observatory. From high resolution optical spectroscopy of the CN (0,0) 388 nm band using UVES at UT2 we determined the isotopic ratios 12C/13C = 95 ± 15 and 14N/15N = 155 ± 25 in the CN radical. From the NH2 (0,9,0) and the H2O+ bands around 600 nm, we derived a nuclear spin temperature of 33 ± 3 K for NH3 and 36 +7/-6 K for H2O. These values are similar to those found in Oort- Cloud and Jupiter Family comets. From lowresolution long-slit spectroscopy with FORS2 at UT1 we will determine the CN, C2 and C3 spatial profiles and their production rates. From the high-resolution near-IR spectra that we collected with CRIRES at UT1 we will measure simultaneously the production rates and mixing ratios of the parent molecules H2O, HCN, C2H6, and CH3OH that are well detected in our spectra and we will study the link to the daughter species. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-wavelength survey of AGN in the XMM-LSS field. I. Quasar selection via the KX technique
Nakos, Theodoros; Willis, J. P.; Andreon, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 494

Aims. We present a sample of candidate quasars selected using the KX-technique. The data cover 0.68 deg[SUP]2[/SUP] of the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) Large-Scale Structure (LSS) survey area where ... [more ▼]

Aims. We present a sample of candidate quasars selected using the KX-technique. The data cover 0.68 deg[SUP]2[/SUP] of the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) Large-Scale Structure (LSS) survey area where overlapping multi-wavelength imaging data permits an investigation of the physical nature of selected sources. Methods: The KX method identifies quasars on the basis of their optical (R and z') to near-infrared (K_s) photometry and point-like morphology. We combine these data with optical (u^*,g', r',i',z') and mid-infrared (3.6-24 mum) wavebands to reconstruct the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of candidate quasars. Results: Of 93 sources selected as candidate quasars by the KX method, 25 are classified as quasars by the subsequent SED analysis. Spectroscopic observations are available for 12/25 of these sources and confirm the quasar hypothesis in each case. Even more, 90% of the SED-classified quasars show X-ray emission, a property not shared by any of the false candidates in the KX-selected sample. Applying a photometric redshift analysis to the sources without spectroscopy indicates that the 25 sources classified as quasars occupy the interval 0.7 <= z <= 2.5. The remaining 68/93 sources are classified as stars and unresolved galaxies. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiaxial concrete model for applications in structural fire engineering
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Millard, Alain

in Fontana, M.; Frangi, A.; Knobloch, M. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire (2012, June 07)

Temperature-dependent material models are required in numerical softwares dedicated to the nonlinear analysis of structures in fire. Although structural concrete is widely used in civil engineering ... [more ▼]

Temperature-dependent material models are required in numerical softwares dedicated to the nonlinear analysis of structures in fire. Although structural concrete is widely used in civil engineering, proper modelling of its thermo-mechanical behaviour remains a challenging issue for engineers mainly because of the complexity of the phenomena that result from the microcracking process in this composite material and because of the lack of numerical robustness of the models. This paper presents a new multiaxial concrete model developed for the analysis of concrete structures in fire. The multiaxial model is based on a plastic-damage formulation and incorporates an explicit term for transient creep strain. After implementation in a finite element software for structural fire engineering calculations, numerical simulations have been performed to highlight the ability of the model to capture some of the main phenomena that develop in concrete (permanent strains, degradation of the elastic properties, unilateral effect) as well as the ability to be used for the fire analysis of large-scale structural elements. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation including transient creep and cooling down phases
Gernay, Thomas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Purpose - The present thesis aims to develop an efficient and reliable multiaxial concrete model for implementation in finite elements softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. The need ... [more ▼]

Purpose - The present thesis aims to develop an efficient and reliable multiaxial concrete model for implementation in finite elements softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. The need for proper concrete model remains a very challenging task in structural (fire) engineering because of the complexity of the concrete mechanical behavior characterization and the severe requirements for the material models raised by the development of performance-based design. Methodology - The thesis opted for a phenomenological approach for modeling the thermo-mechanical behavior of concrete. The specifications of the model are based on the study of published experimental data of concrete samples tests and on the specific needs related to the applications in structural fire engineering. With these specifications in mind, a state of the art review of concrete models is conducted in order to choose the general theoretical framework that best fits the criteria for the development of the new model. The thesis presents the theoretical development of the model and its numerical implementation in a finite elements software. Numerical simulations of experimental tests are then performed to verify that the model satisfy the specifications. Findings - The combination of elastoplasticity theory and damage theory allows to develop a phenomenological model suitable for concrete behavior modeling within the pragmatic and robust theoretical framework of continuum constitutive models based on smeared crack approach. The state of damage in concrete, assumed isotropic, is modeled by means of a fourth order damage tensor to capture the unilateral effect. When complex performance-based situations are considered, the effect of transient creep strain at high temperature must be taken into account by an explicit term in the strain decomposition. A generic transient creep model is therefore developed based on experimental data and the model is calibrated to yield the same results as the Eurocode implicit model in simple prescriptive situations. The concrete model comprises a limited number of parameters that can be identified by three simple tests; besides, a standard set of values to be used in predictive calculations is clearly defined for these parameters. Numerical simulations can deal with all stress states as the model is developed as fully three-dimensional. A large number of examples highlight the capabilities of the model that range from the modeling of sample tests to the modeling of large scale composite structures developing membrane action. Limitations – Due to the assumption that damage and plasticity are driven by the same internal variables in the model, a limitation appears for capturing the concrete post-peak behavior in highly confined stress states. This assumption allows for reducing the number of parameter but it restrains the domain of applicability of the model; it is suggested to adopt a different approach if the behavior in multiaxial compression at high confinement level has to be accurately captured. Another limitation of the model is related to the localization issue, which is only partly addressed in this work by means of the regularization of the crack energy. Further works should bring a more elaborated response while considering the case of reinforced concrete structures, in which numerous cracks develop. Finally, several simplifying assumptions have been adopted to restrain the scope of the research; for instance, the phenomenon of spalling has not been considered. Practical implications - The thesis includes implications for the development of advanced numerical tools for the simulation of concrete structures at ambient temperature and at high temperature. The use of such advanced tools in the design may lead to significant reduction in the building costs and to improved robustness of the structures. Value – The thesis contributes to fulfil an identified need to make available proper constitutive concrete model for implementation in finite elements softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. Special care is given to the numerical robustness of the model and to the clear definition of the material parameters as the model is intended to be used by structural (fire) engineers in real applications. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the 13th Fire and Materials Conference (2013, January 28)

Performance-based design in fire engineering leads to increasing demand for advanced temperature-dependent material models for the load bearing materials used in building structures. These models must be ... [more ▼]

Performance-based design in fire engineering leads to increasing demand for advanced temperature-dependent material models for the load bearing materials used in building structures. These models must be valid in natural fire situations including cooling down phase and must be sufficiently robust for complex numerical calculations such as, for example, the analysis of tensile membrane action in composite slabs. Although structural concrete is widely used in civil engineering, proper modelling of its thermo-mechanical behaviour remains a challenging issue for engineers mainly because of the complexity of the phenomena that result from the microcracking process in this material and because of the necessity to ensure the numerical robustness of the models. This paper presents a new multiaxial concrete model based on a plastic-damage formulation and developed to meet the specific requirements of structural fire engineers and researchers. The model, which incorporates an explicit term for transient creep strain and encompasses a limited number of material parameters, has been implemented in a finite element software dedicated to the nonlinear analysis of structures in fire. The paper presents a series of numerical simulations conducted to highlight the model ability to capture the main phenomena that develop in concrete under fire (permanent strains, degradation of the elastic properties, unilateral effect) as well as its ability to be used for the fire analysis of large-scale structural elements. As an example, the new concrete model is used in the numerical analysis of a full scale fire test on a composite steel-concrete slab and it is shown that the computed and measured results agree. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation: Theoretical formulation.
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Millard, Alain; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2013), 50(22-23), 3659-3673

This paper aims to develop a multiaxial concrete model for implementation in finite element softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. The need for proper concrete model remains a ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to develop a multiaxial concrete model for implementation in finite element softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. The need for proper concrete model remains a challenging task in structural fire engineering because of the complexity of the concrete mechanical behavior characterization and the severe requirements for the material models raised by the development of performance-based design. A fully threedimensional model is developed based on the combination of elastoplasticity and damage theories. The state of damage in concrete, assumed isotropic, is modeled by means of a fourth order damage tensor to capture the unilateral effect. The concrete model comprises a limited number of parameters that can be identified by three simple tests at ambient temperature. At high temperatures, a generic transient creep model is included to take into account explicitly the effect of transient creep strain. The numerical implementation of the concrete model in a finite element software is presented and a series of numerical simulations are conducted for validation. The concrete behavior is accurately captured in a large range of temperature and stress states. A limitation appears when modeling the concrete post-peak behavior in highly confined stress states, due to the coupling assumption between damage and plasticity, but the considered levels of triaxial confinement are unusual stress states in structural concrete. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiaxial fatigue damage modeling of Ti6Al4V alloy
Marmi, Abdeljalil ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg

in Proceedings of the ICMFF9 Conference (2010)

The aim of this study is to present a new multiaxial fatigue model based on phenomenological approach for the proportional loading. The model estimations are compared to the classical Lemaitre-Chaboche [1 ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to present a new multiaxial fatigue model based on phenomenological approach for the proportional loading. The model estimations are compared to the classical Lemaitre-Chaboche [1] fatigue model and experimental results. The comparison is done by simulation of SN curves of notched and un-notched forged TA6V samples. To take into account the effect of stress gradient near notch root, the applied loads such as stress amplitude and Von Mises stress are affected by the triaxialty function introduced by Lemaitre [2]. The models enhanced by triaxialty function give correct results for life estimation of notched samples. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiaxial fatigue damage modelling at Macro scale of Ti6AL4V alloy
Marmi, Abdeljalil ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg

in International Journal of Fatigue (2009), 31

The Lemaitre and Chaboche fatigue model is investigated in order to predict the fatigue life of tensile samples with and without notches, defining different stress concentration fields. Elastoplastic FE ... [more ▼]

The Lemaitre and Chaboche fatigue model is investigated in order to predict the fatigue life of tensile samples with and without notches, defining different stress concentration fields. Elastoplastic FE simulations based on anisotropic yield locus description were carried out in order to obtain the stress and strain distributions near the notch root. The Lemaitre and Chaboche fatigue model was applied using the point method (local approach) and the gradient method (non-local approach). [less ▲]

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See detailMultibody Dynamics Analysis of Differentials in Vehicle Drivetrains
Virlez, Geoffrey ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Poulet, Nicolas et al

in Proceedings of the First Joint International Conference on Multibody System Dynamics (2010, May 26)

Differentials are critical components whose behaviour influences the dynamics of vehicles. They often include complex phenomena whose modeling is not always easy. In this paper, a model has been developed ... [more ▼]

Differentials are critical components whose behaviour influences the dynamics of vehicles. They often include complex phenomena whose modeling is not always easy. In this paper, a model has been developed for a limited slip differential (type C Torsen) which is mainly composed of an epicyclic gear train. In order to take into account flexibility, the nonlinear finite element method based on the absolute nodal coordinates has been chosen. The differential is modeled as a multibody system with various gear pairs and contact conditions. The model has been validated qualitatively and future work will address the identification of the various parameters and comparisons with experimental data. [less ▲]

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See detailMultibody Dynamics Analysis of Differentials in Vehicle Drivetrains with SAMCEF MECANO
Virlez, Geoffrey ULg; Pretot, Philippe

Conference (2010, October 13)

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See detailMultibody Modelling of Mechanical Transmission Systems in Vehicle Dynamics
Virlez, Geoffrey ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

This thesis addresses the dynamic modelling of automotive driveline components by means of the nonlinear finite element method for flexible multibody systems. Starting from a detailed study of an ... [more ▼]

This thesis addresses the dynamic modelling of automotive driveline components by means of the nonlinear finite element method for flexible multibody systems. Starting from a detailed study of an industrial application, the TORSEN differential, several contributions are proposed in the field of contact modelling. The contact between rigid bodies in several geometric configurations is investigated and the influence of the squeeze film of lubricating oil is studied. A contact formulation between flexible bodies modelled as superelements is also developed and applied to the modelling of 3D flexible gear pairs. [less ▲]

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See detailMULTICENTER BELGIAN SURVEY ON DONOR MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN ADULT-TO-ADULT LIVING DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
Troisi, Roberto I; Vogelaers, Dirk; Lerut, Jan et al

in Transplant International (2011, September), 24(2), 13-13

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See detailA multicenter collaborative study to measure the prevalence of pituitary disease : methodology and preliminary findings
Tikhomirova, M.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Petrossians, Patrick ULg et al

in 15th Meeting of the Belgian Endocrine Society : Bruxelles, 26 novembre 2005 (2005, November)

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See detailA multicenter collaborative study to measure the prevalence of pituitary disease : methodology and preliminary findings
Daly, Adrian ULg; Petrossians, Patrick ULg; Murat, A. et al

in 9th International Pituitary Congress - Abstract book (2005)

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See detailMulticenter evaluation of analytical performance of the Liaison((R)) troponin I assay
Pagani, F.; Stefini, F.; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Clinical Biochemistry (2004), 37(9), 750-757

Objectives: This study evaluated the analytical characteristics of the Liaison(R) immunoassay for cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Design and methods: The protocol consisted of eight sections: evaluation of ... [more ▼]

Objectives: This study evaluated the analytical characteristics of the Liaison(R) immunoassay for cardiac troponin I (cTnI). Design and methods: The protocol consisted of eight sections: evaluation of antibody specificity, linearity, detection limit and imprecision, method comparison, evaluation of endogenous interferents, anticoagulant interference, sample stability, and reference values. Results: The assay equally measured free and complexed cTnI. The minimum detectable cTnI concentration was 0.021 mug/l. The cTnI concentration corresponding to a total CVof 10% was 0.056 mug/l. Linearity of response was demonstrated along the entire dynamic range of the assay. Assay interferences were minimal. cTnI concentrations in serum and heparinized plasma were significantly different. Values in EDTA plasma were on average approximately 5% higher than in matched serum, but this difference was not significant. The 99th percentile cTnI value in healthy subjects was 0.036 mug/l. Conclusions: Being sensitive, specific, and precise, the Liaison(R) cTnI assay meets current requirements to aid in the diagnosis of myocardial necrosis. (C) 2004 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticenter implementation of geriatric assessment in Belgian patients with cancer: A survey on treating physicians' general experiences and expectations.
Kenis, Cindy; Heeren, Pieter; Bron, Dominique et al

in Journal of geriatric oncology (in press)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to identify treating physicians' general experiences and expectations regarding geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to identify treating physicians' general experiences and expectations regarding geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was carried out in 9 Belgian hospitals, which participated in a national GA implementation project focusing on older patients with cancer. A newly developed questionnaire was completed by their treating physicians. Data collection comprised of reviewing hospital data, general respondent data, and treating physicians' general experiences and expectations regarding GA. Descriptive statistics were calculated. RESULTS: Eighty-two physicians from 9 hospitals participated. The GA team composition can vary substantially, with a nurse as core member. Ideally, all older patients with cancer in whom a treatment decision is necessary, should benefit from the GA. Nearly all GA domains are reported as very important. Availability of GA results can be improved. Treating physicians want geriatricians to coordinate geriatric recommendations related to the identified GA problems, and expect from trained healthcare workers (THCWs) to collect GA data, to report GA results, and to follow-up the implementation of geriatric recommendations. CONCLUSION: This study identifies relevant information for improving the implementation of GA in older patients with cancer in Belgium and reveals priorities for a THCW from the treating physician's point of view. To increase the effectiveness of GA, further efforts are needed to improve the implementation of geriatric recommendations. [less ▲]

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See detailA multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Decroix, Jacques et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15(6), 434-41

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the ... [more ▼]

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the efficacy and safety of KET 2% and ZPT 1% in shampoo formulations for the alleviation of severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. This open randomized, parallel-group trial began with a 2-week run-in phase during which subjects applied a neutral non-antidandruff shampoo. It was followed by a 4-week randomized treatment phase and a subsequent 4-week follow-up phase without treatment. Shampooing during the treatment period was carried out twice weekly for the KET group and at least twice weekly for the ZPT group in accordance with the label instructions. A total of 343 subjects were recruited to enter the trial. Of the 331 eligible volunteers, 171 were randomized to KET 2% and 160 to ZPT 1%. Clinical assessments were performed. Beneficial effects were evidenced for both medicated shampoos, but the effect was significantly better for KET 2%, which achieved a 73% improvement in the total dandruff severity score compared with 67% for ZPT 1% at week 4 (p < 0.02). The recurrence rate of the disease was also significantly lower following KET 2% treatment than following ZPT 1% treatment. As a consequence, the overall clearing of the skin condition at the end of treatment and follow-up phase was in favor of the KET 2% formulation (p = 0.004). Side effects were minimal. It is concluded that after a 4-week treatment, KET 2% shampoo was significantly superior to ZPT 1% shampoo in the treatment of subjects with severe dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. It is our assumption that this difference is noticeable for the patient and as a consequence relevant. Both formulations were well tolerated. [less ▲]

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