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See detailNew insights into peripherin expression in cochlear neurons
Lallemend, François; Vandenbosch, Renaud ULg; Hadjab, S. et al

in Neuroscience (2007), 150(1), 212-222

Peripherin is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed in peripheral and enteric neurons. In the cochlear nervous system, peripherin expression has been extensively used as a differentiation ... [more ▼]

Peripherin is an intermediate filament protein that is expressed in peripheral and enteric neurons. In the cochlear nervous system, peripherin expression has been extensively used as a differentiation marker by preferentially labeling the type II neuronal population at adulthood, but yet without knowing its function. Since the expression of peripherin has been associated in time with the process of axonal extension and during regeneration of nerve fibers in other systems, it was of interest to determine whether peripherin expression in cochlear neurons was a static phenotypic trait or rather prone to modifications following nerve injury. In the present study, we first compared the expression pattern of peripherin and beta III-tubulin from late embryonic stages to the adult in rat cochlea. The staining for both proteins was seen before birth within all cochlear neurons. By birth, and for 2 or 3 days, peripherin expression was gradually restricted to the type II neuronal population and their projections. In contrast, from postnatal day (P) 10 onwards, while the expression of beta III-tubulin was still found in projections of all cochlear neurons, only the type I population had beta III-tubulin immunoreactivity in their cell bodies. We next investigated the expression of peripherin in axotomized cochlear neurons using an organotypic explant model. Peripherin expression was surprisingly re-expressed in a vast majority of neurons after axotomy. In parallel, the expression and localization of beta III-tubulin and peripherin in dissociated cultures of cochlear neurons were studied. Both proteins were distributed along the entire neuronal length but exhibited complementary distribution, especially within the projections. Moreover, peripherin immunoreactivity was still abundant in the growth cone, whereas that of beta III-tubulin was decreasing at this compartment. Our findings are consistent with a model in which peripherin plays an important structural role in cochlear neurons and their projections during both development and regenerative processes and which is compatible with the assumption that frequently developmentally regulated factors are reactivated during neuronal regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights into Pervaporation Mass Transport under Increasing Downstream Pressure Conditions: Critical Role of Inert Gas Entrance.
Vallières, Cécile; Favre, Eric; Roizard, Denis et al

in Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2001), 40

The influence of the total downstream pressure on the pervaporation flux of a pure compound through a dense polymer membrane has been the subject to controversial debates recently. Experimental arguments ... [more ▼]

The influence of the total downstream pressure on the pervaporation flux of a pure compound through a dense polymer membrane has been the subject to controversial debates recently. Experimental arguments in favor of either the solution−diffusion model or the newly proposed pore-flow model are alternatively reported on different systems. To critically reexamine this debate, an experimental study under controlled downstream conditions has been performed for pure methanol and pure 2-propanol pervaporation through a poly(dimethylsiloxane) film, the latter having been previously reported to follow pore-flow model predictions. It is shown that a rational analysis of the effects of the downstream pressure on the results can be achieved according to the classical solution−diffusion model, provided that the influence of air leaks in the installation is properly taken into account. Based on this observation, the implications of an inert gas contribution, generally speaking, on pervaporation operation are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into short-chain prenyltransferases: structural features, evolutionary history and potential for selective inhibition.
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Cusson, M.

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2009), 66

Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1'-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate ... [more ▼]

Isoprenoids form an extensive group of natural products involved in a number of important biological processes. Their biosynthesis proceeds through sequential 1'-4 condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) with an allylic acceptor, the first of which is dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)). The reactions leading to the production of geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)) and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)), which are the precursors of mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes, respectively, are catalyzed by a group of highly conserved enzymes known as short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, or prenyltransferases. In recent years, the sequences of many new prenyltransferases have become available, including those of several plant and animal geranyl diphosphate synthases, revealing novel mechanisms of product chain-length selectivity and an intricate evolutionary path from a putative common ancestor. Finally, there is considerable interest in designing inhibitors specific to short-chain prenyltransferases, for the purpose of developing new drugs or pesticides that target the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the development pf ATP-sensitive potassium channel openers
Pirotte, Bernard ULg; De Tullio, Pascal ULg; Antoine, M.-H. et al

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents (2005), 15

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See detailNEW INSIGHTS INTO THE Early EVOLUTION OF LiFe: EVIDENCE FROM THE pilbara craton
Sugitani, Ken; Grey, Kath; Van Kranendonk, Martin et al

Conference (2010, September)

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See detailNew insights into the effect of amorolfine nail lacquer.
Flagothier, Caroline ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Mycoses (2005), 48(2), 91-4

Despite improvements in antifungal strategies, the outcome of treating onychomycoses often remains uncertain. Several factors account for treatment failure, of which the pharmacokinetics and ... [more ▼]

Despite improvements in antifungal strategies, the outcome of treating onychomycoses often remains uncertain. Several factors account for treatment failure, of which the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antifungal are of importance. The taxonomic nature and ungual location of the fungus cannot be neglected, besides the type of nail and its growth rate. In addition, the biological cycle of the fungus and the metabolic activity of the pathogen likely play a marked influence in drug response. The presence of natural antimicrobial peptides in the nail is also probably a key feature controlling the cure rates. There are many outstanding publications that cover the full spectrum of the field. The purpose of this review is to put in perspective some facets of activity of the topical treatment using amorolfine nail laquer. The antifungal activity of the drug is likely less pronounced in onychomycosis than that expected from conventional in vitro studies. However, the nail laquer formulation should reduce the propensity to form antifungal-resistant spores and limit the risk of reinfection. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the metastasis-associated 67 kD laminin receptor.
Menard, S.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Tagliabue, E. et al

in Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (1997), 67(2), 155-65

The interactions between tumor cells and laminin or other components of the extracellular matrix have been shown to play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. These interactions are mediated ... [more ▼]

The interactions between tumor cells and laminin or other components of the extracellular matrix have been shown to play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. These interactions are mediated by different cell surface molecules, including the monomeric 67 kD laminin receptor. This molecule appears to be very peculiar since so, far only a full-length gene encoding a 37 kD precursor protein has been isolated and the mechanism by which the precursor reaches the mature form is not understood. Based on clinical data, which clearly demonstrate the importance of the receptor in tumor progression, studies were conducted to define the structure, expression, and function of this laminin receptor as a step toward developing therapeutic strategies that target this molecule. The data suggest that acylation of the precursor is the key mechanism in maturation of the 67 kD form. The function of the membrane receptor is to stabilize the binding of laminin to cell surface integrins, acting as an integrin-accessory molecule, although homology of the gene encoding the receptor precursor with other genes suggests additional functions. Downregulation of the receptor expression on tumor cells might open new therapeutic approaches to decrease tumor aggressiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the nature of the peculiar star theta Carinae
Hubrig, S.; Briquet, Maryline ULg; Morel, Thierry ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 488

Context: θ Carinae belongs to a group of peculiar early-type stars (OBN) with enhanced nitrogen and carbon deficiency. It is also known as a binary system, but it is not clear yet whether the chemical ... [more ▼]

Context: θ Carinae belongs to a group of peculiar early-type stars (OBN) with enhanced nitrogen and carbon deficiency. It is also known as a binary system, but it is not clear yet whether the chemical anomalies can be explained by mass transfer between the two components. On the basis of the previously reported spectral variability of a few metal lines it may be expected that θ Car possesses a weak magnetic field. <BR />Aims: A study of the physical nature of this hot massive binary which is furthermore a well-known blue straggler lying ~2 mag above the turnoff of the young open cluster IC 2602 is important to understand the origin of its strong chemical anomalies. <BR />Methods: We acquired high resolution spectroscopic and low resolution spectropolarimetric observations to achieve the following goals: a) to improve the orbital parameters to allow a more in-depth discussion on the possibility of mass transfer in the binary system; b) to carry out a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) abundance analysis; and c) to search for the presence of a magnetic field. <BR />Results: The study of the radial velocities using CORALIE spectra allowed us to significantly improve the orbital parameters. A comparative NLTE abundance analysis was undertaken for θ Car and two other early B-type stars with recently detected magnetic fields, Ï Sco and ξ[SUP]1[/SUP] CMa. The analysis revealed significantly different abundance patterns: a one-order-of-magnitude nitrogen overabundance and carbon depletion was found in θ Car, while the oxygen abundance is roughly solar. For the stars ξ[SUP]1[/SUP] CMa and Ï Sco the carbon abundance is solar and, while an N excess is also detected, it is of much smaller amplitude (0.4-0.6 dex). Such an N overabundance is typical of the values already found for other slowly-rotating (magnetic) B-type dwarfs. For θ Car, we attribute instead the chemical peculiarities to a past episode of mass transfer between the two binary components. The results of the search for a magnetic field using FORS 1 at the VLT consisting of 26 measurements over a time span of ~1.2 h are rather inconclusive: only few measurements have a significance level of 3Ï . Although we detect a periodicity of the order of ~8.8 min in the dataset involving the measurements on all hydrogen Balmer lines with the exception of the Hα and Hβ lines, these results have to be confirmed by additional time-resolved magnetic field observations. Based on observations collected with the CORALIE spectrograph attached to the Euler Telescope of the Geneva Observatory located at La Silla (Chile), at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 67.D-0239(A), 072.D-0377(A), 078.D-0080(A) and 278.D-5056(A)), and at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), Argentina. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the nature of the SMC WR/LBV binary HD 5980
Foellmi, C.; Koenigsberger, G.; Georgiev, L. et al

in Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica (2008), 44(1), 3-27

We present the results of optical wavelength observations of the unusual SMC eclipsing binary system HD 5980 obtained in 1999 and 2004-2005. Radial velocity curves for the erupting LBV/WR object (star A ... [more ▼]

We present the results of optical wavelength observations of the unusual SMC eclipsing binary system HD 5980 obtained in 1999 and 2004-2005. Radial velocity curves for the erupting LBV/WR object (star A) and its close WR-like companion (star B) are obtained by deblending the variable emission-line profiles of NIV and NV lines. The derived masses M-A = 58 - 79 M-circle dot and M-B = 51 - 67 M-circle dot, are more consistent with the the stars' location near the top of the HRD than previous estimates. The presence of a wind-wind interaction region is inferred from the orbital phase-dependent behavior of He I P Cygni absorption components. The emission-line intensities continued with the declining trend previously seen in UV spectra. The behavior of the photospheric absorption lines is consistent with the results of Schweickhardt (2000) who concludes that the third object in the combined spectrum, star C, is also a binary system with P-starC similar to 96.5 days, e=0.83. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights into the Quasar Type 1/Type 2 Dichotomy from Correlations between Quasar Host Orientation and Polarization
Borguet, Benoît ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Letawe, Géraldine ULg et al

in Bastien, Pierre (Ed.) Astronomical Polarimetry 2008: Science from Small to Large Telescopes. ASPC 449 (2011, November 01)

We investigate correlations between the direction of the optical linear polarization and the orientation of the host galaxy/extended emission for type 1 and type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. We ... [more ▼]

We investigate correlations between the direction of the optical linear polarization and the orientation of the host galaxy/extended emission for type 1 and type 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. We have used high resolution Hubble Space Telescope data and a deconvolution process to obtain a good determination of the host galaxy/extended emission (EE) position angle. With these new measurements and a compilation of data from the literature, we find a significant correlation, different for type 1 and type 2 objects, between the linear polarization position angle and the orientation of the EE, suggesting scattering by an extended UV/blue region in both types of objects. Our observations support the extension of the Unification Model to the higher luminosity AGNs like the quasars, assuming a two component scattering model. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights into the Regulation and Function of Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase)
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, G. F.

in Trends in Neurosciences (1998), 21(6), 243-9

In the brain, conversion of androgens into estrogens by the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase) is a key mechanism by which testosterone regulates many physiological and behavioral processes, including ... [more ▼]

In the brain, conversion of androgens into estrogens by the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase) is a key mechanism by which testosterone regulates many physiological and behavioral processes, including the activation of male sexual behavior, brain sexual differentiation and negative feedback effects of steroid hormones on gonadotropin secretion. Studies on the distribution and regulation of brain aromatase have led to a new perspective on the control and function of this enzyme. A growing body of evidence indicates that the estrogen regulation of aromatase is, at least in part, trans-synaptic. Afferent catecholamine pathways appear to regulate aromatase activity in some brain areas and thereby provide a way for environmental cues to modulate this enzyme.The localization of aromatase in pre-synaptic boutons suggests possible roles for estrogens at the synapse. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insights into the transformation of carbohydrates into platform chemicals
Richel, Aurore ULg; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg

Poster (2010, October 14)

The synthesis of furanic compounds from carbohydrates has become exciting in chemistry and in catalysis studies, because it represents one of the major routes for achieving sustainable energy supply and ... [more ▼]

The synthesis of furanic compounds from carbohydrates has become exciting in chemistry and in catalysis studies, because it represents one of the major routes for achieving sustainable energy supply and chemicals production.1 In particular, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and 2-furfural (2-F) occupy a pivotal place and are recognised as versatile and multi-functional starting points for the synthesis of a panel of precursors. Microwaves have readily appeared as a powerfull technique for accelerating reaction rates and increasing selectivities in the field of carbohydrate chemistry.3 In particular, their involvment in combination with heterogeneous catalysts have opened new vistas in the production of bio-oxygenated platform chemicals. The state of the art and main outlook of this strategy are reported here. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights into Thymus Physiology
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Scientific conference (2013, November 08)

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See detailNew insights on the role of root radial conductivity on the overall uptake dynamics
Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Javaux, M.; Couvreur, V. et al

Conference (2011)

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See detailNew insights on the role of root radial hydraulic conductivity in the overall water uptake process
Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Draye, X.

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2012), 77(1), 117--122

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See detailNew insights to the pathogenesis of acute pulmonary edema in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction: role of dynamic mitral regurgitation
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Bauer, C.; Stainier, P. Y. et al

in European Heart Journal (2004), 25(Suppl. S), 589

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See detailNew institutional economic theories of non-profits and cooperatives: a critique from an evolutionary perspective
Bauwens, Thomas ULg

E-print/Working paper (2013)

Traditional economic theories of social enterprises rely on new institutional economics. Although these theories have an undeniable explanatory power, they display a series of non-negligible flaws ... [more ▼]

Traditional economic theories of social enterprises rely on new institutional economics. Although these theories have an undeniable explanatory power, they display a series of non-negligible flaws. Evolutionary and complexity approaches in economics may help overcome these limits. The object of this article is, in a first time, to review the different new institutional theories applied to non-profits and cooperatives and, in a second time, to present some criticisms addressed to new institutional economics. We concentrate on two controversial aspects of the latter: on the one hand, its underlying hypotheses about individuals and, in particular, bounded rationality and opportunism; on the other hand, its neglect of the emergent and evolving nature of economic phenomena and of the importance of history and the environment in agents’ institutional choices. For each criticism, we make proposals, mainly inspired by evolutionary and complexity approaches in economics, in order to overcome these limits. [less ▲]

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