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See detailNeurobiological and genetic aspects of alcohol addiction: a special focus on acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

Scientific conference (2007)

Although alcoholism is one of the most common forms of addiction, its neurobiological mechanisms still remain unclear. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the interaction of multiple ... [more ▼]

Although alcoholism is one of the most common forms of addiction, its neurobiological mechanisms still remain unclear. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are mediated by the interaction of multiple neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, endogenous opioids and endocannabinoids. Additionally, long term changes in these neurotransmitter systems are believed to promote the development of alcoholism, probably through specific alterations of brain regions involved in motivation. In humans, it has been clearly demonstrated that alcohol dependence is a genetically heritable disease, at least to some extent. Twin and adoptions studies indicate that 50-60% of the phenotypic variations in alcohol dependence are accounted for by a genetic component. Among the multiple genes that are possibly involved in the development of alcohol dependence and addiction, there is very strong evidence that genes related to the metabolism of ethanol play a major role. For example, genetic polymorphisms in alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes strongly affect alcoholism susceptibility in humans. In recent years, several studies have also provided evidence that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, contributes to alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In rodents such as rats and mice, low doses of brain acetaldehyde induce reinforcing and stimulant effects, although high concentrations of peripheral blood acetaldehyde produce adverse reactions. These results led to the controversial theory that acetaldehyde mediates or at least contributes to the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurobiological bases of suicidality in major depression
Desseilles, Martin ULg; Scwartz, Sophie; Dang Vu, Thanh et al

in World Journal of Biological Psychiatry (2009), 9(Suppl. 1),

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See detailA Neurobiologically Inspired Model of Working Memory Based on Neuronal Synchrony and Rythmicity
Sougné, Jacques ULg; French, R. M.; Bullinaria, J. A. et al

in Proceedings of the Fourth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop: Connectionist Representations (1997)

The connectionist model of reasoning presented here, INFERNET, implements a working memory that is the activated part of long-term memory. This is achieved by making use of temporal properties of the node ... [more ▼]

The connectionist model of reasoning presented here, INFERNET, implements a working memory that is the activated part of long-term memory. This is achieved by making use of temporal properties of the node spikes. A particular solution of the problem of multiple instantiation is proposed. This model makes predictions that have been tested experimentally and the results of these experiments are reported here. These results would seem to challenge modular models of memory. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurobiologie Comportementale de l'éthanol et de l'acétaldéhyde
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Alcoologie (1998), 20(4), 391-391

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See detailNeurobiologie de l'addiction
Scuvée, Jacqueline ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2013), 68(5-6), 211-217

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See detailNeurobiologie de l’impasse. Stress et troubles de l'attachement
Gauthier, Jean-Marie ULg; Sami, Ali; Cady, Sylvie et al

in Entre lâme et le corps, les pathologies humaines (2008)

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See detailNeurobiologie de la dépression
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg

Conference (2010)

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See detailNeurobiologie et pharmacothérapie du trouble obsessionnel-compulsif.
Ansseau, Marc ULg; Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63

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See detailNeuroblastome primitif du système nerveux central
Jamblin, Paul; Collignon, J.; Flandroy, P. et al

in Revue Neurologique (1993), 149

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See detailLes neuroblastomes de l'enfant. A propos de 23 cas.
Piette, Catherine ULg; Dresse, Marie-Françoise ULg; Forget, Patricia ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(3), 173-80

In this retrospective study, we analyse epidemiology, clinical symptoms and therapeutic results in a group of 23 children with neuroblastoma. Half of them were less than 2 years of age; in 19 of 23, the ... [more ▼]

In this retrospective study, we analyse epidemiology, clinical symptoms and therapeutic results in a group of 23 children with neuroblastoma. Half of them were less than 2 years of age; in 19 of 23, the primitive tumour was abdominal; 35% of them were initially metastatic. The overall survival was 83% at 5 years and the event free survival, 75% at 5 years. Pronostic factors are age, extension of the disease at diagnosis, biologic parameters and genetic study of the neuroblast cells (amplification of N-myc oncogen). Our study shows the deleterious effect of bone lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailLa neuroborréliose: quand la tique a piqué
Cuvelier, M.L.; LEONARD, Philippe ULg; RIKIR, Estelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(5-6), 349-353

L’infection à Borrelia burgdorferi est fréquente dans nos régions. Les complications neurologiques de cette infection se rencontrent essentiellement lors de la phase de dissémination précoce et à la phase ... [more ▼]

L’infection à Borrelia burgdorferi est fréquente dans nos régions. Les complications neurologiques de cette infection se rencontrent essentiellement lors de la phase de dissémination précoce et à la phase tardive de l’infection. La neuroborréliose se manifeste surtout par des radiculalgies rebelles au traitement, parfois associées à une neuropathie crânienne, en grande majorité faciale. L’évolution est satisfaisante sous antibiothérapie adaptée. Celle-ci reste nécessaire en dépit du fait que la plupart des complications de la neuroborréliose disparaissent spontanément. Le traitement permet d’éviter la survenue de complications tardives ou de voir apparaître des atteintes extraneurologiques éventuelles. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurochemical and behavioral effects of ethnaol-conditioned stimuli: implication for alcohol consumption
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Cahiers de l'I.R.E.B. (2001), 15

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See detailNeurochemical control of rapid stress-induced changes in brain aromatase activity
Dickens, Molly; Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2013), 25(4), 329-39

In the male brain, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) is known to be a critical relay for the activation of sexual behaviour, with the aromatisation of testosterone into 17b-oestradiol (E2) playing a key ... [more ▼]

In the male brain, the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) is known to be a critical relay for the activation of sexual behaviour, with the aromatisation of testosterone into 17b-oestradiol (E2) playing a key role. Acute stress has been shown to differentially modulate the aromatase enzyme in this and other brain nuclei in a sex-specific manner. In POM specifically, stress induces increases in aromatase activity (AA) that are both rapid and reversible. How the physiological processes initiated during an acute stress response mediate sex- and nuclei- specific changes in AA and which stress response hormones are involved remains to be determined. By examining the relative effects of corticosterone (CORT), arginine vasotocin (AVT, the avian homologue to arginine vasopressin) and corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), the present study aimed to define the hormone profile regulating stress-induced increases in AA in the POM. We found that CORT, AVT and CRF all appear to play some role in these changes in the male brain. In addition, these effects occur in a targeted manner, such that modulation of the enzyme by these hormones only occurs in the POM rather than in all aromatase-expressing nuclei. Similarly, in the female brain, the experimental effects were restricted to the POM but only CRF was capable of inducing the stress-like increases in AA. These data further demonstrate the high degree of specificity (nuclei-, sex- and hormone-specific effects) in this system, highlighting the complexity of the stress–aromatase link and suggesting modes through which the nongenomic modulation of this enzyme can result in targeted, rapid changes in local oestrogen concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurochirurgie et grossesse
EMONTS, Patrick ULg; HENROTEAUX, Adrienne ULg; Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2014, January 15)

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See detailNeurochirurgie et Médecine d'expertise
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2007, March 14)

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See detailNeurochirurgie et Pays en Voie de Développement
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2007, June 27)

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See detailNeurochirurgie pédiatrique
Martin, Didier ULg

Scientific conference (2007, January)

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See detailThe Neurocognitive Underpinnings of Multitasking Capacities in Persons Diagnosed with Schizophrenia
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 10)

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular during multitasking activities. Multitasking refers to activities where the person has ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular during multitasking activities. Multitasking refers to activities where the person has to: carry out and alternate between different tasks that vary in terms of priority, difficulty and duration; define the tasks’ targets; and where the person is faced with unexpected problems during the realization of these tasks (Burgess, 2000). However, the neurocognitive underpinnings of multitasking have never been explored in schizophrenia. Further, only two cognitive models exist in the literature, based on a student sample (Logie et al., 2011) and a neurological sample (Burgess et al., 2000). Both of these models suggest three primary constructs including Memory, Planning and Intent. However, there are several limitations related to the way multitasking was evaluated in these studies. We thus developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting – the Computerized Meeting Preparation Task (CMPT). Using this new task, and based on previous studies (Burgess et al., 2000; Logie et al., 2011), the aim of the present study was to evaluate a new cognitive model of multitasking ability and that takes into account certain cognitive processes that are not integrated in existing models. Fifty-seven individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 41 matched healthy controls completed the CMPT. Participants were also evaluated with a battery of cognitive tests. The results suggest that the CMPT has a good sensitivity. Moreover, structural equation modelling confirmed the three underlying constructs of multitasking (Memory, Planning and Intent) which are underpinned by several cognitive functions and multitasking aspects. Taken together, this new cognitive model and the CMPT could be a good basis for cognitive intervention on multitasking. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurodegenerative and morphogenic changes in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy do not depend on the expression of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, or calretinin.
Bouilleret, V.; Schwaller, B.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg et al

in Neuroscience (2000), 97(1), 47-58

The functional role of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin D-28k for epileptogenesis and long-term seizure-related alterations of the hippocampal formation was assessed in ... [more ▼]

The functional role of the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin D-28k for epileptogenesis and long-term seizure-related alterations of the hippocampal formation was assessed in single- and double-knockout mice, using a kainate model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. The effects of a unilateral intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid were assessed at one day, 30 days, and four months post-injection, using various markers of GABAergic interneurons (GABA-transporter type 1, GABA(A)-receptor alpha1 subunit, calretinin, calbindin D-28k, somatostatin, and neuropeptide Y). Parvalbumin-deficient, parvalbumin/calbindin-deficient, and parvalbumin/calretinin-deficient mice exhibited no difference in cytoarchitecture of the hippocampal formation and in the number, distribution, or morphology of interneurons compared to wild-type mice. Likewise, mutant mice were not more vulnerable to acute kainate-induced excitotoxicity or to long-term effects of recurrent focal seizures, and exhibited the same pattern of neurochemical alterations (e.g., bilateral induction of neuropeptide Y in granule cells) and morphogenic changes (enlargement and dispersion of dentate gyrus granule cells) as wild-type animals. Quantification of interneurons revealed no significant difference in neuronal vulnerability among the genotypes.These results indicate that the calcium-binding proteins investigated here are not essential for determining the neurochemical phenotype of interneurons. Furthermore, they are not protective against kainate-induced excitotoxicity in this model, and do not appear to modulate the overall level of excitability of the hippocampus. Finally, seizure-induced changes in gene expression in granule cells, which normally express high levels of calcium-binding proteins, apparently were not affected by the gene deletions analysed [less ▲]

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See detailNeurodevelopmental outcome related to cerebral risk factors in children after neonatal arterial switch operation.
Hovels-Gurich, H. H.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Sigler, M. D. et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2001), 71(3), 881-8

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries is an important topic needing prospective assessment. METHODS: A group of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental outcome after neonatal arterial switch operation for complete transposition of the great arteries is an important topic needing prospective assessment. METHODS: A group of 33 unselected children (3.0 to 4.6 years) operated on as neonates with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low flow cardiopulmonary bypass and a control group of 32 age-matched healthy children (3.0 to 4.8 years) underwent evaluation of socioeconomic and clinical neurological status and a standardized test comprising all areas of child development. Results of patients were related to those of the control group, to population norms, and to preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative cerebral risk factors. RESULTS: Clinical neurological status was normal in 26 patients (78.8%) and reduced in 7 (21.2%). Complete developmental score and the subscores for motor function, visual perception, learning and memory, cognitive function, language, and socioemotional functions were not different compared to population norms. Compared to the patients, the children of the control group scored higher on tests of complete development, cognition, and language, but also on socioeconomic status. Complete developmental score and the scores for motor, cognitive, and language functions were weakly inversely related to the duration of circulatory arrest, but not to the duration of bypass. Cerebral risk factors such as serum levels of the neuron-specific enolase, perinatal acidosis, perinatal asphyxia, peri- and postoperative cardiocirculatory insufficiency, or clinical seizures were not correlated to the test results. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal arterial switch operation with combined circulatory arrest and low flow bypass is associated with neurological impairment, but not with reduced development as assessed by formal testing of motor, cognitive, language, and behavioral functions. Perioperative serum level of the neuron-specific enolase is not a valid marker for later developmental impairment. [less ▲]

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