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See detailNerves’ impact on voice of 26 students in a music exam situation.
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Ficarrotta, Eva

Conference (2010, July 17)

The manifestations of the nerves are physical, cognitive and behavioural. They vary according to the genre, the task and the public. According to the literature, many vocal parameters are influenced by ... [more ▼]

The manifestations of the nerves are physical, cognitive and behavioural. They vary according to the genre, the task and the public. According to the literature, many vocal parameters are influenced by the exam nerves. Our goal is to study the manifestations of the nerves in 26 students (10 men and 16 women, mean age: 33.3 y) during their musical examination. They sang a score “a cappella”. We recorded the musical performance 4 months before examination (T1), the day before (T2) and the examination's day (T3). Each student evaluated his global degree of nervousness, filled in the Cungi’s scales (stress scale) and explained his strategy of coping. 2 expert judges noted the students at the T3. A speech therapist also evaluated them on the basis of 4 objective criteria. Moreover, we measured the frequency parameters, jitter, intensity, duration and HNR with Praat. The comparison of the results at each time shows that the men and the women obtain results significantly higher at T3 for their degrees of nervousness and their level of intensity. In the same way, the note evaluated by the judges for the whole of the subjects is correlated with that of the speech therapist (rho: 0.71; 0.79). For the women at T3, we observe five positive correlations and one negative. The more the women evaluate their degree of stress strongly, the more judge n°2 evaluates it strongly (rho: 0.84). The more the scores on the scales of Cungi are high, the higher are the degrees of perfectionism (rho: 0.87; 0.81; 0.57). Both judges evaluated the exam nerves in the same way (rho: 0.59). The longer the execution time of the musical score, the more the evaluations by the speech therapist and both judges are weak (rho: -0.69). For the men at T3, we observe six positive correlations and two negative. The more the men have a high degree of nervousness, the higher the judges evaluated exam nerves, the higher level of Cungi scores the more the degree of perfectionism is high (rho: 0.69; 0.65; 0.72; 0.68). The more the jitter increases, the more the perception of the exam nerves by judge n°2 is high (rho: 0.68). The more the HNR increased, the more the degree of exam nerves evaluated by the judges is important (rho: 0.71) and the more the note of the speech pathologist is weak (rho: -0.71). The higher the jitter is, the weaker are the notes of the judges and of the speech pathologist (rho: -0.78; -0.79). 17 students, including only one man, employed strategies of coping to decrease their nerves: 73% a coping cognitive behavioural and 16% a medical strategy. In our study, the nerves affect the men and the women differently. The management of the nerves is an interesting topic to study in order to contribute to the development of coping strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailNervous system injury: focus on the inflammatory cytokine 'granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor'
Franzen, Rachelle ULg; Bouhy, D.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Neuroscience Letters (2004), 361(1-3), 76-78

Any lesion in the nervous system, be it infectious, immunopathological, ischemic or traumatic, is followed by an inflammatory process that induces rapid activation of glial cells and additional ... [more ▼]

Any lesion in the nervous system, be it infectious, immunopathological, ischemic or traumatic, is followed by an inflammatory process that induces rapid activation of glial cells and additional recruitment of granulocytes, T-cells and monocytes/macrophages from the blood stream. Neuroinflammation is a double-sided sword. It can cause neuronal damage and participate in neuropathic pain, but it also has neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects at some stages. Cytokines are the main molecular actors of this 'network of inflammation'. Among them, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pro-inflammatory hematopoietic cytokine widely used in haematological disorders to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of neutrophilic, eosinophilic and monocytic lineages. GM-CSF and its receptor are expressed in the brain and the cytokine can cross the blood-brain barrier. It is thus likely to affect various nervous system functions. This review will focus on the role of GM-CSF in nervous system disorders and their experimental models with particular emphasis on its possible beneficial effect on axonal regeneration after PNS and CNS injury. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNESCAV - Premiers résultats
Streel, Sylvie ULg; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Hoge, Axelle ULg et al

Conference (2011, December 02)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailNescio als 'Animal Metaphysicum'
Yans, Baudoin ULg

in Spiegel der Letteren (1994), (1), 45-62

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See detailNest grouping patterns of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in relation to fruit availability in a forest-savannah mosaic
Serckx, Adeline ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Bastin, Jean-François ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the ... [more ▼]

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits across their habitat range, in order to make accurate inter-species comparisons. In this study we investigated bonobo social cohesiveness at nesting sites depending on fruit availability in the forest-savannah mosaic of western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a bonobo habitat which has received little attention from researchers and is characterized by high food resource variation within years. We collected data on two bonobo communities. Nest counts at nesting sites were used as a proxy for night grouping patterns and were analysed with regard to fruit availability. We also modelled bonobo population density at the site in order to investigate yearly variation. We found that one community density varied across the three years of surveys, suggesting that this bonobo community has significant variability in use of its home range. This finding highlights the importance of forest connectivity, a likely prerequisite for the ability of bonobos to adapt their ranging patterns to fruit availability changes. We found no influence of overall fruit availability on bonobo cohesiveness. Only fruit availability at the nesting sites showed a positive influence, indicating that bonobos favour food ‘hot spots’ as sleeping sites. Our findings have confirmed the results obtained from previous studies carried out in the dense tropical forests of DRC. Nevertheless, in order to clarify the impact of environmental variability on bonobo social cohesiveness, we will need to make direct observations of the apes in the forest-savannah mosaic as well as make comparisons across the entirety of the bonobos’ range using systematic methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailA nested model of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela): description of the basin’s interior hydrography and interactions with the open ocean
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Weisberg, Robert H.

in Ocean Dynamics (2009), 59(1), 97-120

A high-resolution (1/60°), three-dimensional numerical circulation model of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) is constructed by nesting the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in the 1/12° global Hybrid ... [more ▼]

A high-resolution (1/60°), three-dimensional numerical circulation model of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) is constructed by nesting the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) in the 1/12° global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). A new bathymetry, computed by merging DBDB2 data and in situ depth measurements using optimal interpolation, is described. This new bathymetry corrects the depth of the channels that connect the Cariaco Basin with the open ocean and which play a very important role in the basin circulation. Results from a 2004 ROMS hindcast are presented. Observations (temperature, salinity, and currents) are used to validate the model results before using the model to describe the annual cycle of the Cariaco Basin and the interactions between the basin and the open ocean. Two modes of interaction are described, the first being the meanders and eddies that travel westward with the Caribbean Current, and the second being a subsurface eastward current that flows along the north coast of South America. The circulation path within the basin is directly related to the intensity of this current. Both mechanisms described play a role in the ventilation of the basin. The present study is also an example of the feasibility of one of the objectives of GODAE (Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment): downscaling from a large-scale model to a regional model. In particular, the nesting ratio of 5 used in this work demonstrates that a high-resolution model can be successfully nested in HYCOM. [less ▲]

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See detailA Nested Model of the Cariaco Basin: Study of the Hydrography and Interactions with the Open Ocean
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Virmani, J. I. et al

Conference (2007)

The circulation of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) is modeled using the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) nested in the global 1/12 degree Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The objective of this work ... [more ▼]

The circulation of the Cariaco Basin (Venezuela) is modeled using the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) nested in the global 1/12 degree Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The objective of this work is to obtain a better understanding of the Cariaco Basin circulation by studying the processes that link the basin with the Caribbean Sea. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to model the circulation in the Cariaco Basin with a nested high resolution hydrodynamical model. In particular, we examined the interaction of the Cariaco Basin with the large-scale, open-ocean processes, as the westward Caribbean Current and the eastward subsurface counter-current flowing along the South America Caribbean coast. These two current systems connect the Cariaco Basin with the Caribbean Sea waters, and therefore are directly related to the ventilation of the basin. By studying the kinematics and dynamics of the Cariaco Basin we anticipate gaining a better understanding on how the past conditions affected the basin characteristics and hence the geological records obtained from the basin sediments. We will report on several years of observations from the continuous monitoring of currents within the basin, plus analyses of year-long model runs that provide a basin-wide, three-dimensional context for the circulation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Nested Model of the West Florida Shelf: Assimilation of High-Frequency Radar Currents and study of Loop Current generated flow
Barth, Alexander ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Zheng, L. et al

Conference (2008)

High-Frequency Radar Currents are assimilated in a West Florida Shelf (WFS) model based on the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) which is nested in the Atlantic Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to ... [more ▼]

High-Frequency Radar Currents are assimilated in a West Florida Shelf (WFS) model based on the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) which is nested in the Atlantic Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) to include both local and deep-ocean forcing, particularly the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC). An ensemble simulation of the WFS ROMS model is carried out under different wind forcings in order to estimate the error covariance of the model state vector and the covariance between ocean currents and winds. Radial currents measured by HF-Radar antennas near St. Petersburg and Venice, FL, are assimilated using this ensemble-based error covariance. Different assimilation techniques using a time-average ensemble, a filter to reduce surface-gravity waves and an extended state vector including wind stress were tested. Results of WFS ROMS model assimilating surface currents show an improvement of the model currents not only at the surface but also at depth. The LC is a highly unstable current which generates large anticyclones traveling to the West but also a series of smaller anticyclones and filaments moving to the East and affecting the West Florida shelf. An additional tracer is included in the model simulation to track the presence of LC water. With this tracer, the total amount of LC water reaching the shelf and its mechanism is studied. [less ▲]

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See detailA nested model study of the Loop Current generated variability and its impact on the West Florida Shelf
Barth, Alexander ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Weisberg, R. H.

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans (2008), 113(C5),

A West Florida Shelf model based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is nested in the North Atlantic Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (NAT HYCOM). The focus of this work is the study of the impact ... [more ▼]

A West Florida Shelf model based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is nested in the North Atlantic Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (NAT HYCOM). The focus of this work is the study of the impact of the Loop Current on the West Florida Shelf. In order to assess the model's accuracy, it is compared quantitatively to in situ temperature and velocity measurements on the shelf. A series of sensitivity experiments are conducted to determine the appropriate wind forcing, sea surface temperature relaxation, and mixing scheme. By the inclusion of the Loop Current, we are able to study the propagation of an anticyclonic vortex detaching from the Loop Current. We found that the ambient gradient of potential vorticity is able to explain the vortex path and speed. The statistics of such Loop Current generated flow features were examined by including a tracer marking Loop Current water. This allows to track the Loop Current water on the West Florida Shelf and to quantify the amount of Loop Current water reaching the shelf. [less ▲]

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See detailA nested-grid model with data assimilation in the Gulf of Lions
Vandenbulcke, Luc ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg et al

Conference (2004, April)

When a model combines the use of nested grids and data assimilation, a preliminary, simple, 1D test case showed the interest of combining the different state vectors coming from the different grids, into ... [more ▼]

When a model combines the use of nested grids and data assimilation, a preliminary, simple, 1D test case showed the interest of combining the different state vectors coming from the different grids, into one single vector, and using global error matrices covering all the grids at once. In this case, the assimilation procedure provides errorspace feedback from the fine grid to the coarser grid, which proves to be even more important than the statevector feedback. For data located in the fine grid, assimilation of the same data in the coarse grids is not necessary anymore, as both model and errorspace feedback is performed during assimilation. Large data transfers from local to basin-scale models can be avoided. The GHER hydrodynamic model (for a full description, see e.g. [1]) is applied to a three times nested model covering (a) the Mediterrannean Sea at 1/4 degree, (b) the Liguro-Provencal Bassin at 1/20 degree, and (c) the Gulf of Lions at 1/100 degree. The simulation starts on Januari 1st, 1998, using ECMWF atmospheric forcings and MODB4/MEDAR climatic data. As the model allows mode splitting, the simulation uses 2D timesteps of 3 seconds, and 3D timesteps of 3 minutes, on each grid. A twin experiment is performed. The perturbed initial condition is a delayed model state of the reference run. An initial reduced-rank model errorspace is constructed from 20 EOFs, themselves built from the reference run, over all three grids at the same time. Surface temperature and salinity from the reference run are assimilated in the model every 24 hours, using reduced-rank optimal interpolation (see [2]). Different simulations are implemented, using different ways to combine grid nesting and data assimilation: with or without state vector feedback, with data assimilation only in the local grid, or in the coarser grids, or both, and with or without errorspace feedback (i.e. with 3 separated statevectors or with one global statevector). The comparison of those experiments comfirms that using one global statevector reduces the error in the coarser grids much faster. The effect of data assimilation, and the performances of the different methods, can be examined by calculating RMS errors between the perturbed runs and the reference run. They can also be observed by following the model state trajectory in the EOFspace (for example, using the first three EOFs). In the context of the twin experiment described above, the first assimilation cycle clearly brings the model back in time. This is consistent with the choice of the perturbed initial conditions, being a delayed state of the reference run. The following assimilation cycles have little effect, as the trajectory is already almost brought back on the reference trajectory. If other parameters are modified too (e.g. the atmospheric fluxes), each assimilation cycle has an important effect on the modelstate trajectory. A new experiment performs assimilation in the Gulf of Lions in the spring of 1998 using real observations. Different variables can be assimilated, using data collected during the FETCH campaign: NOAA/AVHRR SST, temperature and salinity from Atalante CTDs, or altimetric data from the ERS2 or TOPEX satellites. [less ▲]

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See detailNestin expression in cultivated mesenchymal stem cells: Regulation and potential role in their neural differentiation
Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine ULg; Leprince, Pierre ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Glia (2002, May), (Suppl. 1), 87

Bone marrow stromal cells can differentiate into many types of mesenchymal cells, i.e. osteocyte, chondrocyte, fibroblast and adipocyte, but can also differentiate into non-mesenchymal cell, i.e. neural ... [more ▼]

Bone marrow stromal cells can differentiate into many types of mesenchymal cells, i.e. osteocyte, chondrocyte, fibroblast and adipocyte, but can also differentiate into non-mesenchymal cell, i.e. neural cells in appropriate in vivo experimental conditions (Kopen and al.,PNAS,96, 10711,1999, Brazelton and al, Science, 290,1175, 2000, Mezey and al, Science, 290,1179, 2000). In neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, auto-transplantation of neural cell types derived from mesenchymal stem cells offers the potential of replacing lost cells and recovering lost functions. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein predominantly expressed by neural stem cells and is used to identify neural progenitor. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC) can express nestin in appropriate conditions. Two factors contribute to the regulation of nestin expression by rMSC : 1) the presence of serum-derived components in the culture medium which repress nestin expression and 2) the cell’s number of passages. LPA and thrombin mimic this serum effect. Furthermore, when nestin- positive cells are trypsinized and resuspended into culture conditions used for neural stem cells (NSC), sphere formation is observed. Likewise, by co-cultivating nestin-positive rMSC with NSC derived from green mouse, heterogenous spheres were obtained. When those heterogenous spheres are placed on polyornithine-coated surfaces, a differentiation of some rMSC into GFAP-positive cells occurs. These results indicate that nestin expression might be a pre-requisite for the acquisition by rMSC of the capacity to differentiate into some neural cell types. [less ▲]

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See detailNestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells by releasing active BMP4.
Wislet-Gendebien, Sabine ULg; Bruyere, Françoise ULg; Hans, Grégory ULg et al

in BMC Neuroscience (2004), 5

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much interest as potential treatment for patients with CNS lesions. Several types of cells have been considered as candidates for such cell transplantation and replacement therapies. Foetal brain tissue has already been shown to have significant effects in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical use of the foetal brain tissue is, however, limited by ethical and technical problems as it requires high numbers of grafted foetal cells and immunosuppression. Alternatively, several reports suggested that mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells and could be used in autograft approach for replacement therapies. RESULTS: In this study, we addressed the question of the possible influence of mesenchymal stem cells on neural stem cell fate. We have previously reported that adult rat mesenchymal stem cells are able to express nestin in defined culture conditions (in the absence of serum and after 25 cell population doublings) and we report here that nestin-positive (but not nestin-negative) mesenchymal stem cells are able to favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells cultivated from embryonic striatum. The increase of the number of GFAP-positive cells is associated with a significant decrease of the number of Tuj1- and O4-positive cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells express LIF, CNTF, BMP2 and BMP4 mRNAs, four cytokines known to play a role in astroglial fate decision. In this model, BMP4 is responsible for the astroglial stimulation and oligodendroglial inhibition, as 1) this cytokine is present in a biologically-active form only in nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium and 2) anti-BMP4 antibodies inhibit the nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium inducing effect on astrogliogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: When thinking carefully about mesenchymal stem cells as candidates for cellular therapy in neurological diseases, their effects on resident neural cell fate have to be considered. [less ▲]

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See detailNéstor Ponce. Memorias y cicatrices.
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Caravelle : Cahiers du Monde Hispanique et Luso-Bresilien (2012), 99

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See detailThe net biome production of full crop rotations in Europe
Kutsch, W. L.; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Buchmann, N. et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2010), 139

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See detailNet ecosystem metabolism in a micro-tidal estuary (Randers Fjord, Denmark): evaluation of methods
Gazeau, Frédéric; Borges, Alberto ULg; Barrón, Cristina et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2005), 301

The metabolic status, the difference between organic matter production and consumption of an estuary (Randers Fjord, Denmark) has been assessed based on 2 field cruises in April and August 2001 and a ... [more ▼]

The metabolic status, the difference between organic matter production and consumption of an estuary (Randers Fjord, Denmark) has been assessed based on 2 field cruises in April and August 2001 and a number of approaches: (1) the oxygen (02) incubation method, (2) dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) budgets, (3) the response surface difference (RSD) method based on diel O-2 changes and (4) land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone (LOICZ) budgets based on dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP). Although each method has its own associated limitations and uncertainties, the above approaches converged most of the time in consistent metabolic estimates, both in sign and magnitude, and revealed that this system was near metabolic balance in spring (net ecosystem production: NEP similar to 0) and net heterotrophic in summer (NEP similar to -50 mmol C m(-2) d(-1)). In this shallow estuary (mean depth = 1.6 m), the benthic compartment was very active and represented 70 and 30% of the total gross primary production in April and August, respectively. NEP rates measured during this study are in the range of previously reported rates in estuaries. [less ▲]

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See detailNet ecosystem production and carbon dioxide fluxes in the Scheldt estuarine plume
Borges, Alberto ULg; Ruddick, Kevin; Schiettecatte, Laure-Sophie et al

in BMC Ecology (2008), 8(15),

Background A time series of 4 consecutive years of measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Scheldt estuarine plume is used here to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP). Results NEP in ... [more ▼]

Background A time series of 4 consecutive years of measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the Scheldt estuarine plume is used here to estimate net ecosystem production (NEP). Results NEP in the Scheldt estuarine plume is estimated from the temporal changes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The strong seasonal variations of NEP are consistent with previous reports on organic carbon dynamics in the area. These variations are related to successive phytoplankton blooms that partly feed seasonally variable heterotrophy the rest of the year. On an annual time scale the Scheldt estuarine plume behaves as a net heterotrophic system sustained with organic carbon input from the Scheldt inner estuary and the Belgian coast. During one of the years of the time-series the estuarine plume behaved annually as a net autotrophic system. This anomalous ecosystem metabolic behaviour seemed to result from a combination of bottom-up factors affecting the spring phytoplankton bloom (increased nutrient delivery and more favourable incoming light conditions). This net autotrophy seemed to lead to a transient aa accumulation of organic carbon, most probably in the sediments, that fed a stronger heterotrophy the following year. Conclusion The present work highlights the potential of using pCO2 data to derive detailed seasonal estimates of NEP in highly dynamic coastal environments. These can be used to determine potential inter-annual variability of NEP due to natural climatic oscillations or due to changes in anthropogenic impacts. [less ▲]

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See detailNet zero energy building: a review of current definitions and definition development in Belgium
Attia, Shady ULg; Mlecnik, Erwin; Van Loon, Stefan

in Proceedings of Passive House 2011 (2011, October 07)

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ... [more ▼]

The recast of the European Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires the uptake of a definition of so called ‘nearly zero energy’ buildings (nZEB). Belgium was first to set a definition for a ‘net zero energy house’ (NZEB) in 2009. Every year the definition is revised for consistency with shortcomings and emerging issues. The Belgian definition raised many questions regarding (1) the net balance, (2) the application and calculation method (3) the indoor air quality and comfort, (4) energy use included in the balance, (5) the type of buildings, (6) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (7) the quality assurance and monitoring and (8) energy storage and the connection to the energy infrastructure. Therefore, the paper presents a review on the current Belgian definition and its market status in comparison with the international context. The aim of the paper is to review current definition discussions and pave the way to a more consistent definition. [less ▲]

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