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See detailInfiniment petits en économie
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente, l'aventure mathématique (2014), 156

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans ... [more ▼]

Depuis la création de l'analyse mathématique, principalement par Newton et Leibniz, les économistes ont découvert qu'ils pouvaient exploiter avec succès le concept mathématique d'infiniment petit dans leurs raisonnements. Dans cet article est donné un aperçu des premières apparitions de l'analyse infinitésimale en économie. [less ▲]

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See detailLes infiniment petits selon Fermat : prémisses de la notion de dérivée
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Moatti, Alexandre (Ed.) Regards sur les textes fondateurs de la science, volume I, de l'écriture au calcul - théorie des nombres (2010)

Il s'agit de l'analyse d'un texte original de Fermat, avec un regard contemporain. Il y est mis en évidence l'aspect novateur de l'auteur qui peut-être considéré comme un précurseur de l'analyse ... [more ▼]

Il s'agit de l'analyse d'un texte original de Fermat, avec un regard contemporain. Il y est mis en évidence l'aspect novateur de l'auteur qui peut-être considéré comme un précurseur de l'analyse mathématique, et spécialement de son approche non standard [less ▲]

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See detailLes infiniment petits selon Fermat : prémisses de la notion de dérivée
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

E-print/Working paper (2008)

Il s'agit d'une analyse, à la lumière des développements récents de l'analyse non standard, du texte original de Pierre de Fermat (1601 - 1665), présentant sa célèbre "Méthode pour la recherche de minimum ... [more ▼]

Il s'agit d'une analyse, à la lumière des développements récents de l'analyse non standard, du texte original de Pierre de Fermat (1601 - 1665), présentant sa célèbre "Méthode pour la recherche de minimum et de maximum". [less ▲]

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See detailInfinite Depth: du Movie Ride à la 3D relief, l'expérience de la profondeur.
Thonon, Jonathan ULg

Conference (2013, November 10)

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See detailInfinite self-shuffling words
Charlier, Emilie ULg; Kamae, Teturo; Puzynina, Svetlana et al

in Journal of Combinatorial Theory - Series A (2014), 128

In this paper we introduce and study a new property of infinite words: An infinite word x, with values in a finite set A, is said to be k-self-shuffling (k≥2) if there exists a shuffle of k copies of x ... [more ▼]

In this paper we introduce and study a new property of infinite words: An infinite word x, with values in a finite set A, is said to be k-self-shuffling (k≥2) if there exists a shuffle of k copies of x which produces x. We are particularly interested in the case k=2, in which case we say x is self-shuffling. This property of infinite words is shown to be independent of the complexity of the word as measured by the number of distinct factors of each length. Examples exist from bounded to full complexity. It is also an intrinsic property of the word and not of its language (set of factors). For instance, every aperiodic word contains a non-self-shuffling word in its shift orbit closure. While the property of being self-shuffling is a relatively strong condition, many important words arising in the area of symbolic dynamics are verified to be self-shuffling. They include for instance the Thue–Morse word fixed by the morphism 0↦01, 1↦10. As another example we show that all Sturmian words of intercept 0<ρ<1 are self-shuffling (while those of intercept ρ=0 are not). Our characterization of self-shuffling Sturmian words can be interpreted arithmetically in terms of a dynamical embedding and defines an arithmetic process we call the stepping stone model. One important feature of self-shuffling words stems from their morphic invariance: The morphic image of a self-shuffling word is self-shuffling. This provides a useful tool for showing that one word is not the morphic image of another. In addition to its morphic invariance, this new notion has other unexpected applications particularly in the area of substitutive dynamical systems. For example, as a consequence of our characterization of self-shuffling Sturmian words, we recover a number theoretic result, originally due to Yasutomi, on a classification of pure morphic Sturmian words in the orbit of the characteristic. [less ▲]

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See detailLes infinitésimaux pour l'analyse
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Bibliothèque Tangente HS (2013), 49

Les créateurs de l’analyse mathématique, tels que Newton, exploitaient déjà des quantités qui, élevées au carré, deviennent négligeables. Leurs raisonnements étaient toutefois critiquables, notamment ... [more ▼]

Les créateurs de l’analyse mathématique, tels que Newton, exploitaient déjà des quantités qui, élevées au carré, deviennent négligeables. Leurs raisonnements étaient toutefois critiquables, notamment parce qu’il semble a priori impossible que le carré d’un nombre non nul soit égal à 0. Depuis lors, des progrès ont été accomplis et il est devenu possible d’exploiter l’idée intuitive et efficace des anciens tout en restant cohérent et rigoureux. Nous présentons succinctement la théorie moderne de la SIA (Smooth Infinitesimal Analysis) : elle s’inscrit dans cette direction. [less ▲]

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See detailL’infirmier responsable de soins généraux en Belgique, perspective et défis
Dury, Cécile ULg

in Soins Cadres (2016), 98(Vol 25), 55-60

La formation de l’infirmier responsable de soins généraux est en cours de réforme en Belgique pour répondre aux exigences européennes. Il existe un paradoxe de deux niveaux d’enseignement très différents ... [more ▼]

La formation de l’infirmier responsable de soins généraux est en cours de réforme en Belgique pour répondre aux exigences européennes. Il existe un paradoxe de deux niveaux d’enseignement très différents conduisant à un même titre professionnel, dans un cadre institutionnel complexe. La formation relevant de l’enseignement supérieur dans la partie francophone est décrite, et plus spécifiquement son mécanisme de financement, le principe d’autonomie des Hautes Écoles et l’évolution du programme de formation. [less ▲]

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See detailInfix
Münzberg, Franziska ULg

in Schierholz, Stefan J.; Dürscheid, Christa (Eds.) Grammatik - Formenlehre (2014)

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See detailInflammasome NLRP3 et graisse viscerale.
ESSER, Nathalie ULg; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Revue medicale de Liege (2014), 69 Spec No

It is recognized that abdominal obesity is accompanied by a chronic low-grade inflammation that is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome and type 2 ... [more ▼]

It is recognized that abdominal obesity is accompanied by a chronic low-grade inflammation that is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with an abnormal production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, an increased level of acute-phase proteins and an activation of inflammatory signalling pathways. These pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly produced by adipose tissue macrophages, are involved in development of obesity-associated insulin resistance and in the progression from obesity to type 2 diabetes. Particularly, the interleukin-1 beta may play a key role through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Adipose tissue topography, more than the total amount of fat, may play an important pathogenic role. Indeed, the presence of metabolic abnormalities in obesity is associated with a deleterious immunological and inflammatory profile of visceral adipose tissue and with an increased activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages infiltrating visceral adipose tissue. Targeting inflammation, especially NLRP3 inflammasome, may offer potential novel therapeutic perspectives in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammation as a link between obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes
ESSER, Nathalie ULg; Legrand, Sylvie ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg et al

in Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice (2014)

It is recognized that a chronic low-grade inflammation and an activation of the immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Systemic ... [more ▼]

It is recognized that a chronic low-grade inflammation and an activation of the immune system are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Systemic inflammatory markers are risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and its macrovascular complications. Adipose tissue, liver, muscle and pancreas are themselves sites of inflammation in presence of obesity. An infiltration of macrophages and other immune cells is observed in these tissues associated with a cell population shift from an anti-inflammatory to a pro-inflammatory profile. These cells are crucial for the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which act in an autocrine and paracrine manner to interfere with insulin signaling in peripheral tissues or induce β-cell dysfunction and subsequent insulin deficiency. Particularly, the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The objectives of this review are to expose recent data supporting the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and to examine various mechanisms underlying this relationship. If type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease, anti-inflammarory therapies could have a place in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammation as the key link between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cancer.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

Conference (2012, April 23)

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See detailInflammation des voies respiratoires chez les équidés
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg

in Proceedings : Congrès de l'Association Vétérinaire Equine Française (AVEF) "Médecine & Chirurgie au quotidien" (2001)

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See detailInflammation et alimentation: des pistes intéressantes
Knapp, Emilie ULg; Guyot, Hugues ULg

in SNGTV (Ed.) Journées Nationales des GTV: Nutrition et pratique vétérinaire, du b.a.-ba à l'innonvation (2016, May)

Les processus inflammatoires sont déclenchés lors d'une agression et font partie intégrante du système immunitaire. La problématique réside lorsque ces processus inflammatoires ne sont plus contrôlés et ... [more ▼]

Les processus inflammatoires sont déclenchés lors d'une agression et font partie intégrante du système immunitaire. La problématique réside lorsque ces processus inflammatoires ne sont plus contrôlés et provoquent plus de lésions que l'agression elle-même. Cette inadéquation des réactions inflammatoires aggravent souvent des pathologies comme les mammites, les métrites ou les pathologies métaboliques. La quantité et la qualité de l'alimentation, ainsi que le statut métabolique sont des points majeurs de régulation du système inflammatoire. En effet, de nombreuses molécules intervenant dans l'inflammation sont des protéines synthétisées par le foie ou sont dérivés des acides gras alimentaires. En début de lactation, la mobilisation graisseuse et les corps cétoniques ont une action directe sur l'activité inflammatoire ce qui expliquent l'état de stress oxydatif, la chute d'immunité ainsi que l'état pro-inflammatoire des vaches en post-partum. La digestion ruminale et intestinale des hydrates de carbone et des protéines peuvent également provoquer et réguler l'état inflammatoire systémique du ruminant. L'acidose chronique en est un exemple, cependant, l'alcalose et la mal-digestion des fibres peuvent également provoquer de l'inflammation. En pratique, il existe des paramètres qui permettent d'évaluer l'inflammation d'un animal et d'un troupeau. A l'aide d'une prise de sang et de dosage des protéines totales plasmatiques et sériques on pourra facilement et à des coûts limités, mesurer la présence d'inflammation aiguë ou chronique. La présence d'inflammation chronique est un facteur de risque sous-jacent important dans nos troupeaux de vaches laitières puisqu'il concerne environ 25% des troupeaux qui ont présenté des problèmes de défaut d’efficience alimentaire. Dans les troupeaux avec des signes cliniques de type amaigrissement, sous-production, mal-digestion des fibres et inflammation chronique, l'acidose chronique n'a été diagnostiquée que sur 5% des vaches alors que l'inactivité ruminale a été montrée sur 40% des animaux. Cette inactivité est souvent liée à un déficit en matière organique fermentescible couplée avec un excès de protéines fermentescible ce qui entraine des pH élevés et diminue la multiplication de la flore du rumen. L'analyse du jus de rumen, couplée avec celle des protéines totales permet dans la plupart des cas de poser un diagnostic et de discriminer les cas de SARA des cas de maldigestion et adapter correctement la ration. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammation et atherosclerose: etat de la question en 2004-2005
Gach, Olivier ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg; Legrand, Victor ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(4), 235-41

Inflammation plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis; being present in all steps of the pathology, from initiation to the progression of the lesions to the development of vulnerable plaques and clinical ... [more ▼]

Inflammation plays a pivotal role in atherosclerosis; being present in all steps of the pathology, from initiation to the progression of the lesions to the development of vulnerable plaques and clinical destabilisation. Therefore, systemic markers of inflammation have emerged to predict future cardiovascular events in patients initially admitted for unstable syndromes, but also in healthy subjects. These markers can identify high risk patients and they are used to adapt ideal treatment to the patient's profile. The implication of the inflammation process in the treatment strategies is described in the last part of the article. [less ▲]

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See detailL’inflammation induite par les acides gras libres
L'Homme, Laurent ULg

Conference (2012, April 19)

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See detailL’inflammation subclinique des petites voies respiratoires est associée à une perturbation de la fonction pulmonaire évaluée par oscillométrie à impulsions
RicharD, E.; Fortier, G.; Dupuis, M. C. et al

in 36èmes Journées AVEF (2008)

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See detailInflammatory Effect of Intratracheal Instillation of Ultrafine Particles in the Rabbit: Role of C-Fiber and Mast Cells
Nemmar, A.; Delaunois, Annie ULg; Nemery, B. et al

in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (1999), 160(3), 250-61

The effects of ultrafine polystyrene carboxylate-modified (fluorospheres) on inflammatory processes are being investigated in rabbit lungs. One milliliter of sterile NaCl (0.9%) containing 4 mg of ... [more ▼]

The effects of ultrafine polystyrene carboxylate-modified (fluorospheres) on inflammatory processes are being investigated in rabbit lungs. One milliliter of sterile NaCl (0.9%) containing 4 mg of ultrafine particles (UFP) was intratracheally instilled into anesthetized rabbits. The control animals were only instilled with sterile NaCl (0.9%). Twenty hours after being instilled, the rabbits were killed and their lungs were excised and then tracheally perfused with phosphate-buffered physiological solution (PBS). The lung effluents, collected from small holes made in the pleura, were analyzed for substance P (SP) and histamine content by radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods, after administration of drugs. In addition, in other groups of rabbits, the lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio was monitored, as were the cellular and protein contents in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Electron microscopy examination was also performed. In tracheally superfused experiments, UFP induced a significant enhancement of both SP and histamine releases after administration of capsaicin (10(-4) M), to stimulate C-fiber, and carbachol (10(-4) M), a cholinergic agonist. A significant increase in histamine release was also recorded in the UFP-instilled group following the administration of both SP (10(-6) M) plus thiorphan (10(-5) M) and compound 48/80 (C48/80) (10(-3) M) to stimulate mast cells. In addition, the BAL fluid analysis of UFP groups showed an influx of neutrophils and an increase in total protein concentration. An increase in the lung WW/DW ratio was also recorded. Both epithelial and endothelial injuries were observed in the lungs of UFP-instilled rabbits. The pretreatment of rabbits in vivo with a mixture of either SR 140333 and SR 48368, a tachykinin NK(1) and NK(2) receptor antagonist, or a mixture of terfenadine and cimetidine, a histamine H(1) and H(2) receptor antagonist, prevented UFP- induced neutrophil influx and increased total proteins and lung WW/DW ratio. Therefore, it can be concluded that chemicaly inert, electrically charged UFP induce a pulmonary inflammatory process during which the release of SP and histamine from C-fibers and mast cells was enhanced after various stimuli. These latter mediators can also modulate the inflammatory process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inflammatory Hypothesis of Ageing: Fascinating Concept or Confusing Dogma?
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2004), 3(4), 246

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See detailInflammatory markers and cardiometabolic diseases.
ESSER, Nathalie ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Acta clinica Belgica (2015), 70(3), 193-9

OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence emerges that obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are intimately related to chronic inflammation. METHODS: A narrative review ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: A growing body of evidence emerges that obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are intimately related to chronic inflammation. METHODS: A narrative review summarizing the most recent data of the literature describing the pathological implications of inflammation in obese patients with cardiometabolic disorders. RESULTS: Besides high-sensitive C-reactive protein, various circulating or in situ inflammatory markers have been identified, presumably reflecting the presence of inflammation in various key-organs (visceral adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islets, liver, intestine, arterial wall). Available data support the concept that targeting inflammation, not only reduces systemic inflammatory markers, but also improves insulin sensitivity and ameliorates glucose control in insulin-resistant patients, thus potentially reducing the risk of cardiovascular complications. CONCLUSION: These observations confirm the role of inflammation in cardiometabolic diseases and support the development of pharmacological strategies that aim at reducing inflammation, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailInflammatory properties and adjuvant potential of synthetic glycolipids homologous to mycolate esters of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Hermann TIMA, Giresse; Juma’a Raheem AL DULAYYMI; Olivier DENIS et al

in Journal of Innate Immunity (2016)

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