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Peer Reviewed
See detailMultiscale modeling of sprouting angiogenesis: tip cells are selected for the top.
Carlier, Aurélie ULg; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

Poster (2012, September 05)

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See detailMultiscale modelling framework for the fracture of thin brittle polycrystalline films - Application to polysilicon
Mulay, Shantanu; Becker, Gauthier ULg; Vayrette, Renaud et al

in Computational Mechanics (2014)

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) made of polycrystalline silicon are widely used in several engineering fields. The fracture properties of polycrystalline silicon directly affect their reliability ... [more ▼]

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) made of polycrystalline silicon are widely used in several engineering fields. The fracture properties of polycrystalline silicon directly affect their reliability. The effect of the orientation of grains on the fracture behaviour of polycrystalline silicon is investigated out of the several factors. This is achieved, firstly, by identifying the statistical variation of the fracture strength and critical strain energy release rate, at the nanoscopic scale, over a thin freestanding polycrystalline silicon film, having mesoscopic scale dimensions. The fracture stress and strain at the mesoscopic level are found to be closely matching with uniaxial tension experimental results. Secondly, the polycrystalline silicon film is considered at the continuum MEMS scale, and its fracture behaviour is studied by incorporating the nanoscopic scale effect of grain orientation. The entire modelling and simulation of the thin film is achieved by combining the discontinuous Galerkin method and extrinsic cohesive law describing the fracture process. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale modelling of angiogenesis during normal and impaired bone regeneration
Carlier, Aurélie ULg

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Bone regeneration is, like many other healing events, a complex, well-orchestrated process involving a myriad of different cell types and regulated by countless biochemical, physical and mechanical ... [more ▼]

Bone regeneration is, like many other healing events, a complex, well-orchestrated process involving a myriad of different cell types and regulated by countless biochemical, physical and mechanical factors. But unlike other adult biological tissues, the majority of bone fractures can heal without the production of scar tissue, eventually recovering the original bone shape, size and strength. Despite bone’s remarkable healing capacity and the continuing research efforts, the impaired healing of complex orthopaedic cases is still not fully understood. This PhD work hypothesises that computational modelling can make a substantial contribution to the bone regeneration field by proposing and testing the underlying mechanisms of action as well as by designing and optimising experimental strategies in silico. In the first part of this work, an existing bioregulatory model of fracture healing is extended with an intracellular module of Dll4-Notch1 signalling in order to capture the ingrowth of new blood vessels through sprouting angiogenesis. The predictions of the new MOSAIC model are compared to experimental results and an extensive sensitivity analysis is performed on the newly introduced parameters. The potential of the MOSAIC model to investigate the influence of the molecular mechanisms on angiogenesis and consequently the bone formation process is illustrated. In the second part of this work, the MOSAIC model is further improved with a rigorous implementation of the influence of oxygen on the behaviour of skeletal cells. A comprehensive literature study is performed in order to ensure the correspondence of the oxygen ranges of the cell-specific oxygen-dependent processes with the state-of-the-art experimental knowledge. The oxygen model is corroborated with previously published experimental results. The robustness of the oxygen model with respect to the newly introduced oxygen thresholds is demonstrated by a sensitivity analysis. Some limitations and shortcomings of the oxygen model are identified together with suggestions for future work. In the last part of this work, the added value of the oxygen model is shown by applying it to three cases of impaired bone healing: the occurrence of nonunions in critical size defects, bone graft healing in a compromised environment and the impaired healing of bone fractures in NF1 patients. Not only is the oxygen model used to determine the underlying mechanisms of action, potential treatment strategies for the respective challenging orthopaedic conditions are also designed and optimised in silico. In conclusion, this PhD thesis demonstrates the potential of an integrative in vivo-in silico approach to advance our current understanding of bone regeneration as well as to design effective treatments of complex bone fractures. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale modelling of back-stress during equal-channel angular pressing
Chen, E.; Duchene, Laurent ULg; Habraken, Anne ULg et al

in Reviews of advanced materials science (2010), 25(1), 23-31

Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process to produce ultrafinegrained materials. The mechanical properties of these materials, including a compressiontension asymmetry and a transient ... [more ▼]

Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is a well known process to produce ultrafinegrained materials. The mechanical properties of these materials, including a compressiontension asymmetry and a transient hardening saturation in the beginning of the flow curve, largely depend on the evolution of the microstructure during ECAP. Consequently, the backstress induced by the dislocation microstructure exhibits kinematic hardening at the macroscopic scale. In this paper, commercial purity aluminium AA1050 is processed by ECAP route C. Tensile and compression specimens are machined from the post-ECAP samples. The back-stress level is estimated from the different yielding strengths of tensile tests and compression tests. Then two different models, a macroscopic phenomenological Teodosiu-type model and a microscopic dislocation-based multi-layer model, are used to predict the back-stress values. A set of parameters for Teodosiu's model is identified from simple shear tests, Bauschinger tests and orthogonal orthogonal tests. The dislocation-based multi-layer model is based on the Estrin-Tóth dislocation model and Sauzay's intragranular back-stress model. The predicted and experimental back-stresses due to ECAP are compared and critically evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale modelling of cohesive-frictional materials: from textured to random materials
Massart, T.J.; Sonon, B.; Mercatoris, Benoît ULg et al

Conference (2012)

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See detailMultiscale modelling of the influence of VEGF on sprouting angiogenesis.
Carlier, Aurélie ULg; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

Poster (2012, July 06)

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See detailMultiscale Quasistatic Homogenization for Laminated Ferromagnetic Cores
Niyonzima, Innocent ULg; Vazquez Sabariego, Ruth ULg; Dular, Patrick ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Electromagnetism (NUMELEC 2012) (2012, July 03)

In this paper, we investigate the modeling of ferromagnetic multiscale materials. We propose a computational homogenization method based on the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) with inclusion of a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the modeling of ferromagnetic multiscale materials. We propose a computational homogenization method based on the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) with inclusion of a hysteresis model. The HMM involves: 1) a macroscale problem that captures the slow variations of the overall solution; 2) many microscale problems that allow to determine the constitutive law at the macroscale. At the microscale, a novel energy consistent hystere- sis model is incorporated. As application example, a laminated iron core is considered. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale Simulations of Composites with Non-Local Damage-Enhanced Mean-Field Homogenization
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2012, July)

The mean-field homogenization (MFH) approach is an attractive framework for multiscale methods, as it provides predictions of the macroscopic behavior of particle or fiber reinforced composites at a ... [more ▼]

The mean-field homogenization (MFH) approach is an attractive framework for multiscale methods, as it provides predictions of the macroscopic behavior of particle or fiber reinforced composites at a reasonable computational cost. Efficient MFH methods have been available for a long time for linear elastic problems, using for example the Mori-Tanaka scheme [2], but they can also be extended in the non-linear regime after linearization of the constitutive behavior at the current strain state, as for the incremental approach, e.g. [1]. In this work, the application of ductile-damage theories to a multiscale analysis of continuous fiber reinforced composites is considered. Toward this end, the incremental MFH approach is extended to account for the damage behavior happening in the matrix material at the microscale and to derive the effective properties of particle or fiber reinforced composites. However, capturing the degradation, damage or failure of material happening at the microscopic scale could lead to loss of uniqueness in the solution as the governing partial differential equations may lose ellipticity at a given level of loading corresponding to the strain-softening onset. Thus, in order to avoid the strain/damage localization caused by matrix material softening, the gradient-enhanced formulation [3] is adopted to describe the material behavior of the matrix during the homogenization process, as we have recently proposed [4]. As illustration, the behavior of a fiber re-enforced elasto-plastic matrix is considered. The properties of the matrix correspond to an elasto-plastic material experiencing damage, with a non-local form of Lemaitre Chaboche model. The fibers are assumed linear elastic, see [4] for details. A loading-unloading cycle is applied in the direction transverse to the fibers. A maximal deformation of 10 % is reached before the unloading proceeds to zero-transverse deformation. The effective behavior predicted by the MFH models is compared to the solutions obtained by finite element computations performed on a unit periodic cell and on RVE where the micro-structure is fully meshed. The results for three fiber volume ratios are presented in Fig. 1. For the three fiber volume ratios, the homogenized property is dominated by the properties of the matrix, with an obvious elasto-plastic behavior exhibiting softening. For vI = 15% and 30%, rather good predictions are given by the MFH model, with, as expected, higher macroscopic stress and damage predicted by the MFH due to the incremental formulation. However for vI = 50%, the MFH model overestimates the macroscopic stress considerably. This error comes from the assumption of Mori - Tanaka based MFH. As it is shown to be an efficient multi-scale approach, the developed gradient enhanced MFH formulation presented can now be used to model the behavior of composite laminates experiencing damage. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale texture characterization of wastewater sludges dried in a convective rig
Léonard, Angélique ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Pirard, René ULg et al

in Drying Technology (2003), 21(8), 1507-1526

Secondary sludges from two different wastewater treatment plants are conditioned and dewatered in the same way before drying in a lab-scale convective rig at the same operating conditions. Several ... [more ▼]

Secondary sludges from two different wastewater treatment plants are conditioned and dewatered in the same way before drying in a lab-scale convective rig at the same operating conditions. Several techniques are used to characterize the texture of the dried materials over a wide range of scales from nm up to mm. Texture and porosity of the dried products are studied by SEM imaging, nitrogen absorption isotherms (0.5 < d(p) < 50 nm), mercury porosimetry (7.5 nm < d(p) < 150 mum) and X-ray microtomography (spatial resolution= 41 mum). The image analysis of cross-sections reconstructed by microtomography also allows following shrinkage and textural evolution during drying. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale variability of amphipod assemblages in Posidonia oceanica meadows
Sturaro, Nicolas ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Vermeulen, Simon et al

in Journal of Sea Research (in press)

The study of spatial patterns is of ecological importance in order to understand the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides valuable basis for management and ... [more ▼]

The study of spatial patterns is of ecological importance in order to understand the causes of the distribution and abundance of organisms, and it also provides valuable basis for management and conservation. Amphipod crustaceans are key organisms in seagrass ecosystems. However, little attention has been paid to the spatial scales at which amphipod assemblages may vary. We examined variability patterns of amphipod populations inhabiting Posidonia oceanica meadows, over spatial scales spanning four orders of magnitude (1 to 1000 metres) and for two consecutive years. This study reports the scales that contributed most to spatial variation of amphipod assemblages and explores the potential processes of the observed patterns, with particular emphasis on habitat features. The number of species, the diversity and the density of some species, exhibited high variation across years. Most species showed the highest spatial variation in density and biomass at small scales (~1 and 10 m). Based on density data, the structure of amphipod assemblages did not differ at any scales investigated. The patchiness that occurred at small scales may have been only weakly related to habitat features. Instead, we postulated that behavioural processes of amphipods were likely good explanatory factors. Although, the small scale spatial variability can be an important feature of amphipod assemblages in P. oceanica meadows, many patterns probably remained undetected as they may occur at scales smaller than those investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisegmented radiation therapy as an alternative to 3D conformal radiation therapy, with special reference to breast cancer tangential fields
GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Kovacs, P.; Farkas, R. et al

in Nowotwory (2007), 57(3), 291-293

The paper compares the techniques of 3DCRT and MSCRT in terms of PTV coverage and doses to OARs. The study population consisted of 175 breast cancer patients in whom treatement was analysed in regard to ... [more ▼]

The paper compares the techniques of 3DCRT and MSCRT in terms of PTV coverage and doses to OARs. The study population consisted of 175 breast cancer patients in whom treatement was analysed in regard to the use of lateral and medial tangential fields. Although we have failed to establish statistical significance at the P=0.05 levelthe results look clinically promising in favour of MSCRT. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisegmented tangential breast fields: A rational way to treat breast cancer
GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Kovács, P.; Sebestyén, Z. et al

in Strahlentherapie und Onkologie (2008), 184(5), 262-269

Purpose: Using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and multisegmented conformal radiation therapy (MS-CRT) for breast cancer treatment, the dose coverage of the planning target volume ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Using three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and multisegmented conformal radiation therapy (MS-CRT) for breast cancer treatment, the dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) and the radiation burden on the organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated. Material and Methods: 3D-CRT and MS-CRT were planned for 436 unilateral breasts (217 left). All patients were treated with MS-CRT between 2005 and 2007. For PTV delineation and beam orientation, supportive structures were applied. The mean PTV was 1,130 cm 3 (in ten patients > 2,200 cm3). Three-dimensional planning with weight-optimized medial and lateral open fields at a total dose of 50.4/1.8 Gy was followed by multisegmented planning with a reasonably high-dose-level dose cloud to define the medial subfield, and renewed optimization. This was repeated for the lateral subfield with a final optimization. For PTV coverage evaluation, the ICRU 50 was considered: the PTV portions receiving 95-107%, < 95% and > 107% of the prescribed dose (PTVD95- 107%, PTV<D95% and PTV>D107%), and the PTV maximal dose (PTVDmax). To compare the OAR radiation burdens, the mean doses to the ipsi-/contralateral lung, contralateral breast, and whole heart were documented. Results: The multisegmented plans furnished significantly (p < 0.0001) better target coverage (PTVD95-107% 82.8% vs. 90.9%, PTV<D95% 11.4% vs. 8.8%, PTV>D107% 5.9% vs. 0.3% and PTVDmax 56.6 vs. 54.3 Gy). The mean OAR doses remained almost unchanged: ipsilateral lung 10.5 versus 10.4 Gy, contralateral lung 0.4 versus 0.4 Gy, contralateral breast 0.8 versus 0.8 Gy, and whole heart (for left-sided cancers) 4.8 versus 4.8 Gy. The subfields required a mean of 9.8 MU (monitor units), i.e., a mean total 7.6 MU increment. The planning took 10-20 min, and the delivery 5-10 min. Conclusion: MS-CRT is a good alternative to breast intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and seems adequate for right-sided cancers, whereas left-sided cancers necessitate a longer follow-up of heart-related side effects before a final assessment. © 2008 Urban & Vogel. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisegmented tangential breast fields: an effective step towards IMRT without a significantly higher secondary cancer risk
GULYBAN, Akos ULg; Kovács, Péter; Bellyei, Szabolcs et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2006), 81(suppl 1), 172

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See detailMultisensor flight simulation with emphasis on synthesis of IR imagery
Bonjean, Maxime E.; Schiefele, Jeff; Verly, Jacques ULg

Conference (2005)

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See detailMultisite Observations of delta Scuti Stars 7 Aql and 8 Aql (a New delta Scuti Variable): The Twelfth STEPHI Campaign in 2003
Fox Machado, L.; Michel, Eric; Pérez Hernández, F. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2007), 134

We present an analysis of the pulsation behavior of the delta Scuti stars 7 Aql (HD 174532) and 8 Aql (HD 174589), a new variable star, observed in the framework of the STEPHI XII campaign during 2003 ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of the pulsation behavior of the delta Scuti stars 7 Aql (HD 174532) and 8 Aql (HD 174589), a new variable star, observed in the framework of the STEPHI XII campaign during 2003 June and July; 183 hr of high-precision photometry were acquired by using four-channel photometers at three sites on three continents during 21 days. The light curves and amplitude spectra were obtained following a classical scheme of multichannel photometry. Observations in different filters were also obtained and analyzed. Six and three frequencies have been unambiguously detected above a 99% confidence level in the range 190-300 muHz and 100-145 muHz in 7 Aql and 8 Aql, respectively. A comparison of observed and theoretical frequencies shows that 7 Aql and 8 Aql may oscillate with p-modes of low radial orders, typical among delta Scuti stars. In terms of radial oscillations the range of 8 Aql goes from n=1 to 3, while for 7 Aql the range spans from n=4 to 7. Nonradial oscillations have to be present in both stars as well. The expected range of excited modes according to a nonadiabatic analysis goes from n=1 to 6 in both stars. [less ▲]

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See detailMultisite photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi
Briquet, Maryline ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2012)

We present an asteroseismic study of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi. Based on extensive ground-based multisite photometry and spectroscopy, the pulsational, rotational and chemical properties of ... [more ▼]

We present an asteroseismic study of the magnetic β Cep star V2052 Ophiuchi. Based on extensive ground-based multisite photometry and spectroscopy, the pulsational, rotational and chemical properties of the star were derived and stellar models accounting for the observed characteristics were computed. We discuss our results showing that the combination of asteroseismology and spectropolarimetry can allow us to probe the impact of a magnetic field on the physics of mixing inside stellar interiors. [less ▲]

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See detailA multisite photometric study of two unusual β Cep stars: the magnetic V2052 Oph and the massive rapid rotator V986 Oph
Handler, G.; Shobbrook, R. R.; Uytterhoeven, K. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2012), 424

We report a multisite photometric campaign for the β Cep stars V2052 Oph and V986 Oph. 670 h of high-quality differential photoelectric Strömgren, Johnson and Geneva time-series photometry was obtained ... [more ▼]

We report a multisite photometric campaign for the β Cep stars V2052 Oph and V986 Oph. 670 h of high-quality differential photoelectric Strömgren, Johnson and Geneva time-series photometry was obtained with eight telescopes on five continents during 182 nights. Frequency analyses of the V2052 Oph data enabled the detection of three pulsation frequencies, the first harmonic of the strongest signal, and the rotation frequency with its first harmonic. Pulsational mode identification from analysing the colour amplitude ratios confirms the dominant mode as being radial, whereas the other two oscillations are most likely l = 4. Combining seismic constraints on the inclination of the rotation axis with published magnetic field analyses we conclude that the radial mode must be the fundamental mode. The rotational light modulation is in phase with published spectroscopic variability, and consistent with an oblique rotator for which both magnetic poles pass through the line of sight. The inclination of the rotation axis is 54° < i < 58° and the magnetic obliquity 58° < β < 66°. The possibility that V2052 Oph has a magnetically confined wind is discussed. The photometric amplitudes of the single oscillation of V986 Oph are most consistent with an l = 3 mode, but this identification is uncertain. Additional intrinsic, apparently temporally incoherent light variations of V986 Oph are reported. Different interpretations thereof cannot be distinguished at this point, but this kind of variability appears to be present in many OB stars. The prospects of obtaining asteroseismic information for more rapidly rotating β Cep stars, which appear to prefer modes of higher l, are briefly discussed. [less ▲]

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