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See detailNeurostimulation in chronic cluster headache.
Magis, Delphine ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Current Pain and Headache Reports (2008), 12(2), 145-53

About 1% of all chronic cluster headache patients become intractable (iCCH; ie, they are refractory to adequate regimens of all established preventive drugs). Various lesional interventions have been ... [more ▼]

About 1% of all chronic cluster headache patients become intractable (iCCH; ie, they are refractory to adequate regimens of all established preventive drugs). Various lesional interventions have been attempted in these patients, none with lasting benefits. In recent years, nondestructive neurostimulation methods have raised new hope. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation (hDBS) acts rather rapidly and has durable efficacy, but it is not without risk. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) was studied in two trials that included 17 iCCH patients. Clinical efficacy was found to be very satisfactory by most patients and investigators. Although slightly less efficacious than hDBS, ONS has the advantage of being harmless and reversible. At this stage, it should be the preferred first-line invasive therapy for iCCH. Recent case reports mention efficacy of supraorbital and vagus nerve stimulation. Whether these neurostimulation methods have a place in the management of iCCH patients remains to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurostimulation therapies for primary headache disorders: present and future
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; JENSEN, Rigmor; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Current Opinion in Neurology (2012), 25(3), 269-276

Purpose of review Most pharmacological treatments of primary headache disorders are partially effective and have cumbersome side effects. Therapies with better efficacy and tolerance are needed ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review Most pharmacological treatments of primary headache disorders are partially effective and have cumbersome side effects. Therapies with better efficacy and tolerance are needed. Neurostimulation techniques may have this potential. This is an attempt to summarize the latest clinical trial results published in the field. Recent findings Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation is effective in drug-resistant chronic cluster headache (drCCH) but not riskless. Recent anatomical MRI studies indicate that the effective stimulation sites are rather widespread. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) seems to be effective in up to 76% of drCCH patients and its benefit long-lasting. A minority of patients are able to abandon preventive drugs. Its mechanism of action appears nonspecific. In chronic migraine, randomized controlled trials of ONS showed recently encouraging results, but long-term studies are missing. An ongoing sham-controlled trial suggests sphenopalatine ganglion neurostimulation (SPGS) efficacy in drCCH acute treatment, but possibly also in preventive therapy. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate cortical excitability and connectivity. TMS could prevent headache when applied over the occipital cortex during the migraine aura. Repetitive TMS and tDCS have provided mixed results in a few small studies and warrant further trials. Summary Neurostimulation therapies inaugurate a new era in headache management and offer a promising alternative to medications. Future studies are necessary to provide evidence-based efficacy data, knowledge on their mode of action and information about their pharmaco-economic advantages. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 ULg)
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See detailNeurostimulation therapy in intractable headaches
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Allena, M; MAGIS, Delphine ULg

in Nappi; Moskowitz (Eds.) Handbook of Clinical Neurology (2011)

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See detailNeurostimulation therapy in intractable headaches.
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Allena, Marta; Magis, Delphine ULg

in Handbook of clinical neurology / edited by P.J. Vinken and G.W. Bruyn (2010), 97

A proportion of chronic headache patients become refractory to medical treatment and severely disabled. In such patients various neurostimulation methods have been proposed, ranging from invasive ... [more ▼]

A proportion of chronic headache patients become refractory to medical treatment and severely disabled. In such patients various neurostimulation methods have been proposed, ranging from invasive procedures such as deep-brain stimulation to minimally invasive ones like occipital nerve stimulation. They have been applied in single cases or small series of patients affected with varying headache disorders: cervicogenic headache, hemicrania continua, posttraumatic headache, chronic migraine, and cluster headache. Although favorable results were reported overall, it is premature to consider neurostimulation as a treatment with established utility in refractory headaches. At present, the most detailed clinical studies have been performed in intractable chronic cluster headache (iCCH) patients, who represent about 1% of all chronic cluster headache (CCH) patients. Various lesional interventions have been attempted in these patients, none with lasting benefits. In recent years, non-destructive neurostimulation methods have raised new hope. Hypothalamic deep-brain stimulation (hDBS) acts rapidly and has lasting efficacy, but is not without risk. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) was studied in two trials on a total of 17 iCCH patients. Clinical efficacy was found to be very satisfactory by most patients and by the investigators. Although slightly less efficacious than hDBS, ONS has the advantage of being rather harmless and reversible. At this stage, it should be preferred as first-line invasive therapy for iCCH. Recent case reports mention the efficacy of supraorbital (SNS) and vagal (VNS) nerve stimulation. Whether these neurostimulation methods have a place in the management of iCCH patients remains to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurosurgery for headaches
MAGIS, Delphine ULg

Conference (2012, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
See detailNeurotoxic effects of acetaldehyde
Ward, Roberta J.; Lallemand, Frédéric; Dahchour, Abdelkhader et al

in Alcoholism, Clinical & Experimental Research (1998), 22

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULg)
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See detailNeurotoxicity Of The Putative Transmembrane Domain Of The Prion Protein
Haik, S.; Peyrin, Jm.; Lins, Laurence ULg et al

in Neurobiology of Disease (2000), 7(6), 644-56

It has been shown recently that the generation of an abnormal transmembrane form of the prion protein ((Ctm)PrP) is involved in the neurodegeneration process during inherited and infectious prion diseases ... [more ▼]

It has been shown recently that the generation of an abnormal transmembrane form of the prion protein ((Ctm)PrP) is involved in the neurodegeneration process during inherited and infectious prion diseases but a causative relationship has never been established. We wanted to know if and how the proposed transmembrane domain of PrP could induce neuronal dysfunction. Thus, we investigated the neurotoxic properties of two peptides whose sequences are encompassed within this domain. We show that PrP peptides 118-135 and 105-132 as well as an amidated more soluble peptide 105-132 induce the death of pure cortical neurons originating from normal and PrP knockout mice. This can be correlated with the high propensity of these peptides to insert stably into and to destabilize cell membranes. Through this study, we have identified a novel mechanism of neurotoxicity for PrP, which directly involves membrane perturbation; this mechanism is independent of fibril formation and probably corresponds to the effect of the transmembrane insertion of (Ctm)PrP. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmission et oligodendrogliogenèse
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg

Doctoral thesis (1999)

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See detailNeurotransmission in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Riederer, P.; Kopp, N.; Pearson, J. (Eds.) An introduction to Neurotransmission in health and disease (1990)

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
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See detailNeurotransmitter phenotype plasticity in adult dorsal root ganglia neurons
Moonen, Gustave ULg; Delrée, P.; Martin, Didier ULg et al

in Restorative Neurology & Neuroscience (1993), 5

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See detailNeurotransmitter Phenotype Plasticity in Cultured Dissociated Adult Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia: An Immunocytochemical Study
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Delree, P.; Leprince, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (1989), 22(4), 473-87

Culturing sympathetic ganglion neurons in vitro may modify phenotypic expression of some neurotransmitters. For dorsal root ganglia (DRG), contradictory results have been reported; most studies have used ... [more ▼]

Culturing sympathetic ganglion neurons in vitro may modify phenotypic expression of some neurotransmitters. For dorsal root ganglia (DRG), contradictory results have been reported; most studies have used immature material. We have therefore performed a detailed immunocytochemical analysis of the transmitter content of cultured adult rat DRG neurons. To demonstrate possible modifications of neurotransmitter phenotypes, we have compared the results obtained with the same techniques on neurons cultured for 3 days and on freshly dissociated DRG cells. Also, the transmitter profile of cultured neurons was compared with that known from in situ studies. Out of 22 antigens studied, 20 were detected in cultured DRG neurons. All of them were expressed in small and/or intermediate-sized cells. Large neurons only contained CGRP, VIP, NPY, beta-END, ENK, and GABA. The percentage of immunostained neurons varied for the various antisera: less than 10% of cultured neurons were positive for ENK, beta-LPH, beta-END, DYN, VASO, and OXY; 10-30% for SOM, CCK, CAT, and SP; and greater than 30% for NPY, CRF, GLU, NT, VIP, GABA, GRP, CGRP, 5-HT, and TRH. In the latter two groups of transmitters (except CGRP), the proportion of immunoreactive neurons was by far larger in cultured than in freshly dissociated DRG. The most pronounced (greater than 25%) increase in the proportion of positively stained neurons after culturing was observed for the GRP, CRF, TRH, and 5-HT antisera. Serotonin was the only transmitter identified in cultured but not in freshly dissociated cells. These data indicate, on one hand, that various antigens, for example, CAT, GABA, NT, TRH, NPY, beta-LPH, and beta-END, which up to now have not been described in DRG in situ, can be detected immunocytochemically a few hours after dissociation of adult rat DRG. On the other hand, several transmitters, for example, VIP, NPY, SP, GABA, GLU, NT, GRP, CRF, TRH, and 5-HT, are expressed in a significantly higher proportion of cells in cultured than in freshly dissociated preparations. This might reflect a change in the phenotypic expression of transmitters due to the new environment generated by the culture conditions, a hypothesis that can be tested by measuring specific mRNA levels. Moreover, considering the plasticity and multipotentiality of their transmitter phenotype, cultured adult DRG neurons might represent an interesting material for autografts into the injured central nervous system. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmitter-Mediated Regulation of Cns Myelination: A Review
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Rogister, Bernard ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(1), 21-31

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing ... [more ▼]

In addition to treatments aimed at preventing or limiting damage to myelin and oligodendrocytes, there is a crucial need for repair strategies in human demyelinating disorders. There is increasing evidence that besides growth factors, neurotransmitters can regulate different steps of the oligodendrogliogenesis. The present review on neurotransmitter receptor expression and function in the oligodendrocyte lineage emphasizes the concept that in this lineage cell proliferation and differentiation can be controlled through the modulation of the functional state of channel proteins and receptors, such as the delayed K+ rectifier, the AMPA/kainate, dopamine or muscarinic receptors, and, most likely, others yet to be found. We anticipate that a better understanding of the neurotransmitter-mediated neuronal oligodendroglial communication network opens prospects in the field of central nervous system (CNS) myelin repair, allowing the recruitment of the myelinating machinery that is known to remain present but quiescent in the CNS of multiple sclerosis patients. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmitters as Early Signals for Central Nervous System Development
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Rocher, Véronique et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2001), 305(2), 187-202

During brain ontogenesis, the temporal and spatial generation of the different types of neuronal and glial cells from precursors occurs as a sequence of successive progenitor stages whose proliferation ... [more ▼]

During brain ontogenesis, the temporal and spatial generation of the different types of neuronal and glial cells from precursors occurs as a sequence of successive progenitor stages whose proliferation, survival and cell-fate choice are controlled by environmental and cellular regulatory molecules. Neurotransmitters belong to the chemical microenvironment of neural cells, even at the earliest stages of brain development. It is now established that specific neurotransmitter receptors are present on progenitor cells of the developing central nervous system and could play, during neural development, a role that has remained unsuspected until recently. The present review focuses on the occurrence of neurotransmitters and their corresponding ligand-gated ion channel receptors in immature cells, including neural stem cells of specific embryonic and neonatal brain regions. We summarize in vitro and in vivo data arguing that neurotransmitters could regulate morphogenetic events such as proliferation, growth, migration, differentiation and survival of neural precursor cells. The understanding of neurotransmitter function during early neural maturation could lead to the development of pharmacological tools aimed at improving adult brain repair strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmitters regulate cell migration in the telencephalon
Heng, J. I. T.; Moonen, Gustave ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2007), 26(3), 537-546

The complex cytoarchitectonic organization of the adult mammalian telencephalon reflects the elaborate patterns of cell migration that contribute to its generation. The migration by neurons in the CNS can ... [more ▼]

The complex cytoarchitectonic organization of the adult mammalian telencephalon reflects the elaborate patterns of cell migration that contribute to its generation. The migration by neurons in the CNS can broadly be divided into two categories: radial and tangential. Experimental observations in the telencephalon have shown that glutamatergic projection neurons are born in the progenitor compartment of the dorsal telencephalon and migrate radially to integrate the cortical plate, whereas most gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons are generated in the ganglionic eminences and navigate through multiple tangential paths to settle into distinct telencephalic structures. Despite progress towards the understanding of the genetic determinants that specify the fate of neuronal progenitors, much remains unknown about the mechanisms that direct their migration into specific regions of the telencephalon. Interestingly, besides their function in synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters have been shown to promote several developmental processes that contribute to the establishment and maintenance of the CNS. In this respect, recent studies have highlighted a role for neurotransmitters through activation of their receptors in regulating cell migration in the telencephalon. This review summarizes and discusses the growing body of literature implicating neurotransmitters and their cognate receptors as part of a complex molecular machinery that regulate the migration of immature neurons in the telencephalon during development and in adulthood. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Neurotrophic Factor Neuroleukin Is 90-Percent Homologous With Phosphohexose Isomerase
Chaput, M.; Claes, V.; Portetelle, Daniel ULg et al

in Nature (1988), 332(6163),

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg)
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See detailNeurotrophic Factors: Past and Future
Moonen, Gustave ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Rigo, Jean Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1996), 96(3), 203-18

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See detailThe neurotrophic receptor TrkB: a drug target in anti-cancer therapy ?
Desmet, Christophe ULg; Peeper, Daniel S.

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2006), 63(7-8), 755-759

Increasing evidence implies altered signaling through the neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB in promoting tumor formation and metastasis. TrkB, sometimes in conjunction with its primary ligand ... [more ▼]

Increasing evidence implies altered signaling through the neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB in promoting tumor formation and metastasis. TrkB, sometimes in conjunction with its primary ligand BDNF, is often overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, ranging from neuroblastomas to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, in which it may allow tumor expansion and contribute to resistance to anti-tumor agents. In vitro, TrkB acts as a potent suppressor of anoikis (detachment-induced apoptosis), which is associated with the acquisition of an aggressive tumorigenic and metastatic phenotype in vivo. In view of its predicted contribution to tumorigenicity and metastasis in humans, TrkB corresponds to a potential drug target, and preclinical models have already been established. The encouraging results of pharmacological Trk inhibitors in tumor xenograft models suggest that TrkB inhibition may represent a promising novel anti-tumor therapeutic strategy. This hypothesis is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Here, we will discuss the latest developments on TrkB in these contexts as well as highlight some critical questions that remain to be addressed for evaluating TrkB as a therapeutic target in cancer [less ▲]

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See detailNeustonic microplastic and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean Sea
Collignon, Amandine ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg; Galgani, François et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2012), 64

Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton abundance was determined in the North Western Mediterranean Sea during a summer cruise between July 9th and August 6th 2010, with a break between July 22th and 25th ... [more ▼]

Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton abundance was determined in the North Western Mediterranean Sea during a summer cruise between July 9th and August 6th 2010, with a break between July 22th and 25th due to a strong wind event. Ninety percent of the 40 stations contained microplastic particles (size 0.3-5 mm) of various compositions: e.g., filaments, polystyrene, thin plastic films. An average concentration of 0.116 particles/m² was observed. The highest abundances (> 0.36 particles/m²) were observed in the shelf stations. The neustonic plastic particles concentrations were 5 times higher before than after the strong wind event which increased the mixing and the vertical repartition of plastic particles in the upper layers of the water column. The values rise in the same order of magnitude than in the North Pacific Gyre. The average ratio between microplastics and mesozooplankton weights was 0.5 for the whole survey and might induce a potential confusion for zooplankton feeders. [less ▲]

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See detailNeutral Ion Coupling Explorer satellite measurements of thermospheric composition, winds and temperatures.
Mende, S. B.; Immel, T. J.; England, S. et al

Conference (2008, December 01)

A new Small Explorer mission, the Neutral Ion Coupling Explorer (NICE) mission, was selected for study by NASA to specifically address neutral ion coupling in the Earth's atmosphere. The main goal of NICE ... [more ▼]

A new Small Explorer mission, the Neutral Ion Coupling Explorer (NICE) mission, was selected for study by NASA to specifically address neutral ion coupling in the Earth's atmosphere. The main goal of NICE is to study neutral-ion coupling at low latitudes where the densest plasma in geospace is created and where a number of remarkable interactions between the plasma and neutral gas occur even in the relative absence of high-latitude forcing. NICE will study this region from a ~24 degree inclination 550 km circular orbit, residing entirely on closed magnetic field lines. The relatively fast precession of low-inclination orbit is favorable for frequent sampling of all local times for the determination of tidal structures. It is now widely recognized that the neutral thermosphere has a strong influence on the ionosphere and that Earth's ionosphere at quiet times is actually tidally dominated. The NICE concept is unique in simultaneously providing measurements of the parameters relevant to ion production and motion across the entire altitude range of the low-latitude ionosphere. The science payload consists of 3 remote sensing instruments viewing the atmospheric limb (1) a dual Doppler Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FP), scanning in altitude to measure neutral wind vector and temperature altitude profiles in the E- and F-regions, (2) a Far Ultraviolet (FUV) imager to measure daytime neutral composition and image the nighttime F-layer intensity distributions, and (3) an Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) altitude profiler to retrieve daytime F-layer properties. In addition, an Ion Velocity Meter (IVM) measures the in-situ ion drifts. NICE will take advantage of an elegant choice of orbit and instrument viewing geometries to make coordinated and complementary observations at all local times, with optimal conjunction of measurements occurring near the equator. The observations are accompanied by a suite of advanced numerical models and analysis techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailNeutral Pion Structure Function
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Cugnon, Joseph ULg; Jaminon, Martine ULg et al

Conference (2001)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (6 ULg)