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See detailMultiple Realities of Virtual Architecture, Opening Session of Virtual Techniques for Architecture
Leclercq, Pierre ULg; Martin, G.

in Fisher, X.; Coutellier, D. (Eds.) Proceedings of Virtual Concept Conference '05 - Research in Interactive Design (2005)

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See detailMultiple Redox Regulation in Nf-Kappab Transcription Factor Activation
Piette, Jacques ULg; Piret, Bernard; Bonizzi, Giuseppina et al

in Biological Chemistry (1997), 378(11), 1237-45

The well-known Rel/NF-kappaB family of vertebrate transcription factors comprises a number of structurally related, interacting proteins that bind DNA as dimers and whose activity is regulated by ... [more ▼]

The well-known Rel/NF-kappaB family of vertebrate transcription factors comprises a number of structurally related, interacting proteins that bind DNA as dimers and whose activity is regulated by subcellular location. This family includes many members (p50, p52, RelA, RelB, c-Rel, ...), most of which can form DNA-binding homo- or hetero-dimers. All Rel proteins contain a highly conserved domain of approximately 300 amino-acids, called the Rel homology domain (RH), which contains sequences necessary for the formation of dimers, nuclear localization, DNA binding and IkappaB binding. Nuclear expression and consequent biological action of the eukaryotic NF-kappaB transcription factor complex are tightly regulated through its cytoplasmic retention by ankyrin-rich inhibitory proteins known as IkappaB. The IkappaB proteins include a group of related proteins that interact with Rel dimers and regulate their activities. The interaction of a given IkappaB protein with a Rel complex can affect the Rel complex in distinct ways. In the best characterized example, IkappaB-alpha interacts with a p50/RelA (NF-kappaB) heterodimer to retain the complex in the cytoplasm and inhibit its DNA-binding activity. The NF-kappaB/IkappaB-alpha complex is located in the cytoplasm of most resting cells, but can be rapidly induced to enter the cell nucleus. Upon receiving a variety of signals, many of which are probably mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), IkappaB-alpha undergoes phosphorylation at serine residues by a ubiquitin-dependent protein kinase, is then ubiquitinated at nearby lysine residues and finally degraded by the proteasome, probably while still complexed with NF-kappaB. Removal of IkappaB-alpha uncovers the nuclear localization signals on subunits of NF-kappaB, allowing the complex to enter the nucleus, bind to DNA and affect gene expression. Like proinflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1, TNF), various ROS (peroxides, singlet oxygen, ...) as well as UV (C to A) light are capable of mediating NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, while the sensor molecules which are sensitive to these agents and trigger IkappaB-alpha proteolysis are still unidentified. We also show that a ROS-independent mechanism is activated by IL-1beta in epithelial cells and seems to involve the acidic sphingomyelinase/ceramide transduction pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple regression and crops yields prediction on basis of meteorological data
Dagnelie, P.; Palm, Rodolphe ULg

in XVIth International Biometric Conference Proceedings, Hamilton, New Zealand, 7-11 December 1992 : Proceedings of contributed papers (1992, December)

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See detailMultiple roles for plasminogen activator system in nervous system development
Leprince, Pierre ULg; Rogister, Bernard ULg; Delrée, Paul et al

in Serine proteases and their serpin inhibitors in the Nervous System (1990)

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See detailMultiple roles of Hoxc8 in skeletal development
Juan, A. H.; Lei, H. Y.; Bhargava, P. et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2006), 1068

We are interested in investigating the function of Hoxc8 in skeletogenesis during mouse development. Previous studies have shown that deregulation of Hoxc8 expression in the mouse leads to several ... [more ▼]

We are interested in investigating the function of Hoxc8 in skeletogenesis during mouse development. Previous studies have shown that deregulation of Hoxc8 expression in the mouse leads to several skeletal defects, such as homeotic transformation in the thoracic vertebrae, abnormal development of the rib cage, and overproliferation of chondrocytes in the hypertrophic area. By deleting a crucial enhancer of Hoxc8 in vivo, we found that precise temporal expression of Hoxc8 is important for determining the correct identity of the vertebral column in early embryos. We also identified downstream targets of Hoxc8 relevant to osteoblast differentiation at later developmental stages. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple scales solution for a beam with a small bending stiffness
Denoël, Vincent ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2010), 136(1), 69-77

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See detailThe multiple SEA method: a method to synthesize Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)
Zubiaur, Anthony ULg; Chatenet, Marian; Maillard, Frédéric et al

Poster (2013, April)

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See detailMultiple seawater-derived geochemical signatures in Indian oceanic pelagic clays
Fagel, Nathalie ULg; André, Luc; Debrabant, Pierre

in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta (1997), 61(5), 989-1008

This paper reports a geochemical study of oceanic clays. Major and trace elements were analyzed on smectite-rich, clay size (<2 mu m) samples, bulk sediments, and leachate residues from the Central Indian ... [more ▼]

This paper reports a geochemical study of oceanic clays. Major and trace elements were analyzed on smectite-rich, clay size (<2 mu m) samples, bulk sediments, and leachate residues from the Central Indian Basin. Sr-Nd isotopes were also studied to investigate their geochemical evolution during transport in the water column, sedimentation, and diagenesis. The region is of special interest because the sedimentation records the interaction between the detrital supply from the Bengal Fan in the north and the biosiliceous input associated with the equatorial divergence in the south. The clay size fractions display extremely variable trace element contents, e.g., [Ba] = 100-5000 ppm, [Sr] = 20-200 ppm, Ce/Ce* = 0.9-3.3, [Nd] = 10-50 ppm. Although in the argillaceous samples, clay size fractions have a similar trace element imprint to the bulk sediment, some major fractionations occur in the biosiliceous samples between the clay and the bulk sediment, especially for Sr and rare earth elements (REE). Three major components may account for the variable geochemical signatures of these pelagic clays. The first component (component A), already identified by Fagel et al. (1994), is characterized by a homogeneous geochemical signature (La-N/Yb-N = 1.03-1.05; Th/Ta = 12.8-21.1; Ba/Th similar to 28) and a nonradiogenic Nd isotopic composition (Nd-143/Nd-144 similar to 0.511880): it traces a detrital Himalayan-derived origin. The two other components display a seawater-derived isotopic composition with global Sr (Sr-87/Sr-86 similar to 0.709060) and regional Indian Ocean Nd(Nd-143/Nd-144 similar to 0.512200) signatures. Both components are enriched in Sr and Ba (Sr similar to 150 ppm, Ba/Th similar to 500), and they are either enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE, e.g., Nd similar to 50 ppm) in the argillaceous sediments (component B) or LREE-depleted (Nd < 20 ppm) in the biosiliceous sediments (component C). The frequent occurrence of micrometric (<5 mu m) Sr-REE-Th enriched barite grains showing three major habits (rhombic, rounded, dendritic) suggests that these biologically-derived mineral phases had a major role in the genesis of components B and C. A strong clay-barite equilibration is deduced from the Post Archean Australian Shales PAAS-like REE patterns of these barites and the Ba enrichment of the clays. We suggest that it results from two successive mechanisms of exchange. First, at the top of the oxygen minimum zone, the microbial-induced decay of organic matter is proposed to trigger a series of trace element transfers between the various particulate-forming components (clays, barites, and decaying organic coatings). This is proposed as the origin of the clay component B: the barite-derived components (Ba, Sr) and the organic-derived positive Ce anomaly are imported to the clay particles while the PAAS signature of the clays is retained by the remaining barite crystals. Second, after settling, the barites are believed to partly dissolve and recrystallize, especially in the anoxic part of the sedimentary column. This diagenetic barite dissolution is proposed as the origin of the clay component C. Copyright (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple sources in the copularization of become
Petré, Peter ULg

Conference (2010, September 04)

Multiple sources in the copularization of become This paper shows how general productivity (see Barðdal 2009: 38) of the copular function of the verb become abruptly followed when a pre-copular stage had ... [more ▼]

Multiple sources in the copularization of become This paper shows how general productivity (see Barðdal 2009: 38) of the copular function of the verb become abruptly followed when a pre-copular stage had reached a threshold value about 1150, prior to which become only occurred with a spatial sense ‘arrive’, and with extensions of this sense. It is argued that this abrupt switch to general productivity rather than a gradual increase in productivity results from the fact that copular become is not the end result of a single diachronic lineage of constructions (i.e. a simple grammaticalization process, see Croft 2000: 32-37), but instead resulted from an interaction between lineages, as well as external influence, and from the coming together of all factors involved in the twelfth century. First, certain constructions in which become occurred gradually changed and interacted with each other. In a first stage, two constructions developed (through metaphor) out of become ‘arrive’. These are the constructions in (1), with a human subject and become meaning ‘attain’, and in (2), with an inanimate subject, a dative experiencer and become meaning ‘come upon’. (1) Heo becom to soþum wisdome. ‘She attained to true wisdom.’ (2) Seo þearlwisnis þæs heardan lifes him becwom. ‘The austerity of life came upon him.’ In a second stage a two-participant resultative construction, as in (3), developed as a syntactic blend of (1) and (2) (cf. De Smet 2009: 1747), which provided a formal template for a one-participant prepositional copular construction as in (4). (3) Andetnysse him becumeð to hæle ‘Confession results (for him) in salvation’ (4) Þii fader bi-com to one childe ‘Your father turned into a child.’ Another, unrelated construction provided a formal template for the adjectival copular construction. This is the depictive construction given in (5), in which an adjective serves as a secondary predicate, but become does not have a linking function (is not a copula). (5) He gesund becom to Æðelingege. ‘He arrived (and was) safe at Æðelinge.’ Second, the already existing copula weorðan ‘become’ (see Petré & Cuyckens 2009) provided a template of general productivity upon which the resultative construction could graft once it had become semantically sufficiently similar to a copular construction, and, once the copular stage was reached, the depictive construction also started to serve as a formal input for this analogical process, with as a result adjectival and nominal copular constructions. Finally, Old French probably also contributed (though only as a strengthening factor) to the success of copular become in precisely the twelfth century. From a balanced explanation taking into account all of these factors it is concluded that the sudden emergence of copular becuman is not as catastrophic as it at first seemed. References Barðdal, Jóhanna. 2009. Productivity: Evidence from case and argument structure in Icelandic (Constructional Approaches to Language 8). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. Croft, William. 2000. Explaining language change: an evolutionary approach. London: Longman. De Smet, Hendrik. 2009. Analysing reanalysis. Lingua 119: 1728-1755. Petré, Peter & Hubert Cuyckens. 2009. Constructional change in Old and Middle English Copular Constructions and its impact on the lexicon. Folia Lingistuica Historia 30: 311-365. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple spectroscopic study of in vitro photodynamic therapy induced by PPME
Guelluy, Pierre-Henri ULg; Quoilin, Caroline; Grammenos, Angeliki ULg et al

Conference (2010, June 01)

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See detailThe multiple spots of the Ganymede auroral footprint
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Hess, Sébastien; Bagenal, Fran et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2013), 40

The interaction between the moons and the magnetosphere of giant planets sometimes gives rise to auroral signatures in the planetary ionosphere, called the satellite footprints. So far, footprints have ... [more ▼]

The interaction between the moons and the magnetosphere of giant planets sometimes gives rise to auroral signatures in the planetary ionosphere, called the satellite footprints. So far, footprints have been detected for Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Enceladus. These footprints are usually seen as single spots. However, the Io footprint, the brightest one, displays a much more complex morphology made of at least three different spots and an extended tail. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope FUV images showing evidence for a second spot in the Ganymede footprint. The spots separation distance changes as Ganymede moves latitudinally in the plasma sheet, as is seen for the Io footprint. This indicates that the processes identified at Io are universal. Moreover, for similar Ganymede System III longitudes, the distance may also vary significantly with time, indicating changes in the plasma sheet density. We identified a rapid evolution of this distance 8 days after the detection of a volcanic outburst at Io, suggesting that such auroral observations could be used to estimate the plasma density variations at Ganymede. [less ▲]

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See detailThe multiple spots of the Ganymede footprint
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Hess, S.; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Poster (2011, July 11)

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See detailMultiple System Organ Failure after open-heart surgery in infants and children
Seghaye, Marie-Christine ULg; Engelhardt, W.; Grabitz, R. G. et al

in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon (1993), 41(1), 49-53

Between January 1985 and March 1989 we retrospectively observed Multiple System Organ Failure (MSOF) in 16 of 460 children (3.5%) who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital ... [more ▼]

Between January 1985 and March 1989 we retrospectively observed Multiple System Organ Failure (MSOF) in 16 of 460 children (3.5%) who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart disease. MSOF was arbitrarily defined as a clinical entity with failure of two or more vital organ systems associated with high fever, thrombocytopenia, and cardiocirculatory insufficiency and occurring within the first postoperative week. In 13 children the first clinical manifestations of MSOF were evident on the first postoperative day and in the other 3 on the second or third postoperative day. All children showed acute renal failure, acute hepatic failure, high fever, and thrombocytopenia. Most of them showed respiratory insufficiency and neurological involvement. Seven of the 16 children died. Four of the 9 surviving patients had neurological sequelae still present 6 months after the operation, and the others recovered completely. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple types of cardiac arrhythmias in a child with head injury and raised intracranial pressure.
Grosse-Wortmann, L.; Bindl, L.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Pediatric Cardiology (2006), 27(2), 286-8

Arrhythmias occur as a life-threatening complication in adults with severe head injuries. A wide spectrum of brady- and tachyarrhythmias and different pathogenetic mechanisms have been described. We ... [more ▼]

Arrhythmias occur as a life-threatening complication in adults with severe head injuries. A wide spectrum of brady- and tachyarrhythmias and different pathogenetic mechanisms have been described. We report an 8-year-old boy with traumatic brain injury who developed a variety of independent types of arrhythmias during the course of his illness, including supraventricular and ventricular extrasystoles, prolonged QT duration and ventricular fibrillation, accelerated junctional rhythm, and reentry tachycardia. Each arrhythmia may have had a distinct pathogenic pathway, and not all were associated with raised intracranial pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Viewpoints on Landscape Quality Assessment: some evidence from a survey in Wallonia and Romania
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg; Teleuca, Alexandra et al

in Morimoto, Takehiro; Ichikawa, Yasuo; Kim, Doo-Chul (Eds.) Globalization and New Challenges of Agricultural and Rural Systems (2013, July)

Actually assessing landscapes out of a specific framework is not an easy task due to the multiple functions that landscapes perform.The paper presents the result of a survey among landscape experts in ... [more ▼]

Actually assessing landscapes out of a specific framework is not an easy task due to the multiple functions that landscapes perform.The paper presents the result of a survey among landscape experts in Romania and Wallonia. Expert had to specify their level of agreement on 52 Likert items regarding landscape quality indicators [less ▲]

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See detailThe multiple ways to cellular immunological tolerance
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Kroemer, Guido

in Immunology Today (1993), 14

Both central and peripheral mechanisms leading to T-cell tolerance were discussed at a recent meeting in Liege (as part of the First Forum of Young European Researchers, 18-23 July 1993). The mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Both central and peripheral mechanisms leading to T-cell tolerance were discussed at a recent meeting in Liege (as part of the First Forum of Young European Researchers, 18-23 July 1993). The mechanisms that maintain self tolerance, as well as the conditions in which self-reactive T cells launch an autoaggressive attack, were specially emphasized. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple-Breath Washout and Washin Experiments in Steers
Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Verbanck, S. et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1996), 81(2), 957-63

Multiple-breath N2 washouts (WO) and washins (WI) were performed during regular tidal breathing in 11 unsedated healthy steers approaching pulmonary functional maturity (mean body weight = 271 kg). They ... [more ▼]

Multiple-breath N2 washouts (WO) and washins (WI) were performed during regular tidal breathing in 11 unsedated healthy steers approaching pulmonary functional maturity (mean body weight = 271 kg). They inspired 20% O2 in 80% Ar during the WO and air during the WI. For each steer, we computed two indexes of ventilation inhomogeneity from the N2 WO curves: 1) the curvilinearity of the logarithm of end-tidal N2 concentrations as a function of cumulative expired volume reflected in the ratio of two slopes fitted between 100 and 50% and between 50 and 10%, respectively, of end-tidal N2 concentration of the first breath of the WO; and 2) the N2 phase III slope divided by the mean expired concentration (Sn) of each breath also plotted as a function of cumulative expired volume. Equivalent computation of both parameters was done on WI and WO curves, and similar results were obtained. The mean slope ratio was 0.812 +/- 0.119 (SD) for all the steers, which is consistent with topographic gravity-dependent specific ventilation distribution inhomogeneity. Sn was independent of the breath number both for WO and WI (mean Sn = 0.130 +/- 0.057 liters-1), suggesting that emptying between unequally ventilated units, is synchronous. This behavior resembles that observed in rats postmortem (S. Verbanck, E.R. Weibel, and M. Paiva. J. Appl Physiol. 71: 847-854, 1991) but contrasts with experiments in humans, in whom convection-dependent ventilation inhomogeneities generate a marked increase in Sn throughout the entire WO (A. B. H. Crawford, M. Makowska, M. Paiva, and L. A. Engel. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 838-846, 1985). This is surprising because one would expect gravity-dependent sequential emptying in animals of this size. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple-group logistic regression diagnostics
Lesaffre, E.; Albert, Adelin ULg

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C Applied Statistics (1989), 38(2), 425-440

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