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See detailArmes non létales
Robbe, Cyril ULg; Lemaire, Eric ULg; Papy, Alexandre et al

in Beauthier, Jean-Paul (Ed.) Traité de médecine légale (2011)

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See detailLes armes nucléaires et l'identité européenne de défense
Dumoulin, André ULg

Report (1996)

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See detail«L’armonia del mondo» di Leo Spitzer
Benzoni, Pietro ULg

in Curreri, Luciano (Ed.) L'Europa vista da Istanbul : Mimesis (1946) e la ricostruzione intellettuale di Eric Auerbach (2012)

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See detailArnaut Daniel, D’autra guiza e d’autra razo (BdT 29.7)
Valenti, Gianluca ULg

in Lecturae Tropatorum (2012), 5

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See detailAromatase (estrogen synthase) activity in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord: Functional implications
Evrard, H. C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2003), 1007

The presence of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in Japanese quail suggests that estrogens produced locally from androgens could control spinal sensory ... [more ▼]

The presence of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in Japanese quail suggests that estrogens produced locally from androgens could control spinal sensory processes including nociception. We used the hot water nociceptive test (54 degreesC) to appraise the longterm effect of an inhibition of aromatization on the foot withdrawal latency in male quail. Four weeks after the ablation of their main source of testosterone (testes), castrated males displayed a significantly higher foot withdrawal latency than gonadally intact males. A prolonged treatment with subcutaneous capsules filled with testosterone or 17 beta-estradiol restored the baseline latency within 2 weeks. The effect of testosterone in castrated quail was almost completely blocked by systemic injections of Vorozole((TM)), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor or tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor antagonist (one injection per day for 10 days). Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge an effect of estrogens formed by aromatization of androgens on nociception. Because aromatase-immunoreactive neurons and aromatase activity are present in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord, this control of pain thresholds is presumably mediated, at least in part, by estrogens produced at the spinal level that act locally via slow, presumably genomic, mechanisms mediated by the activation of spinal nuclear estrogen receptors. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase activity modulates conditioned cloacal sphincter movements, an appetitive sexual behavior, in Japanese quail
Holloway, K. S.; Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Taziaux, Mélanie ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2004, June), 46(1), 92

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See detailAromatase as a Cellular Marker of Testosterone Action in the Preoptic Area
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Surlemont, C.; Harada, N.

in Physiology & Behavior (1992), 51(2), 395-409

We recently showed, using a new immunocytochemical technique, that aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are a specific marker for the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in quail and that the ... [more ▼]

We recently showed, using a new immunocytochemical technique, that aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are a specific marker for the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in quail and that the number of these immunoreactive cells is markedly increased by a systemic treatment with testosterone (T). Since the POM is a key site for the activation of copulatory behavior by T and this androgen must be converted into estrogen by local aromatization within the POM before it can exert its behavioral effects, we used aromatase immunocytochemistry to map, at a cellular level of resolution, the areas that are destroyed by electrolytic lesions or that are stimulated by the stereotaxic implantation of T in the preoptic area (POA). These measures of the cellular action of T in the preoptic area were then correlated with the behavior of the animals to identify the parts of the POA that are critical in the activation of behavior. The electrolytic lesions of the POA disrupted the activation of male sexual behavior by T only if they destroyed a significant part of the POM. All lesions reduced the volume of the dimorphic nucleus and the absolute number of its aromatase-immunoreactive neurons, but the density of these cells in the remaining POM was not affected, suggesting that the volume change in the nucleus reflected a centripetal displacement of its boundaries rather than an overall shrinkage of the structure. Stereotaxic T implants in or close to POM activated male copulatory behavior and increased the volume of the POM and the number of its aromatase-immunoreactive cells. These neuroanatomical effects were more prominent on the side of the implant, but they were also detected on the contralateral side. Correlative analyses suggested that a part of the POM just rostral to the anterior commissure is critical for the activation of copulatory behavior. The best correlations between the behavioral deficits induced by electrolytic lesions and the size of the lesions were indeed observed in this area. In addition, high correlations were also observed between the behavior activated by T implants and the POM size or number of aromatase-immunoreactive cells that were induced by T in this area. Aromatase immunocytochemistry therefore appears as a useful tool to map the brain areas in which T action is presumably critical for the activation of male sexual behavior. It has allowed us to identify in the present studies a small part of the sexually dimorphic POM that is closely associated with behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase Inhibition Blocks the Activation and Sexual Differentiation of Appetitive Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Castagna, C.; Ball, G. F.

in Behavioral Neuroscience (1997), 111(2), 381-97

Two experiments investigated the role of estrogens in the activation and sexual differentiation of appetitive sexual behavior (ASB) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as measured by a learned social ... [more ▼]

Two experiments investigated the role of estrogens in the activation and sexual differentiation of appetitive sexual behavior (ASB) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as measured by a learned social proximity response. Injection of the aromatase inhibitor R767 13 in castrated, testosterone (T)-treated male quail completely suppressed ASB, confirming that, like consummatory sexual behavior, ASB is mediated by T aromatization. ASB is not observed in female quail, even if they are treated with T as adults. The role of embryonic estrogens in the sexual differentiation of ASB was tested by blocking estrogen synthesis in ovo. Control male and T-treated female quail deprived of estrogens during embryonic life learned the social proximity response used to assess ASB, whereas control female quail did not, despite the presence of high T. Thus, ASB is demasculinized by the action of embryonic estrogens during ontogeny as is consummatory behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase inhibition blocks the expression of sexually-motivated cloacal gland movements in male quail
Taziaux, Mélanie ULg; Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2004), 67(3), 461-469

In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), activation of appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior requires aromatization of testosterone (T) into estrogens. Appetitive male sexual behavior ... [more ▼]

In Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), activation of appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior requires aromatization of testosterone (T) into estrogens. Appetitive male sexual behavior (ASB) is usually assessed with the use of a learned social proximity procedure. In the present experiment, we investigated the role of estrogens in the activation of an another index of ASB. the female-induced activation of rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (RCSMs) that are produced in reaction to the visual presentation of a female. Consummatory sexual behavior (CSB) was also assessed by the frequency and latency of copulatory behaviors. Castrated male quail were treated with Silastic implants filled with T in association with chronic injections of the aromatase inhibitor Vorozole(TM) (R83842; 1 mg/kg twice a day; CX + T + VOR group). Control birds were implanted with T capsules only (CX + T group). CSB was almost completely blocked by injections of the aromatase inhibitor. The RCSM frequency decreased progressively in the CX + T + VOR group by comparison with the CX + T group and was therefore significantly reduced at the end of the experiment. These results demonstrate that the frequency of RCSM, a second measure of ASB is, like the social proximity response and CSB, blocked by inhibition of estrogen production. It was shown previously that lesions of the preoptic area inhibit both aspects of the appetitive sexual behavior (proximity response and RCSM). It is therefore, likely that both responses are controlled, like copulation, by aromatase-containing neurons of the preoptic area. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe aromatase knock-out mouse provides new evidence that estradiol is required during development in the female for the expression of sociosexual behaviors in adulthood
Bakker, Julie ULg; Honda, S. I.; Harada, N. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 22(20), 9104-9112

We used estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice to determine whether estrogens contribute to the development of the brain and behavior in females. Female mice of three different genotypes [i.e ... [more ▼]

We used estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice to determine whether estrogens contribute to the development of the brain and behavior in females. Female mice of three different genotypes [i.e., wild type (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (ArKO)] were ovariectomized in adulthood and subsequently tested for odor preferences (choice: intact male vs estrous female) in a Y-maze. When treated with testosterone, ArKO females spent significantly less time sniffing odors (both volatile and nonvolatile) from either male or female stimuli compared with WT and HET females. When given direct access to anesthetized stimulus animals or when given a choice between odor and visual cues from both stimulus animals, ArKO females continued to spend less time investigating the stimuli compared with WT and HET females. These defects in olfactory investigation of ArKO females were partially corrected with estradiol treatment in adulthood. Estradiol-treated ArKO females no longer differed from WT and HET females in the time spent investigating either nonvolatile odors or the anogenital region of anesthetized animals. However, ArKO females still investigated volatile odors and/or visual cues less than WT and HET females. Sexual receptivity was severely impaired in ArKO females after treatments with estradiol and progesterone that successfully induced receptivity in WT and HET females. Furthermore, ArKO females showed diminished levels of male sexual behaviors, whereas WT and HET females readily mounted an estrous female. Together, these findings demonstrate that estrogen is required for normal female development. The concept that the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal stimulation should therefore be reconsidered. [less ▲]

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See detailThe aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse provides new evidence that estrogens are required for the development of the female brain
Bakker, Julie ULg; Honda, S.; Harada, N. et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2003), 1007

The classic view of sexual differentiation is that the male brain develops under the influence of testicular secretions, whereas the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal stimulation ... [more ▼]

The classic view of sexual differentiation is that the male brain develops under the influence of testicular secretions, whereas the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal stimulation. However, several studies have suggested a possible role of estradiol in female neural development, although they did not provide unequivocal evidence that estradiol is indispensable for the development of the female brain and behavior. As a result, the hypothesis subsequently languished because of the lack of a suitable animal model to test estrogen's possible contribution to female differentiation. The recent introduction of the aromatase knockout (ArKO) mouse, which is deficient in aromatase activity because of a targeted mutation in the CYP19 gene and therefore cannot aromatize androgen to estrogen, has provided a new opportunity to reopen the debate of whether estradiol contributes to the development of the female brain. Female ArKO mice showed reduced levels of lordosis behavior after adult treatment with estradiol and progesterone, suggesting that estradiol is required for the development of the neural mechanisms controlling this behavior in female mice. The neural systems affected may include the olfactory systems in that ArKO females also showed impairments in olfactory investigation of odors from conspecifics. Thus, the classic view of sexual differentiation, that is, the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal secretion, needs to be re-examined. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase knockout mice show normal steroid-induced activation of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones and luteinising hormone surges with a reduced population of kisspeptin neurones in the rostral hypothalamus.
Szymanski, L.; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2012), 24(9), 1222-33

We recently reported that female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice show deficits in sexual behaviour and a decreased population of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurones in the rostral periventricular area of ... [more ▼]

We recently reported that female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice show deficits in sexual behaviour and a decreased population of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurones in the rostral periventricular area of the third ventricle (RP3V), resurrecting the question of whether oestradiol actively contributes to female-typical sexual differentiation. To further address this question, we assessed the capacity of ArKO mice to generate a steroid-induced luteinising hormone (LH) surge. Adult, gonadectomised wild-type (WT) and ArKO mice were given silastic oestradiol implants s.c. and, 1 week later, received s.c. injections of either oestradiol benzoate (EB) followed by progesterone, EB alone, or no additional steroids to activate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and generate an LH surge. Treatment with EB and progesterone induced significant Fos/GnRH double-labelling and, consequently, an LH surge in female WT and in ArKO mice of both sexes but not in male WT mice. ArKO mice of both sexes had fewer cells expressing Kiss-1 mRNA in the RP3V compared to female WT mice but had more Kiss-1 mRNA-expressing cells compared to WT males, reflecting an incomplete sexual differentiation of this system. To determine the number of cells expressing kisspeptin, the same experimental design was repeated in Experiment 2 with the addition of groups of WT and ArKO mice that were given EB + progesterone and sacrificed 2 h before the expected LH surge. No differences were observed in the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells 2 h before and at the time of the LH surge. The finding that ArKO mice of both sexes have a competent LH surge system suggests that oestradiol has predominantly defeminising actions on the GnRH/LH surge system in males and that the steroid-induced LH surge can occur in females even with a greatly reduced population of kisspeptin neurones in the RP3V. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase-Immunoreactive Cells Are Present in Mouse Brain Areas That Are Known to Express High Levels of Aromatase Activity
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Harada, N.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Cell & Tissue Research (1995), 280(3), 561-74

The transformation of testosterone into estradiol in the brain plays a key role in several behavioral and physiological processes, but it has been so far impossible to localize precisely the cells of the ... [more ▼]

The transformation of testosterone into estradiol in the brain plays a key role in several behavioral and physiological processes, but it has been so far impossible to localize precisely the cells of the mammalian brain containing the relevant enzyme, viz., aromatase. We have recently established an immunohistochemical technique that allows the visualization of aromatase-immunoreactive cells in the quail brain. In this species, a marked increase in the optical density of aromatase-immunoreactive cells is observed in subjects that have been treated with the aromatase inhibitor, R76713 or racemic Vorozole. This increased immunoreactivity, associated with a total blockade of aromatase activity, has been used as a tool in the present study in which the distribution of aromatase-immunoreactive material has been reassessed in the brain of mice pretreated with R76713. As expected, the aromatase inhibitor increases the density of the immunoreactive signal in mice. Strongly immunoreactive cells are found in the lateral septal region, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central amygdala, and the dorso-lateral hypothalamus. A less dense signal is also present in the medial preoptic area, the nucleus accumbens, several hypothalamic nuclei (e.g., paraventricular and ventromedial nuclei), all divisions of the amygdala, and several regions of the cortex, especially the cortex piriformis. These data demonstrate that, contrary to previous claims, aromatase-immunoreactive cells are present in all brain regions that have been shown previously to contain high aromatase activity. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase-Immunoreactive Cells in the Quail Brain: Effects of Testosterone and Sex Dimorphism
Foidart, Agnès ULg; de Clerck, A.; Harada, N. et al

in Physiology & Behavior (1994), 55(3), 453-64

We previously demonstrated that testosterone (T) increases aromatase activity (AA) and that AA is sexually dimorphic (males > females) in the quail preoptic area (POA). The precise anatomical localization ... [more ▼]

We previously demonstrated that testosterone (T) increases aromatase activity (AA) and that AA is sexually dimorphic (males > females) in the quail preoptic area (POA). The precise anatomical localization of these effects is, however, impossible to obtain by biochemical assays even when samples are dissected by the Palkovits punch technique. We were recently able to set up an immunocytochemical (ICC) procedure that permits visualization of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cells in the quail brain. This showed that the ARO-ir cells of the quail POA actually outline the sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM). This ICC technique was used here to analyze the sex dimorphism of the quail preoptic aromatase and the localization of T effects on ARO-ir cells. In Experiment 1, the number of ARO-ir cells was counted in one section every 100 microns throughout the rostral to caudal extent of the POM of castrated birds that had been treated with increasing doses of T (5, 10, or 20 mm long Silastic implants). These T-treatments produced a dose-related increase in the sexual behavior of the birds and they increased the number of ARO-ir cells in POM, in the septal regions, and in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). The effect had a particularly large amplitude in the part of the POM located under the anterior commissure (AC). In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used to reanalyze the sex difference of the preoptic aromatase system. This showed that the POM of adult males contains more stained cells than the POM of females but only in a restricted region located just under and rostral to the AC. No significant sex difference was observed in the septum or in the BNST. In Experiment 3, the number of ARO-ir cells was determined in the POM of males and females that had been gonadectomized and treated with a same dose of T (40 mm implants). No sex difference in the number of ARO-ir cells could be detected in these conditions. This suggests that the sex difference in AA that had been previously observed in T-treated birds results either from a difference in aromatase concentration or activity in a similar number of positive cells or from a difference in the number of ARO-ir cells that is very discrete from the anatomical point of view.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailAromatic chlorination of toluene and of anisole using clay-supported iron(III) chloride and m-chloroperbenzoic Acid - A biomimetic approach
Delaude, Lionel ULg; Laszlo, Pierre ULg

in Catalysis Letters (1990), 5(1), 35-44

n the presence of meta-chloroperbenzoic acid, clay-supported ferric chloride is an efficient aromatic chlorinating agent for toluene and anisole. Influence of various experimental factors such as the ... [more ▼]

n the presence of meta-chloroperbenzoic acid, clay-supported ferric chloride is an efficient aromatic chlorinating agent for toluene and anisole. Influence of various experimental factors such as the nature of the solvent, the peracid or the metallic cation were investigated. These reactions represent a laboratory equivalent to biological halogenations through oxidation of halide ions by peroxidases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatic Side-Chain Interactions In Proteins. I. Main Structural Features
Thomas, Annick ULg; Meurisse, R.; Charloteaux, Benoît ULg et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2002), 48(4), 628-34

In a data set of 593 nonhomologous proteins from the PDB, we have analyzed the pairing of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine residues with their closest aromatic partner. The frequency ... [more ▼]

In a data set of 593 nonhomologous proteins from the PDB, we have analyzed the pairing of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine residues with their closest aromatic partner. The frequency distribution of the shortest interatomic distance of partners is bimodal with a sharp peak at approximately 3.8 A and a wider one at a longer distance. Only the 3.8 A peak corresponds to direct ring-ring interactions thus aromatic pairs. The aromatic pairs were separated into two classes, near-sequence pairs and far-sequence pairs. Near sequence pairs stabilize local structure, and far-sequence pairs stabilize tertiary structure. Far-sequence pairs (74% of all pairs) mainly bridge two beta-strands, followed by pairs that bridge a beta-strand and a helix, and pairs that bridge a beta-strand and a random coil structure. Pairs that bridge helices are rare. The secondary structure of the near-sequence pairs depends on the partner distance in the sequence. When the partners are 1, 3, or 4 residues apart in the sequence, pairs are mostly found in helical structures. When the partners are two apart, pairs are mostly found in the same beta-strand. Analysis of the frequency of near sequence pairs supports the hypothesis that aromatic pairing occurs after, rather than before, the formation of secondary structures. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatic Side-Chain Interactions In Proteins. II. Near- And Far-Sequence Phe-X Pairs
Thomas, Annick ULg; Meurisse, R.; Brasseur, Robert ULg

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2002), 48(4), 635-44

We have collected all aromatic pairs (3152) involving an N-phenyl partner in a dataset of 593 proteins of the PDB: 728 of these pairs involve a partner residue less than 6 apart in the sequence. These ... [more ▼]

We have collected all aromatic pairs (3152) involving an N-phenyl partner in a dataset of 593 proteins of the PDB: 728 of these pairs involve a partner residue less than 6 apart in the sequence. These near-sequence Phe-X pairs correspond to specific conformations that stabilize secondary structures, mainly alpha-helices when the residues are 1, 3, and 4 apart, and beta-strands when they are 2 apart in the sequence. These conformations are not spatially random and have been examined in detail. The remaining phenylalanine pairs (2424) are between partners more than 5 apart in the sequence. Of these far-sequence pairs, 34% of occurrences are in sheets. Next in frequencies are pairs that bridge a beta-strand to a helix (24%), followed by pairs that bridge a beta-strand to a random coiled structure (15%). Helix to helix pairs only constitute 12% of these far-sequence pairs. Analysis of the pairing frequency supports the hypothesis that aromatic interactions are late events of protein folding. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatic Side-Chain Interactions In Proteins. Near- And Far-Sequence His-X Pairs
Meurisse, R.; Brasseur, Robert ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics (2003), 1649(1), 85-96

Several studies have analysed aromatic interactions, involving mostly phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. Only a few studies have considered histidine as an interacting aromatic residue. An extensive ... [more ▼]

Several studies have analysed aromatic interactions, involving mostly phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. Only a few studies have considered histidine as an interacting aromatic residue. An extensive analysis of aromatic His-X interactions is performed here on a data set of 593 PDB structures: 68% of the histidine are involved in aromatic pairs and 1271 non-redundant His-X pairs were analysed. Thirty percent of these pairs involve an aromatic partner less than 6 apart in the sequence. These near-sequence pairs correspond to conformations which stabilise secondary structures, mainly alpha-helices when the residues are 4 apart and beta-strands when they are 2 apart in the sequence. The partners of the other His-X pairs (887, 70%) are more than 5 apart in the sequence. Of these far-sequence pairs, 35% bridge beta strands and only 9% helices. The near-sequence pairs are sterically constrained as supported by conformer distribution. The X partners of far-sequence His-X pairs are mainly "above" the histidine ring with tilted and normal rings, corresponding to a "T shape; face to edge" orientation. Phenylalanine, the only aromatic residue with no heteroatom, is a disfavoured partner, whereas histidine is the preferred one. Heteroatom-heteroatom interactions are favoured in near-sequence as well as in far-sequence His-His, His-Trp and His-Tyr pairs. [less ▲]

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