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See detailMolecular evolution of the CYTH superfamily of proteins
Bettendorff, Lucien ULg; Delvaux, David ULg; Kohn, Grégory ULg et al

in FEBS Journal (2012), 279(Suppl. s1), 438

Molecular evolution of the CYTH superfamily of proteins L. Bettendorff, D. Delvaux, G. Kohn, P. Wins, B. Lakaye GIGA-Neurosciences, University of Liège, Belgium The CYTH superfamily of proteins was named ... [more ▼]

Molecular evolution of the CYTH superfamily of proteins L. Bettendorff, D. Delvaux, G. Kohn, P. Wins, B. Lakaye GIGA-Neurosciences, University of Liège, Belgium The CYTH superfamily of proteins was named after the two founding members, the CYaB adenylyl cyclase from Aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kDa THiamine triphosphatase (ThTPase). Members of this superfamily of proteins exist in all organisms including bacteria, archaea, plants and animals (except in birds) and can be traced back to the Last Universal Common Ancestor. They are characterized by a consensus sequence including several charged residues involved in divalent cation and triphosphate binding. Indeed, all members of the CYTH family that are characterized act on triphosphate derivatives and require at least one divalent cation for catalysis. The Nitrosomonas europaea (1) and E.coli CYTH proteins are specific inorganic triphosphatases. We propose that inorganic triphosphate (PPPi), the most simple triphosphate compound that can be imagined, is the primitive substrate of CYTH proteins. Other enzyme activities such as adenylate cyclase (in A. hydrophila), mRNA triphosphatase (in fungi and protozoans) and ThTPase (in metazoans) activities are secondary acquisitions. We show that ThTPase activity is not limited to mammals, but Sea anemone and Zebrafish CYTH proteins are already specific ThTPases and the acquisition of this enzyme activity is linked to the presence of a Trp (W53 in mammalian ThTPases) residue involved in the binding of the thiazole heterocycle of the thiamine molecule. The importance of W53 for the specificity of mammalian ThTPases is confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Furthermore, we propose a conserved catalytic mechanism between inorganic triphosphatases and ThTPases, based on a catalytic dyad comprising a Lys and a Tyr residue, explaining the alkaline pH optimum of CYTH proteins. (1) Delvaux et al. J. Biol. Chem 286 (2011) 34023-35 [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers (SSR)
Hasnaoui, Nejib ULg; Buonamici, Anna; Sebastiani, Federico et al

in Gene (2012)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about ... [more ▼]

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In the present study, we report the development of 4 new polymorphic SSR markers. They have been used in addition to 11 SSRs previously published to investigate molecular diversity of 33 Punica granatum ecotypes. Based on the multi-locus profiles, twenty-two distinctive genotypes were identified. Globally, quite low genetic diversity has been revealed, as measured by allele richness (2.83 per locus) and heterozygosity (He = 0.245; Ho = 0.243), reflecting the narrow genetic background of the plant material. Four synonymous groups could be detected involving 15 accessions. Results of ordination and cluster analysis suggested that almost all the Tunisian cultivars share similar genetic background, and are likely derived from a small number of introductions in ancient times. Results issued from this study provide essential information to project a previous termpomegranatenext term core-collection without plant material duplication and for sustainable management of previous termpomegranatenext term landraces at national and international level. Furthermore, these SSR markers are powerful tool for marker assisted selection (MAS) program and for QTL studies. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular graphics software on a raster
Lamotte, Josette; Dive, Georges ULg; Dehareng, Dominique et al

in Journal of Molecular Graphics (1988), 6(4), 221

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See detailMolecular heterogeneity of XY sex reversal in horses
Raudsepp, T; Durkin, Keith ULg; Lear, T.L. et al

in Animal Genetics (2010), 41

Male-to-female 64,XY sex reversal is a frequently reported chromosome abnormality in horses. Despite this, the molecular causes of the condition are as yet poorly understood. This is partially because ... [more ▼]

Male-to-female 64,XY sex reversal is a frequently reported chromosome abnormality in horses. Despite this, the molecular causes of the condition are as yet poorly understood. This is partially because only limited molecular information is available for the horse Y chro- mosome (ECAY). Here, we used the recently developed ECAY map and carried out the first comprehensive study of the Y chromosome in XY mares (n = 18). The integrity of the ECAY in XY females was studied by FISH and PCR using markers evenly distributed along the euchromatic region. The results showed that the XY sex reversal condition in horses has two molecularly distinct forms: (i) a Y-linked form that is characterized by Y chromosome deletions and (ii) a non-Y-linked form where the Y chromosome of affected females is molecularly the same as in normal males. Further analysis of the Y-linked form (13 cases) showed that the condition is molecularly heterogeneous: the smallest deletions spanned about 21 kb, while the largest involved the entire euchromatic region. Regardless of the size, all deletions included the SRY gene. We show that the deletions were likely caused by inter-chromatid recombination events between repeated sequences in ECAY. Further, we hypothesize that the occurrence of SRY-negative XY females in some species (horse, human) but not in others (pig, dog) is because of differences in the organization of the Y chromosome. Finally, in contrast to the Y-linked SRY-negative form of equine XY sex reversal, the molecular causes of SRY-positive XY mares (5 cases) remain as yet undefined. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular histology for epithelial ovarian cancers biomarker hunting: new issues for biology and pharmacology.
Longuespée, Rémi ULg; Boyon, Charlotte; Kerdraon, Olivier et al

Poster (2011, September)

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See detailMolecular histology for epithelial ovarian cancers biomarker hunting: new issues for biology and pharmacology.
Longuespée, Rémi ULg; Boyon, Charlotte; Kerdraon, Olivier et al

Poster (2011, June)

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See detailMolecular histology on the diagnostic cutting edge between malignant melanomas and cutaneous melanocytomas (Review).
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Oncology Reports (2009), 22(6), 1263-7

In recent years, the screening accuracy of clinical dermoscopy has increased in the early detection of evolving atypical melanocytic neoplasms. However, the most dramatic cases of human malignant ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the screening accuracy of clinical dermoscopy has increased in the early detection of evolving atypical melanocytic neoplasms. However, the most dramatic cases of human malignant melanomas (MM), i.e. the fast-growing neoplasms, usually escape the classical clinical criteria of MM. As a result, a number of puzzling cases exhibit uncertain clues for MM. Thus, the risk of microscopic misdiagnosis is likely on the rise if the histological criteria are not fine-tuned. This review summarizes a conceptual classification of atypical melanocytic neoplasms grouped under the heading of melanocytomas. Some immunohistochemical markers are tentatively used as discriminators between fast-growing MM and melanocytomas. However, some differences seem to be more statistically significant than clinically useful due to extensive overlap in immunoreactivity from any case to case. A multipronged immunohistological screening is therefore welcome. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular identification of the bacterial populations of steak tartare, a raw consumed meat preparation: a practical use of targeted metagenomic analysis
Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Delhalle, Laurent ULg; Nezer, Carine et al

Poster (2012, September 04)

Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium and other european countries. It is often consumed with french fries or as sandwich spread. This product, due to its raw nature, is highly sensitive to ... [more ▼]

Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium and other european countries. It is often consumed with french fries or as sandwich spread. This product, due to its raw nature, is highly sensitive to bacterial alteration. A better understanding of the bacterial content of this meat product will thus be insightful to master the alteration hazards. Throughout a targeted metagenomic analysis we characterized the bacterial populations of several steak tartare samples. These samples were bought and analyzed during the same day, from three different commercial sources: butchery, sandwich vendor and restaurant. A classic microbiological analysis was performed in parallel. The metagenomic analysis was targeted on two different hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rDNA, in order to compare the bacterial identification efficiency. A total of 60,500 sequences for 12 samples were submitted to a metagenomic analysis. The best hypervariable region enabled us to identify 356 different bacterial species. Lactobacillus algidus is the leading bacterial species, representing 52% of the total analyzed sequences, followed by an uncultured Pseudomonas sp. (8.43%) and Photobacterium phosphoreum (7.92%). The analysis of the results shows that remarkable differences appear between the three sources of steak tartare. First, the samples from the butchery are mainly composed of Lactobacillus populations and to a lesser extend of environmental contaminants like Xanthomonas campestris. On the opposite, the samples from the restaurant are contaminated with higher level of Leuconostocaceae like Leuconostoc carnosum or an uncultured Weissella sp., or with gamma-proteobacteria like Pseudomonas sp. or Psychrobacter sp. These last samples were characterized with some alteration (slime, off odor) that can thus be put in relation with the bacterial populations identified. Combining a broad-range sequencing effort to a rigorous computer analysis gives a powerful tool for the microbiology of food products. Its application can be virtually extended to every food product be readily transposed to the food industry. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular identification of three sympatric species of wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, A-flavicollis, A-alpicola) in western Europe (Muridae : Rodentia)
Michaux, Johan ULg; Kinet, Séverine ULg; Filippucci, M. G. et al

in Molecular Ecology Notes (2001), 1(4), 260-263

The woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and yellow-necked fieldmouse (Apodelnus flavicollis) are sympatric and even syntopic in many regions throughout their European range. Their field discrimination on the ... [more ▼]

The woodmouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and yellow-necked fieldmouse (Apodelnus flavicollis) are sympatric and even syntopic in many regions throughout their European range. Their field discrimination on the basis of external characters is a real challenge for many fields of research. The problem is even more complicated in the Alpine chain where they live sympatrically with a third similar species: A. alpicola. A rapid and simple method is proposed to discriminate the three species in processing field-collected biopsies as well as ethanol-preserved museum samples. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular imaging through in combinaison with quantitative proteomic approaches unraveling the molecular players of breast cancer adaptation to anti-angiogenic therapy.
Cimino, Jonathan ULg; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Calligaris, David ULg et al

Poster (2012, June 22)

Breast carcinoma is the most common and second leading cause of cancer mortality in women. The recognition of the “angiogenic switch” as a rate-limiting secondary step in tumorigenesis led to extensive ... [more ▼]

Breast carcinoma is the most common and second leading cause of cancer mortality in women. The recognition of the “angiogenic switch” as a rate-limiting secondary step in tumorigenesis led to extensive pre-clinical researches on angiogenesis and finally the approval of VEGF-neutralizing antibodies (bevacizumab) and VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKs:Sunitinib). The Sunitinib has been used clinically in patients with breast cancer refractory to other therapeutic agents. Unfortunately, like the cytotoxic therapies, these drugs do not produce lasting effects and resistance to treatment appeared clinically. Questions have emerged about the failure of anti-angiogenic therapy in clinic and the limitations of predictive preclinical models, and also about the molecular assessment of all stages of tumor adaptation and metastatic disease. To this end, we applied quantitative proteomics and imaging mass spectrometry tools to visualize and study the profiles of proteins and small molecules associated with tumor treated or not with Sunitinib using a novel preclinical model of breast carcinoma cells. In this project, we first developed a reproducible model of resistance to Sunitinib of human triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells expressing luciferase gene. Cells were subcutaneously injected into mice RAG1-/- and divided into four experimental groups including, control mice treated with vehicle or Sunitinib for 30 days and sacrificed 1 days after treatment withdrawal or when tumor reached a volume of 300 mm3. In the second step. Tumors were analyzed using a nanoAcquity UPLC Synapt TM HDMS TM G1 (Waters, Manchester,UK) and Mass Spectrometry Imaging. For quantitative proteomic analyses of tumors, a bioinformatics analysis was used with the Protein lynx global server 2.2.5 software. Imaging mass spectrometry was performed on tissue sections of tumors and organs subsequently colonized by metastases. Matrix sublimation was used to coat tumor sections (14 µm-tick) with 1.5 Diaminonaphthalene for lipids analysis and Sinapinic acid for entire proteins analysis. Ion cartographies were recorded with a Solarix 9.4T FTMS instrument for lipids and with an Ultraflex II TOF-TOF instrument for entire proteins (Bruker Daltonics, Germany) with a spatial resolution of 100 µm. Global protemic revealed different protein profiles between tumor treated or not with Sunitinib. The Mass Spectrometry Imaging detected differences in intensity and location of some proteins and lipids are also associated with some histological features including inflammatory, necrotic and angiogenic areas. Bioinformatics analysis will be applied to ensure the integration of all data in order to provide the basis for identifying molecular pathways activated during the acquisition of refractoriness to drug treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular inhibition of cancer cell invasion and metastasis.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.; Sobel, M. E. et al

in Princess Takamatsu Symposia (1991), 22

A group of coordinated cellular processes, not just one gene product, is responsible for invasion and metastasis, the most life-threatening aspect of cancer. It is now recognized that negative factors may ... [more ▼]

A group of coordinated cellular processes, not just one gene product, is responsible for invasion and metastasis, the most life-threatening aspect of cancer. It is now recognized that negative factors may be just as important as positive elements. Genetic changes causing an imbalance of growth regulation lead to uncontrolled proliferation necessary for both primary tumor and metastasis expansion. However, unrestrained growth does not, by itself, cause invasion and metastasis. This phenotype may require additional genetic changes. Thus, tumorigenicity and metastatic potential have both overlapping and separate features. Invasion and metastasis can be facilitated by proteins which stimulate tumor cell attachment to host cellular or extracellular matrix determinants, tumor cell proteolysis of host barriers, such as the basement membrane, tumor cell locomotion, and tumor cell colony formation in the target organ for metastasis. Facilitory proteins may act at many levels both intracellularly and extracellularly, but are counterbalanced by factors which can block their production, regulation or action. A common theme has emerged: in addition to loss of growth control, an imbalanced regulation of adhesion, proteolysis, and motility appears to be required for invasion and metastasis. Re-equilibrating the expression of the genes involved in these tumor invasion related events could potentially constitute the basis for new anti-cancer therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Inhibition of tumor invasion and metastasis.
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Stetler-Stevenson, W. G.; Sobel, M. E. et al

in Proceedings of the 22nd Princess Takamatsu Symposia 1991 CRC Press (1982)

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See detailMolecular interactions involving urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor (uPAR) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), as new targets for tumour therapy
Frankenne, F.; Noël, Agnès ULg; Bajou, Khalid ULg et al

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets (1999), 3(3), 469-48113

In the promotion of cancer progression, a classical role had previously been ascribed to the plasminogen activation system on the basis of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) proteolytic activity and ... [more ▼]

In the promotion of cancer progression, a classical role had previously been ascribed to the plasminogen activation system on the basis of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) proteolytic activity and plasminogen activation triggering a focalised pericellular activation cascade involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As a result, many pharmaceutical companies have undertaken the development of synthetic uPA inhibitors. However, during the last few years, data have accumulated that uPA, as well as urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are likely to play an essential role in tumour progression through non-proteolysis-related activities. Such activities endow them with new and likely key functions in tumour progression-associated events, such as cellular adhesion, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Since these activities essentially depend upon protein-protein interactions, they represent new therapeutic targets. [less ▲]

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See detailA molecular investigation to identify phytoplasmas associated with fruit trees.
Aldaghi, M.; Kummert, J.; Roussel, S. et al

in Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences (2005), 70(3), 253-255

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See detailMolecular investigation to identity of phytoplasma associated with pear and apricot trees in Tunisia
Aldaghi, M.; Kummert, J.; Roussel, S. et al

Poster (2005)

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See detailMolecular layers underlying cytoskeletal remodelling during cortcial development
Heng, Julian; Chariot, Alain ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg

in Trends in Neurosciences (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg)