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See detailMolecular data challenge traditional subgeneric divisions in the leafy liverwort Radula
Devos, Nicolas; Renner, MAM; Gradstein, SR et al

in Taxon (2011), 60

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See detailMolecular decision trees realized by ultrafast electronic spectroscopy
Fresch, Barbara ULg; Hiluf, Dawit; Collini, Elisabetta et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2013), 110(43), 17183-17188

The outcome of a light–matter interaction depends on both the state of matter and the state of light. It is thus a natural setting for implementing bilinear classical logic. A description of the state of ... [more ▼]

The outcome of a light–matter interaction depends on both the state of matter and the state of light. It is thus a natural setting for implementing bilinear classical logic. A description of the state of a time-varying system requires measuring an (ideally complete) set of time-dependent observables. Typically, this is prohibitive, but in weak-field spectroscopy we can move toward this goal because only a finite number of levels are accessible. Recent progress in nonlinear spectroscopies means that nontrivial measurements can be implemented and thereby give rise to interesting logic schemes where the outputs are functions of the observables. Lie algebra offers a natural tool for generating the outcome of the bilinear light–matter interaction. We show how to synthesize these ideas by explicitly discussing three-photon spectroscopy of a bichromophoric molecule for which there are four accessible states. Switching logic would use the on–off occupancies of these four states as outcomes. Here, we explore the use of all 16 observables that define the time-evolving state of the bichromophoric system. The bilinear laser–system interaction with the three pulses of the setup of a 2D photon echo spectroscopy experiment can be used to generate a rich parallel logic that corresponds to the implementation of a molecular decision tree. Our simulations allow relaxation by weak coupling to the environment, which adds to the complexity of the logic operations. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Definition of an Allelic Series of Mutations Disrupting the Myostatin Function and Causing Double-Muscling in Cattle
Grobet, Luc ULg; Poncelet, D.; Royo, L. J. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1998), 9(3), 210-3

We have determined the entire myostatin coding sequence for 32 double-muscled cattle sampled from ten European cattle breeds. Seven DNA sequence polymorphisms were identified, of which five would be ... [more ▼]

We have determined the entire myostatin coding sequence for 32 double-muscled cattle sampled from ten European cattle breeds. Seven DNA sequence polymorphisms were identified, of which five would be predicted to disrupt the function of the protein, one is a conservative amino acid substitution, and one a silent DNA sequence variant. Four additional DNA sequence polymorphisms were identified in myostatin intronic sequences. In all but two breeds, all double-muscled animals were either homozygous or compound heterozygotes for one of the five loss-of-function mutations. The absence of obvious loss-of-function mutations in the coding sequence of the two remaining breeds points either towards additional mutations in unexplored segments of the gene, or towards locus heterogeneity of double-muscling. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular dermatopathology in malignant melanoma.
REGINSTER, Marie-Annick ULg; PIERARD-FRANCHIMONT, Claudine ULg; PIERARD, Gérald ULg et al

in Dermatology Research and Practice (2012), 2012(684032), 1-6

At present, immunohistochemistry is taken for granted in the establishment of malignant melanoma (MM) diagnosis. In recent years, molecular diagnosis in dermatopathology has benefited from a vast array of ... [more ▼]

At present, immunohistochemistry is taken for granted in the establishment of malignant melanoma (MM) diagnosis. In recent years, molecular diagnosis in dermatopathology has benefited from a vast array of advances in the fields of genomics and proteomics. Sensitive techniques are available for detecting specific DNA and RNA sequences by molecular hybridization. This paper intends to update methods of molecular cytogenetics available as diagnostic adjuncts in the field of MM. Cytogenetics has highlighted the pathogenesis of atypical melanocytic neoplasms with emphasis on the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway during the initiation step of the neoplasms. 20 to 40% of MM families have mutations in the tumour suppressor gene p16 or CDKN2A. In addition, somatic mutations in p16, p53, BRAF, and cKIT are present in MM. Genome-wide scan analyses on MM indicate positive associations for genes involved in melanocytic naevi, but MM is likely caused by a variety of common low-penetrance genes. Molecular dermatopathology is expanding, and its use in the assessment of melanocytic neoplasms appears to be promising in the fields of research and diagnosis. Molecular dermatopathology will probably make its way to an increased number of diagnostic laboratories. The expected benefit should improve the patient management. This evolution points to a need for evolution in the training requirements and role of dermatopathologists. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular description of the interactions of aminoglycoside antibiotics with negatively-charged phospholipids. Theoretical molecular modelling and experimental results.
Mingeot-Leclercq, M. P.; Schanck, A.; Van Bambeke, F. et al

in Pharmacology (1995), 14

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See detailMolecular design of multicomponent polymer systems XIX : stability of cocontinuous phase morphologies in low-density polyethylene-polystyrene blends emulsified by block copolymers
Harrats, Charef; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Fayt, Roger et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (1995), 33(5), 801-811

Polyethylene-polystyrene blends containing small amounts of polyethylene (20 wt %) display a cocontinuous phase morphology that is very unstable in the absence of an emulsifier. The kinetics of ... [more ▼]

Polyethylene-polystyrene blends containing small amounts of polyethylene (20 wt %) display a cocontinuous phase morphology that is very unstable in the absence of an emulsifier. The kinetics of coalescence at high temperature is therefore very sensitive to differences in the interfacial activity of added polymeric emulsifiers. The morphology of blends added with a pure or a tapered hydrogenated polybutadiene-b-polystyrene block copolymer is investigated as a function of annealing time at 180°C. Various image treatments (standard granulometry, opening size granulometry distribution, and multiscaling analysis) were used to quantify the morphological evolution of these blends. The results clearly demonstrate that the tapered block copolymer is definitely more efficient than the corresponding pure diblock for stabilizing the cocontinuous structure of these blends. The differential behavior is assumed to results from differences in the tendency of the two copolymers to segregate and form their own domains. © 1995 John Wiley [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Detection and Genotyping of Noroviruses
Stals, A.; Mathijs, E.; Baert, L. et al

in Food and Environmental Virology (2012), 4(4), 153-167

Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide in humans and animals and are known as very infectious viral agents. They are spread through feces and vomit via several transmission ... [more ▼]

Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide in humans and animals and are known as very infectious viral agents. They are spread through feces and vomit via several transmission routes involving person-to-person contact, food, and water. Investigation of these transmission routes requires sensitive methods for detection of NoVs. As NoVs cannot be cultivated to date, detection of these viruses relies on the use of molecular methods such as (real-time) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Regardless of the matrix, detection of NoVs generally requires three subsequent steps: a virus extraction step, RNA purification, and molecular detection of the purified RNA, occasionally followed by molecular genotyping. The current review mainly focused on the molecular detection and genotyping of NoVs. The most conserved region in the genome of human infective NoVs is the ORF1/ORF2 junction and has been used as a preferred target region for molecular detection of NoVs by methods such as (real-time) RT-PCR, NASBA, and LAMP. In case of animal NoVs, broad range molecular assays have most frequently been applied for molecular detection. Regarding genotyping of NoVs, five regions situated in the polymerase and capsid genes have been used for conventional RT-PCR amplification and sequencing. As the expected levels of NoVs on food and in water are very low and inhibition of molecular methods can occur in these matrices, quality control including adequate positive and negative controls is an essential part of NoV detection. Although the development of molecular methods for NoV detection has certainly aided in the understanding of NoV transmission, it has also led to new problems such as the question whether low levels of human NoV detected on fresh produce and shellfish could pose a threat to public health. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular detection of HAV by a new one step real time RT-PCR
Zonta, William ULg; Denayer, Sarah; Thiry, Etienne ULg et al

Poster (2012, September)

Introduction and objectives Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a RNA virus with a single-stranded positive sense genome and the only species of the genus Hepatovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Belgium and ... [more ▼]

Introduction and objectives Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a RNA virus with a single-stranded positive sense genome and the only species of the genus Hepatovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Belgium and European countries in general, are countries with a low prevalence and the majority of adults can be infected. HAV is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route and even if foodborne outbreaks account for less than 5 % of the reported cases per year, the source of infection cannot be identified in 50 % of the reported cases. Therefore the contribution of foodborne infection is probably underestimated. Viral loads in food samples are lower than in clinical samples and their detection requires refined molecular detection methods. Methods A one step real-time RT-PCR to detect HAV, with new primers (HAV F2 and HAV R2) and probe (HAV P2) was performed directly on HAV diluted suspensions and on food samples (dates) and was compared with a ready-to-use commercial kit. Before the one step real time RT-PCR, a preliminary step combining concentration of viral particles with polyethyleneglycol and centrifugation was used on food samples. Results Real time RT-PCR one step with HAV F2/R2/P2 is more efficient but less sensitive than the commercial kit. It could be used to confirm a positive sample or to detect HAV in an unknown sample. With cell cultured HAV, the limit of detection (LOD) is 1.25 infectious particles in volume tested by RT-PCR or 102 TCID50/ml. In food samples, LOD is between 25 infectious particles and 250 infectious particles in volume tested by RT-PCR or between 104 and 105 TCID50/ml. Several hypotheses could explain these results: the loss of viral particles during the extraction process, the low efficiency of RNA extraction and interference of food on molecular detection. Conclusion Molecular detection of virus in food samples remains a challenge and the protocol of extraction should be improved and adapted at each food category to increase the sensitivity of detection in food matrices characterized by a low viral contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular detection of kobuviruses and recombinant noroviruses in cattle in continental Europe
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Scipioni, A.; Mathijs, Elisabeth ULg et al

in Archives of Virology (2009), 154

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See detailMolecular detection of kobuviruses and recombinant noroviruses in cattle in continental europe
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Scipioni, Alexandra; Mathijs, Elisabeth et al

Poster (2009, August)

Introduction and Objectives Noroviruses (NoV) and Kobuviruses (KoV), belong to the family Caliciviridae genus Norovirus and to the family Picornaviridae genus Kobuvirus respectively. Both have a single ... [more ▼]

Introduction and Objectives Noroviruses (NoV) and Kobuviruses (KoV), belong to the family Caliciviridae genus Norovirus and to the family Picornaviridae genus Kobuvirus respectively. Both have a single stranded positive-sense RNA genome. They both infect the gastrointestinal tract of different animal species including human beings. Two NoV and one KoV prototype strains have been already identified in the bovine (Bo) species: Jena virus (JV) and Newbury 2 (NB2) for BoNoV; U1 for BoKoV. Genogroup (G) III gathers all BoNoV strains and is further subdivided into two genotypes where viruses genetically related to JV and NB2 are assigned to the genotype 1 and 2 respectively. Recombination is a common event in NoV and is usually reported near the overlapping region between open reading frame (ORF) 1 (end of the polymerase gene) and ORF2 (beginning of the single capsid protein gene). Two GIII.1/GIII.2 BoNoV recombinant strains have been described including the recombinant strain Bo/NoV/Thirsk10/00/UK (Thirsk10), identified in the year 2000 in Great Britain. To our knowledge, no other genetically related strains have been reported since [1]. Bovine KoV were detected by RT-PCR in stool samples of healthy calves from Japan, in samples from diarrhoeic calves from Thailand [2] and were also identified very recently in Hungary. Bovine NoV prevalence studies performed in different areas have shown the predominance of the GIII.2 genotype but this could reflect a GIII.1 specificity failure in the RT-PCR methods. The aim of this study was to screen cattle stool samples with two primer sets targeting the polymerase and the capsid region. The primer pair targeting the capsid region was designed based on a GIII.1 sequence in order to improve their detection. Materials and methods A stool bank (n=300) was created with calf and young stock diarrhoeic samples from five provinces in Belgium (Hainaut, Liège, Namur, Luxembourg, Walloon Brabant) and received from a Belgian diagnostic laboratory through the year 2008. Viral RNA extraction was performed and one step RT-PCR was carried out on 2 µl of each viral RNA extraction using the CBECu-F/R primers (nucleotidic position on JV: 4543-4565 and 5051-5074) and a primer pair, named AMG1-F/R, designed from the JV genomic sequence (F: tgtgggaaggtagtcgcgaca, nucleotidic position on JV: 5012-5032; R: cacatgggggaactgagtggc, 5462-5482). Combined approaches with the CBECu-F and AMG1-R primers, additional internal primers (F2: atgatgccagaggtttcca, position on JV: 4727-4745; R2: gcaaaaatccatgggtcaat, 5193-5211) or CBECu-F and a polyTVN-linker were also carried out on some positive samples. RT-PCR products were directly sequenced twice or cloned before sequencing. Sequencing was carried out at the GIGA facilities of the University of Liège with BigDye terminator kit. Nucleotidic sequences were analysed with the BioEdit software. Nucleotidic similarity with the NCBI genetic database was assessed using the BLAST tool. Phylogenetic inference was performed with the MEGA software. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by neighbour-joining analysis where evolutionary distances were computed using the Maximum Composite Likelihood method. The confidence values of the internal nodes were calculated by performing 1,000 replicate bootstrap values. Genetic recombination was analysed with the Simplot software and the Recombinant Detection Program. Results Twenty-eight positive samples were identified in the 300 samples: 24 and 23 BoNoV sequences with the CBECu and AMG1 primer pairs respectively, giving a combined apparent molecular prevalence of 9.33% (CI 95%: [9.27; 9.38%]). Using BLAST, three sequences amplified with CBECu-F/R (BV164, BV362, and BV416) were genetically more related to the GIII.1 JV and Aba Z5/02/HUN sequences and one (BV168) to the recombinant strain Thirsk10. The others were genetically related to GIII.2 BoNoV. All the sequences amplified with AMG1-F/R but one genetically matched with GIII.2 BoNoV. The AMG1-amplicon of the BV416 sample matched with the recombinant strain Thirsk10. A 2410 nucleotide (nt)-large genomic sequence was obtained from BV416 with CBECu-F/TVN linker, which was a recombinant sequence genetically related to the Thirsk10 strain. This result was confirmed by phylogenetic and by Simplot analysis. The potential recombination breakpoint of BV416 was located near or within the ORF1/ORF2 overlapping region depending on the bioinformatic program used. Comparison between its different genomic regions and the JV, Newbury2 and Thirsk10 genomic sequences showed that the polymerase region of BV416 was genetically more related to the GIII.1 than to the recombinant strain. F2/R2 amplicons from BV164 and BV362 were genetically related to GIII.2 and GIII.1 BoNoV respectively. Surprisingly, three amplicons obtained with the combined primer pair CBECu-F/AMG1-R on BoNoV positive samples at the expected molecular weight did not match genetically with BoNoV but did so with different genomic regions of the BoKoV U1 strain (86%, 92% and 93% of nucleotidic identity by BLAST for BV228, 250 and 253 respectively on sequences of about 500-700 nt). Discussion and conclusions In this study, very few genotype 1 BoNoV were identified (BV362 was the sole GIII.1 sequence obtained in the ORF1/2 overlapping region), confirming results reported in a previous study on BoNoV infection in the same area [3]. A recombinant status was clarified for BV416. Co-infection with GIII.1 and GIII.2 BoNoV was evidenced in the BV164 sample but could not be excluded in the BV168 sample because an overlapping sequence could not be obtained, although genetic analyses related its CBECu-F/R sequence to the Thirsk10 sequence. These results raise issues about the genetic characterization by primers targeting either the polymerase region or the capsid region. By exclusion of the potential recombination breakpoint, these primers can lead to the misclassification of strains and to the underestimation of circulation of recombinant strains. Multiple alignment and bioinformatic analysis performed with JV, Aba Z5, NB2, Thirk10 and BV416 sequences has suggested a recombination breakpoint for BV416 located near the ORF1/ORF2 overlapping region and one quite similar to those determined for the Thirsk10 strain. Nevertheless the greater similarity of BV416 with the Jena and Aba Z5 viruses in the polymerase region and the exact localization of the recombination breakpoint suggest another origin or genetic evolution than the Thirsk10 strain. The identification, in geographically and temporally different samples, of sequences that could be genetically related to the recombinant Thirsk10 strain suggests at least that Thirsk10-related strains circulate in the north European cattle population. Furthermore, the low detection rate of GIII.1 BoNoV could reflect an evolution of the viral population pattern to the benefit of the Thirsk10-related and genotype 2 strains in the studied region. To date, BoKoV-related sequences have been very rarely identified, and in only three countries (namely Japan, Thailand and Hungary). Their detection in another European country suggests their wider distribution, making them at least emerging bovine viruses in the studied region. In conclusion, prevalence studies on BoNoV using RT-PCR assays, even targeting relatively well conserved genomic regions, need to take into account in their protocols both their high genetic variability and their relative genetic proximity with other viruses, in order to maximize sensitivity and specificity. This study also showed that recombination events could lead to emerging strains in the BoNoV population, as already found for HuNoV. The molecular detection of bovine kobuvirus-related sequences in the studied area extends the distribution of these viruses in Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular detection of six high importance endosymbiotic bacteria in Belgian wild-caught mosquitoes
Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg; Boukraa, Slimane ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

Poster (2014, July)

Introduction Several disease vectors presented a resistance to various pesticides currently used. One of an alternative solution was to use endosymbiotic bacteria because their probably interactive ... [more ▼]

Introduction Several disease vectors presented a resistance to various pesticides currently used. One of an alternative solution was to use endosymbiotic bacteria because their probably interactive effects with their host. According to the introduction risks of mosquito born disease and their dispersion, we propose to investigate the prevalence of six endosymbiontic bacteria in wild-caught Culicidae in Belgium. Methods Eleven species of Belgian fields mosquitoes (Culex pipiens s.l., Cx. torrentium, Cx. hortensis, Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, Culiseta annulata, Ochlerotatus geniculatus, Oc. dorsalis, Aedes albopictus and Coquillettidia richiardii) were used for the screening of six genera endosymbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia sp., Commamonas sp., Delftia sp., Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Asaia sp.) according to their possible impact in mosquito biology. PCR was done for the screening and positives bands were sequenced and deposited in GenBank. Results Total of 144 larvae and 32 adults were used. Wolbachia, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Asaia were found in mosquitoes with different proportions, according to stages (adults, larvae) with a predominance of Pseudomonas in all species, as far as Acinetobacter and Asaia also have a high prevalence. Commamonas and Delftia were absent from all species tested, either in larvae and in adults. Discussion Choice of endosymbiotic bacteria studied here was allowing of their importance in literature. For Pseudomonas, it showed that this bacteria could produced ovipositon attractants for mosquito. Acinetobacter was suggested efficient in transmission and maintenance within host populations. Asaia was capable of efficiently crossing body barriers and colonizing different organs. Wolbachia was currently the most studied bacteria which plays an important role in the genetic manipulation of the host. Present advances in understanding the mosquito–microbiota relationships may have a great impact in a better understanding of some traits of mosquito biology and in the development of innovative mosquito-borne disease-control strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular detection of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in the bone marrow of asymptomatic horses
Pitel, Pierre-Hugues; Pronost, Stéphane; Scrive, Thibaut et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2010)

Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, the aetiological agents of which are either Theileria equi or Babesia caballi parasites. Piroplasmosis is commonly encountered in acute or sub-acute clinical ... [more ▼]

Equine piroplasmosis is a tick-borne disease, the aetiological agents of which are either Theileria equi or Babesia caballi parasites. Piroplasmosis is commonly encountered in acute or sub-acute clinical forms although clinically recovered horses may remain asymptomatic but infected for several years. The clinical detection of such apparently healthy carrier horses (that serve as a host for subsequent infecting ticks), remains a worldwide challenge for controlling the spread of the disease. The aim of the present paper is to report on the detection of both T. equi and B. caballi by PCR in the bone marrow of naturally infected asymptomatic horses. Among 35 bone marrow samples evaluated for orthopaedic clinical research purposes, three samples from clinically healthy horses were found to be positive for T. equi, one of which was also positive for B. caballi. Even if the precise localisation of these parasites as well as the underlying mechanisms for persistence still remains unknown, one should not exclude bone marrow as a potential reservoir site for T. equi and B. caballi in infected asymptomatic horses. We suggest that, this possible localisation site (the bone marrow) should be considered as a therapeutic target when treating parasitic infection in apparently healthy horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Determinants Of The Interaction Between The C-Terminal Domain Of Alzheimer'S Beta-Amyloid Peptide And Apolipoprotein E Alpha-Helices
Lins, Laurence ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg; Pillot, T. et al

in Journal of Neurochemistry (1999), 73(2), 758-69

In a previous work, we predicted and demonstrated that the 29-42-residue fragment of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta peptide) has in vitro capacities close to those of the tilted fragment of viral fusion ... [more ▼]

In a previous work, we predicted and demonstrated that the 29-42-residue fragment of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta peptide) has in vitro capacities close to those of the tilted fragment of viral fusion proteins. We further demonstrated that apolipoprotein E2 and E3 but not apolipoprotein E4 can decrease the fusogenic activity of Abeta(29-42) via a direct interaction. Therefore, we suggested that this fragment is implicated in the neurotoxicity of Abeta and in the protective effects of apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's disease. Because structurally related apolipoproteins do not interact with the Abeta C-terminal domain but inhibit viral fusion, we suggested that interactions existing between fusogenic peptides and apolipoproteins are selective and responsible for the inhibition of fusion. In this study, we simulated interactions of all amphipathic helices of apolipoproteins E and A-I with Abeta and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) fusogenic fragments by molecular modeling. We further calculated cross-interactions that do not inhibit fusion in vitro. The results suggest that interactions of hydrophobic residues are the major event to inhibit the fusogenic capacities of Abeta(29-42) and SIV peptides. Selectivity of those interactions is due to the steric complementarity between bulky hydrophobic residues in the fusogenic fragments and hydrophobic residues in the apolipoprotein C-terminal amphipathic helices. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular dissection of a quantitative trait locus: a phenylalanine-to-tyrosine substitution in the transmembrane domain of the bovine growth hormone receptor is associated with a major effect on milk yield and composition.
Blott, Sarah; Kim, Jong-Joo; Moisio, Sirja et al

in Genetics (2003), 163(1), 253-66

We herein report on our efforts to improve the mapping resolution of a QTL with major effect on milk yield and composition that was previously mapped to bovine chromosome 20. By using a denser chromosome ... [more ▼]

We herein report on our efforts to improve the mapping resolution of a QTL with major effect on milk yield and composition that was previously mapped to bovine chromosome 20. By using a denser chromosome 20 marker map and by exploiting linkage disequilibrium using two distinct approaches, we provide strong evidence that a chromosome segment including the gene coding for the growth hormone receptor accounts for at least part of the chromosome 20 QTL effect. By sequencing individuals with known QTL genotype, we identify an F to Y substitution in the transmembrane domain of the growth hormone receptor gene that is associated with a strong effect on milk yield and composition in the general population. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular dissection of the bovine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein (BLV gp51) by a monoclonal antibody study.
Bruck, Claudine; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Zavada, J. et al

in Neth, R. (Ed.) Modern Trends in Human Leukemia V (1983)

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See detailMolecular dissection of the Bovine Leukemia Virus external envelope glycoprotein using synthetic peptides.
Callebaut, Isabelle; Burny, Arsène; Krchnak, Viktor et al

in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (1992), 8

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See detailMolecular dissection of the color-sided phenotype in cattle reveals a novel mechanism of chromosome evolution involving circular shuttling intermediates.
Durkin, Keith ULg; Cambisano, Nadine ULg; Ahariz, Naïma ULg et al

in Chromosome Research : An International Journal on the Molecular, Supramolecular and Evolutionary Aspects of Chromosome Biology (2011, May), 19(S1), 18

The color-sided (Cs) phenotype is a dominant coat color pattern segregating in several breeds including Belgian Blue Cattle (BBC) and Brown Swiss (BS). A genome-wide association study performed in BBC ... [more ▼]

The color-sided (Cs) phenotype is a dominant coat color pattern segregating in several breeds including Belgian Blue Cattle (BBC) and Brown Swiss (BS). A genome-wide association study performed in BBC unambiguously positioned the Cs locus on chromo- some 29 (BTA29); however, SNP arrays and CGH detected an equally perfectly associated <480 kb duplication encompassing the KIT gene on chromo- some 6 (BTA6). FISH analysis reconciled these results by revealing an intrachromosomal duplication, which transposed a fragment of BTA6 to BTA29. The organization of the duplicated segment, including breakpoint definition, was determined by high-throughput resequencing and revealed that the transpo- sition occurred via a circular intermediate. The trans- posed KIT copy was shown to be transcriptionally competent, suggesting that dominant color-sidedness results from dysregulated expression of KIT. Similar analyses of the color-sided phenotype conducted in BS revealed linkage on BTA6, a <120- kb-BTA6 duplication (which overlaps with the BBC duplication), and a <414-kb-BTA29 duplication adja- cent to the BTA29 breakpoint defined in BBC. FISH analysis showed the duplicated portion of BTA29 was located on BTA6 and adjacent to the KIT gene. SNP genotyping indicated that the BTA6 and BTA29 haplotypes associated with color-sidedness in BS and BBC were near identical, demonstrating the non-independence of the two chromosomal events. High-throughput resequencing of a color-sided BS animal defined the corresponding breakpoints and suggests that the BS Cs allele is derived from the BBC duplication [less ▲]

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