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See detailL’individu et le citoyen dans la société moderne
Potvin, Maryse; Fournier, Bernard ULg; Couture, Yves

Book published by Presses de l’Université de Montréal (2000)

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See detailL'individu, avenir de la sociologie ? Réflexion critique sur l'individualisme méthodologique et la sociologie de l'action à partir des travaux de R. Boudon
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Master's dissertation (1987)

The text shows that the "methodological individualism" of Boudon cannot be sutained without an impict assumption about "ontological" individualism : in some sense, any individualist theory of explanation ... [more ▼]

The text shows that the "methodological individualism" of Boudon cannot be sutained without an impict assumption about "ontological" individualism : in some sense, any individualist theory of explanation assumes that, to some extent, the individual is more "real" than the social. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual and combined effects of dosages of azoxystrobin and epoxiconazole in wheat
Moreau, Jean-Marc; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Maraite, H. et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2005, May 10), 70(3), 91-99

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See detailIndividual and interacting effects of pCO2 and temperature on Emiliania huxleyi calcification: Study of the calcite production, the coccolith morphology and the coccosphere size
De Bodt, Caroline; Van Oostende, Nicolas; Harlay, Jérôme ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2010), 7

The impact of ocean acidification and increased water temperature on marine ecosystems, in particular those involving calcifying organisms, has been gradually recognised. We examined the individual and ... [more ▼]

The impact of ocean acidification and increased water temperature on marine ecosystems, in particular those involving calcifying organisms, has been gradually recognised. We examined the individual and combined effects of increased pCO2 (180 ppm V CO2, 380 ppm V CO2 and 750 ppm V CO2 corresponding to past, present and future CO2 conditions, respectively) and temperature (13°C and 18°C) during the calcification phase of the coccolithophore E. huxleyi using batch culture experiments. We showed that the cell abundance-normalized particulate organic carbon concentration (POC) increased from the present to the future CO2 treatments. A significant effect of pCO2 and of temperature on calcification was found, manifesting itself in a lower cell abundance-normalized particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) content as well as a lower PIC:POC ratio at future CO2 levels and at 18°C. Coccosphere-sized particles showed a size reduction trend with both increasing temperature and CO2 concentration. The influence of the different treatments on coccolith morphology was studied by categorizing SEM coccolith micrographs. The number of well-formed coccoliths decreased with increasing pCO2 while temperature did not have a significant impact on coccolith morphology. No interacting effect of pCO2 and temperature was observed on calcite production, coccolith morphology or on coccosphere size. Finally, our results suggest that ocean acidification might have a larger adverse impact on coccolithophorid calcification than surface water warming. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual decisions in placenta increta and percreta: a case series.
CHANTRAINE, Frédéric ULg; NISOLLE, Michelle ULg; PETIT, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Perinatal Medicine (2012), 40(3), 265-70

Abstract Objective: Placenta increta or percreta is an uncommon pathology, sometimes associated with high maternal morbidity. Its prevalence increases proportionally to the number of cesarean sections ... [more ▼]

Abstract Objective: Placenta increta or percreta is an uncommon pathology, sometimes associated with high maternal morbidity. Its prevalence increases proportionally to the number of cesarean sections. This study analyzed the changes of our management strategy to devise treatment guidelines for this uncommon disorder. Materials and methodology: Between 2005 and 2011, 10 cases of placenta increta or percreta were managed at our university hospital maternity department. Results: Among the 10 cases, seven were diagnosed prenatally. Two patients were diagnosed early, at 14 and 17 weeks of gestational age, and their pregnancies were terminated. Five had hysterectomies during the intrapartum period, and despite attempted conservative treatment for the two others, hysterectomy proved necessary 2 months postpartum because of intrauterine infections. Seven of the 10 women had hysterectomies. Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis of placenta increta or percreta is essential to plan the delivery in a competent tertiary care center. The decision to perform a cesarean hysterectomy or leave the placenta in situ for spontaneous delivery is based on the extent of infiltration, the patient's hemodynamic status, and her desire to remain fertile. The high-risk of infection and severe hemorrhage must not be overlooked should conservative treatment be chosen. This situation requires prolonged close monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual differences in cognitive representations of action influence the activation of goal concepts
Belayachi, Sanaa ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Acta Psychologica (2013), 142(2), 259-264

Goal representations play a key role in various psychological processes, including behavioral regulation, self-perception and social understanding. Research on cognitive representations of action has ... [more ▼]

Goal representations play a key role in various psychological processes, including behavioral regulation, self-perception and social understanding. Research on cognitive representations of action has identified individual differences in the general tendency to construe actions in terms of their goal (vs. movement parameters), which can be reliably assessed with the Behavior Identification Form (BIF). The aim of the present study was to examine how individual differences in action identification, as measured by the BIF, affect online processing of action in a laboratory study. The main results showed that the level of action identification predicted participants' performance in a task designed to implicitly assess people's automatic processing of action regarding goal features. We discussed the possible role of impaired goal processing in psychological dysfunctions. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual differences in the non-image frroming effects of light on human sleep.
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Viola, Antoine; Schmidt, Christina ULg et al

in Journal of Sleep Research (2014, September)

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See detailIndividual differences in the phenomenology of mental time travel: The effect of vivid visual imagery and emotion regulation strategies
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2006), 15(2), 342-350

It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual ... [more ▼]

It has been claimed that the ability to remember the past and the ability to project oneself into the future are intimately related. We sought support for this proposition by examining whether individual differences in dimensions that have been shown to affect memory for past events similarly influence the experience of projecting oneself into the future. We found that individuals with a higher capacity for visual imagery experienced more visual and other sensory details both when remembering past events and when imagining future events. In addition, individuals who habitually use suppression to regulate their emotions experienced fewer sensory, contextual, and emotional details when representing both past and future events, while the use of reappraisal had no effect on either kind of events. These findings are consistent with the view that mental time travel into the past and into the future relies on similar mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual distance-independent girth increment model for Douglas-fir in southern Belgium
Monty, Arnaud ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Ecological Modelling (2008), 212(3-4), 472-479

An individual distance-independent girth increment model for pure stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO), comprising two equations, is presented. The data used to fit the model were ... [more ▼]

An individual distance-independent girth increment model for pure stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO), comprising two equations, is presented. The data used to fit the model were collected from 1007 trees in 42 plots installed in regularly stocked and even-aged stands located in Wallonia (southern Belgium). Both equations predict girth increment from individual girth, dominant height, basal area per hectare, stand mean girth and variables linked to site fertility. These last variables are the site index H50 in the first equation, and a combination of mean annual rainfall and altitude in the second. The coefficient of determination ranges from 0.434 to 0.481 and the root mean square error ranges from 0.7857 to 0.8194 cm year(-1). Estimated increments of 224 Douglas-fir trees in 12 different and independent stands were used to validate the model, which is expected to provide reliable predictions for most of the pure Douglas-fir stands located in the study area. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual effect of equine digital morphometric parameters on joint kinetics: a sensitivity analysis
Noble, Prisca ULg; Collin, Bernard ULg; Denoix, Jean-Marie et al

in ISB proceeding (2011), 155(2), 77-82

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See detailIndividual lignocellulosic components as raw materials for the biobased sector: strategic innovations in the Belgian context
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Istasse, Thibaut ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Scientific conference (2016)

The southern region of Belgium (Wallonia) has been selected by the European Commission to be a bioeconomic “model demonstrator region”. This designation ensures adequate financial support for the ... [more ▼]

The southern region of Belgium (Wallonia) has been selected by the European Commission to be a bioeconomic “model demonstrator region”. This designation ensures adequate financial support for the development of production of sustainable chemicals. At the University of Liège, the Laboratory of Biological and Industrial Chemistry, which is recognized as a Center of Excellence in Biorefining and Green Technologies, is engaged in R&D with a strong partnership with the industrial sector. With unique pilot facilities, this Laboratory is able to perform prototyping and demonstration for the conversion of an array of biomasses. Local raw (lignocellulosic) materials are emphasized. This talk will describe two specific topics developed in our laboratory, from fundamentals to industrial applications. Lignin: toward high-value-added applications (Ir. Thomas Berchem) Lignin, the most abundant natural aromatic biopolymer, demonstrates high added value potential as an alternative to fossil resources for the production of a wide range of bioproducts and molecules for the chemical sector because of its unique aromatic structure. In Wallonia, two providers of lignins have been identified: the pulping industry and the agricultural sector (mostly as by-products from cereals). Profitable applications of lignins were few in Belgium before 2010 and development of new technologies were needed to exploit the full potential of this promising resource. Several projects led by our Laboratory and aiming to extract and upgrade lignin in high-value-added industrial applications (surface active agents, electric dispersants, components for waterproofing membranes, flame retardants, etc.) are proposed herein. These projects are strongly supported by grants from the Belgian chemical sector. Production of furan-based compounds for the plastics industry (Ir. Thibaut Istasse) Belgium is world-class innovator for chemicals and plastics. It is notably innovative in the production of bioplastics, mostly for packaging). Combined with strong European regulations (e.g. REACh), the substitution of some petrochemical-based monomers by biobased alternatives is strongly favored. In this context, the production of furans derivatives is studied starting from several local biomasses. In particular, our Laboratory has emphasized the potential of hydrothermal treatments and aqueous acid-catalyzed processes as key industrial steps for an economically viable production of these furanic platform chemicals. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual measurement of gene expression in blood cells from Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)
Urquhart, Katy; Collins s, Catherine; Mira Monte, Milena ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental and Applied Animal Sciences (2016), 2(1), 1-9

Most studies that monitor a biological parameter over time in fish are based on the culling of animals and subsequent tissue sampling or the use of complicated surgical procedures such as cannulation of ... [more ▼]

Most studies that monitor a biological parameter over time in fish are based on the culling of animals and subsequent tissue sampling or the use of complicated surgical procedures such as cannulation of the dorsal aorta. The former method suffers from the large inter-individual variability typically seen in outbred fish, whilst the latter requires highly skilled operators and is not possible with small fish. We describe here a novel and simple method based on non-lethal collection of blood samples from the same individual, allowing improved data quality and reduction in number of animals used without the need for surgical procedures. The frequency and volume of blood collected repeatedly was adjusted to limit the decrease in the percentage of blood packed cell volume (PPCV). The stress response evaluated by measuring the expression of the heat shock proteins 90αb1, 70KDa and the cytochrome p450 family 17 A1 in blood cells by qPCR. Expression levels increased during the PPCV decline and returned to their basal level after adjustment of the sampling procedure. This study demonstrates that a non-lethal sampling procedure can be used for salmonid fish and gene expression in blood cells can be monitored over time from the same individual. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Monitoring of Immune Response in Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar following Experimental Infection with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV).
Collet, Bertrand; Urquhart, Katy; Mira Monte, Milena ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(9), 0137767

Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We ... [more ▼]

Monitoring the immune response in fish over the progression of a disease is traditionally carried out by experimental infection whereby animals are killed at regular intervals and samples taken. We describe here a novel approach to infectiology for salmonid fish where blood samples are collected repeatedly in a small group of PIT-tagged animals. This approach contributes to the reduction of animals used in research and to improved data quality. Two groups of 12 PIT-tagged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were i.p infected with Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus (ISAV) or culture medium and placed in 1 m3 tanks. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 21 and 25 days post infection. The viral load, immune and stress response were determined in individual fish by real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR) on the blood cells, as well as the haematocrit used as an indicator of haemolysis, a clinical consequence of ISAV infection. "In-tank" anaesthesia was used in order to reduce the stress related to chase and netting prior to sampling. The data were analysed using a statistical approach which is novel with respect to its use in fish immunology. The repeated blood collection procedure did not induce stress response as measured by HSP70 and HSP90 gene expression in the un-infected animals. A strong increase in viraemia as well as a significant induction of Mx and gammaIP gene expression were observed in the infected group. Interleukin 10 was found induced at the later stage of the infection whereas no induction of CD8 or gamma IFN could be detected. These results and the advantages of this approach are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual monitoring of immune responses in rainbow trout after cohabitation and intraperitoneal injection challenge with Yersinia ruckeri.
Mira Monte, Milena ULg; Urquhart, Katy; Secombes, Christopher J. et al

in Fish and Shellfish Immunology (2016), 55

Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally ... [more ▼]

Yersinia ruckeri, the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease (ERM), is a widely studied pathogen in disease models using rainbow trout. This infection model, mostly based on intraperitoneally injection or bath immersion challenges, has an impact on both components (innate and adaptive) of the fish immune system. Although there has been much attention in studying its host-pathogen interactions, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of a cohabitation challenge. To tackle this we used a newly established non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing a small amount of blood) in rainbow trout which allowed the individual immune monitoring before (non-infected) and after infection with Yersinia ruckeri either by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by cohabitation (cohab). A range of key immune genes were monitored during the infection by real-time PCR, and results were compared between the two infection routes. Results indicated that inflammatory (IL-1beta1 and IL-8) cytokines and certain antimicrobial peptides (cathelicidins) revealed a different pattern of expression between the two infected groups (i.p. vs cohab), in comparison to adaptive immune cytokines (IL-22, IFN-gamma and IL-4/13A) and beta-defensins. This suggests a different involvement of distinct immune markers according to the infection model, and the importance of using a cohabitation challenge as a more natural disease model that likely simulates what would occur in the environment. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual monitoring of salmonid immune responses during immunisation and infection
Mira Monte, Milena ULg; Causey, Dwight; Stead, David et al

Conference (2016)

Aquaculture currently provides nearly half of all fish consumed globally and is the fastest growing sector of food and animal production. Infectious diseases are the most significant threat to the future ... [more ▼]

Aquaculture currently provides nearly half of all fish consumed globally and is the fastest growing sector of food and animal production. Infectious diseases are the most significant threat to the future expansion of this industry. Vaccination is widely considered the best prevention strategy and much effort is focussed upon the development of new and more efficacious fish vaccines. Most research groups use a vaccination-challenge strategy to evaluate immune protection in terminally-acquired tissue samples. However this approach requires large numbers of animals to obtain sufficient statistical power providing limited information on the kinetics of the protective response. To address this, we established a non-lethal sampling method (by withdrawing small amounts of blood repeatedly from the same individual) to monitor salmonid immunity during infection or immunisation. This enabled us to monitor (by real-time PCR) key immune markers from a small number of animals durin g pathogen challenge. Furthermore, due to the limitations of mRNA-level validation, we are currently developing a high-throughput proteomics platform to allow the rapid and accurate quantification of immune-responsive proteins in plasma samples during immunisation. Thus, we are optimising targeted and shotgun mass spectrometry approaches, performed on a Q Exactive hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap, using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as our study model. By applying a non-lethal sampling we were able to individually monitor changes in immune markers during the course of an immune response. Such information will allow a better understanding of fish immunity and might be applied in the future to reduce the number of animals required in vaccine development. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual variation and the endocrine regulation of behaviour and physiology in birds: a cellular/molecular perspective.
Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Philosophical Transactions : Biological Sciences (2008), 363(1497), 1699-710

Investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of physiology and behaviour have generally avoided attempts to explain individual differences. The goal has rather been to discover general ... [more ▼]

Investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of physiology and behaviour have generally avoided attempts to explain individual differences. The goal has rather been to discover general processes. However, understanding the causes of individual variation in many phenomena of interest to avian eco-physiologists will require a consideration of such mechanisms. For example, in birds, changes in plasma concentrations of steroid hormones are important in the activation of social behaviours related to reproduction and aggression. Attempts to explain individual variation in these behaviours as a function of variation in plasma hormone concentrations have generally failed. Cellular variables related to the effectiveness of steroid hormone have been useful in some cases. Steroid hormone target sensitivity can be affected by variables such as metabolizing enzyme activity, hormone receptor expression as well as receptor cofactor expression. At present, no general theory has emerged that might provide a clear guidance when trying to explain individual variability in birds or in any other group of vertebrates. One strategy is to learn from studies of large units of intraspecific variation such as population or sex differences to provide ideas about variables that might be important in explaining individual variation. This approach along with the use of newly developed molecular genetic tools represents a promising avenue for avian eco-physiologists to pursue. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual variation of gait characteristics along a 500 meter walk in people with multiple sclerosis and healthy volunteers
Phan-Ba, Rémy; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Giet, Amaury et al

in Multiple Sclerosis Journal (2015, April 10), 21(4), 532-533

Background: we previously demonstrated the usefulness of the Deceleration Index (DI, the ratio between the last 100m of the Timed 500-Meter Walk test –T500MW – and the walking speed - WS – of the Timed 25 ... [more ▼]

Background: we previously demonstrated the usefulness of the Deceleration Index (DI, the ratio between the last 100m of the Timed 500-Meter Walk test –T500MW – and the walking speed - WS – of the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test with a propelled start – T25FW+) to evaluate motor fatigue over a long walking distance in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). We also recently designed and internally validated a new gait analysis tool for pwMS (GAIMS) that can measure other relevant gait characteristics than the sole WS, such as ataxia, asymmetry and perhaps spasticity. Aims: (i) To compare various gait characteristics between the last and the first 100m of the T500MW in a population of pwMS and healthy volunteers (HV), (ii) to compare the ratio between the last and the first 100m of the T500MW with the DI, and (iii) their relationship with the EDSS. Methods : Subjects were asked to perform the T25FW+ and the T500MW as part of a multimodal evaluation at the MS Clinic of the CHU of Liège. Their gait characteristics were measured using GAIMS. (i) Paired Student’s t-tests were performed on various gait characteristics extracted during the last and first 100m of the T500MW with .05 as a level of significance, (ii) Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) was calculated (ii) between these ratio and (iii) subject’s EDSS. Results: Seventy-one pwMS and 129 were enrolled in our study. (i) Significant differences were observed for speed related gait characteristics between the last and first 100m of the T500MW, but also for gait characteristics related to ataxia and precision of foot placement. (ii) A moderate positive correlation was observed between the WS ratio of the last and first 100m of the T500MW and the DI. (iii) The correlation between the DI and the EDSS was weakly negative, while the one between the last and first 100m of the T500MW ratio and the EDSS was moderatly negative. Conclusion: (i) As previously demonstrated, we here confirm that alongside to WS, there are other gait features affected by locomotor fatigue over a long walking distance, (ii) the moderate positive correlation between the DI and the last/first 100m of the T500MW indicates that these measures are not the same and that next to a long distance walking test such as the T500MW, a short one such as the T25FW+ remains useful. (iii) The last/first 100m of the T500MW is better correlated to the EDSS and might be a better predictive tool of pwMS’ neurologic state than the DI. [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual variation of gait parameters along a 500 meter walk in people with multiple sclerosis and healthy volonteers
Phan-Ba, Rémy; Giet, Amaury; Pierard, Sébastien ULg et al

Poster (2015, April 10)

Background: we previously demonstrated the usefulness of the Deceleration Index (DI, the ratio between the last 100m of the Timed 500-Meter Walk test –T500MW – and the walking speed - WS – of the Timed 25 ... [more ▼]

Background: we previously demonstrated the usefulness of the Deceleration Index (DI, the ratio between the last 100m of the Timed 500-Meter Walk test –T500MW – and the walking speed - WS – of the Timed 25-Foot Walk Test with a propelled start – T25FW+) to evaluate motor fatigue over a long walking distance in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). We also recently designed and internally validated a new gait analysis tool for pwMS (GAIMS) that can measure other relevant gait characteristics than the sole WS, such as ataxia, asymmetry and perhaps spasticity. Aims: (i) To compare various gait characteristics between the last and the first 100m of the T500MW in a population of pwMS and healthy volunteers (HV), (ii) to compare the ratio between the last and the first 100m of the T500MW with the DI, and (iii) their relationship with the EDSS. Methods : Subjects were asked to perform the T25FW+ and the T500MW as part of a multimodal evaluation at the MS Clinic of the CHU of Liège. Their gait characteristics were measured using GAIMS. (i) Paired Student’s t-tests were performed on various gait characteristics extracted during the last and first 100m of the T500MW with .05 as a level of significance, (ii) Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) was calculated (ii) between these ratio and (iii) subject’s EDSS. Results: Seventy-one pwMS and 129 were enrolled in our study. (i) Significant differences were observed for speed related gait characteristics between the last and first 100m of the T500MW, but also for gait characteristics related to ataxia and precision of foot placement. (ii) A moderate positive correlation was observed between the WS ratio of the last and first 100m of the T500MW and the DI. (iii) The correlation between the DI and the EDSS was weakly negative, while the one between the last and first 100m of the T500MW ratio and the EDSS was moderatly negative. Conclusion: (i) As previously demonstrated, we here confirm that alongside to WS, there are other gait features affected by locomotor fatigue over a long walking distance, (ii) the moderate positive correlation between the DI and the last/first 100m of the T500MW indicates that these measures are not the same and that next to a long distance walking test such as the T500MW, a short one such as the T25FW+ remains useful. (iii) The last/first 100m of the T500MW is better correlated to the EDSS and might be a better predictive tool of pwMS’ neurologic state than the DI. [less ▲]

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