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See detailMorphology, growth and modelling of bone tissue
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Pastoret, V.; De Behr, V. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 1-13

Bone is an essential part of the squeletton. Besides its mechanic properties, bone has an important role in metabolism regulation because it acts as a reservoir for the storage of minerals essential to ... [more ▼]

Bone is an essential part of the squeletton. Besides its mechanic properties, bone has an important role in metabolism regulation because it acts as a reservoir for the storage of minerals essential to provide homeostasy. This article describes bone morphology and different ways of classification of this tissue. It gives the composition of organic and mineral extracellular bone matrix, underlines the dynamic character of bone tissue, details the cellular morphology and the metabolism of the elements acting on the synthesis/resorption mechanisms : osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocyts and osteoclasts. It relates the histogenesis of bone tissue and develops the different types of ossification: intramembranous, periostic, endochondral and osteonal remodeling. The last part of this article describe some dietetary and hormonal influences on bone tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology. Mapping the genesis of the Flying Dragon
Ek, Camille ULg

in Masschelein, J.; Zhang, Shouyue (Eds.) Teng Long Dong, the longest cave of China (1990)

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See detailMorphometric age estimate of the last phase of accelerated uplift in the Kazdag area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey)
Demoulin, Alain ULg; Altin, T. Bayer; Beckers, Arnaud ULg

in Tectonophysics (2013), 608

While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the ... [more ▼]

While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the cause of this uplift phase is also debated, being associated either to back-arc extension in the rear of the Hellenic subduction zone, to transpression along the northern edge of the west-moving Anatolian microplate, or to extension driven by gravitational collapse. Here, we perform a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. While the dependence of profile concavity on basin size confirms that the landscape of the peninsula is still in a transient state, the spatial distribution of profile steepness values characterized by higher values for streams flowing down from the Kazdag massif shows that the latter undergoes higher uplift rates than the rest of the peninsula. We obtain a SR value of 0.324 ± 0.035 that, according to the relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.5–1.3 Ma and a most probable value of 0.8 Ma for the time of the last tectonic perturbation in the region. In agreement with the analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, this suggests that a pulse of uplift occurred at that time and, corroborated by sparse published observations in the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions, that the peninsula was uplifted as a whole from that time. This uplift pulse might have been caused by transient compressive conditions in the Anatolian plate when the Eratosthenes seamount came to subduct beneath the Cyprus arc around the early-to-mid Pleistocene transition (Schattner, 2010). [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the body and the branches of the normal third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament) in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2013)

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the ... [more ▼]

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the body and the branches of right thoracic and pelvic limbs TIOM in sound horses to determine whether there are differences in CT, MT and AT between age, sex, limbs and levels. Right limbs from 11 sound horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the TIOM were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis programme to calculate percentage of each tissue within the TIOM. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the TIOM. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the TIOM of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the normal suspensory ligament in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2013, July)

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in ... [more ▼]

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in sound horses. Right limbs from 11 horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the SL were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues allowing the use of an image analysis programme. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the SL. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the SL of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analysis of proposed evolutionary lineages of Early Devonian land plant spores
Breuer, P.; Stricanne, L.; Steemans, Philippe ULg

in Geological Magazine (2005), 142(3), 241-253

Early Devonian miospore assemblages from 'La Gileppe' (Eastern Belgium) include five varieties of trilete spore belonging to the genus Emphanisporites. These five varieties show a continuous variation of ... [more ▼]

Early Devonian miospore assemblages from 'La Gileppe' (Eastern Belgium) include five varieties of trilete spore belonging to the genus Emphanisporites. These five varieties show a continuous variation of their morphological characteristics. The variation in morphological characteristics can be related to the evolution of morphological features and allows us to define the Emphanisporites micromatus Morphon. A statistical evaluation of this population highlights the interdependence of almost all morphological parameters. This study proves the increase in size of ornamental and structural parameters over several million years. The biometric changes and the progressive replacement of older morphotypes by younger ones indicate that a temporal link exists between these different varieties. Two phylogenetic hypotheses for the E. micromatus Morphon are proposed. This morphological evolution is so far observed only on the Eastern Old Red Sandstone Continent and defines a palaeophytogeographic sinuosus-zavallatus Province. [less ▲]

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See detailA Morphometric and Functional Study of the Toxicity of Atmospheric Ammonia in the Extrathoracic Airways in Pigs
Urbain, B.; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Charlier, G. et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1996), 20(4), 381-399

The effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on the nasal and tracheal mucosa of pigs were investigated by morphometric and functional methods. Pigs were exposed to four concentrations of NH3 [5 (control), 25 ... [more ▼]

The effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on the nasal and tracheal mucosa of pigs were investigated by morphometric and functional methods. Pigs were exposed to four concentrations of NH3 [5 (control), 25, 50 and 100 ppm] for 6 days in a specially designed air-pollutant exposure chamber. Samples were taken from the turbinates and the trachea, and the respiratory mucosa was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Dose-response curves to carbachol and isoproterenol were constructed using isolated strips of tracheal smooth muscle, with or without epithelium. In pigs exposed to ammonia, considerable mucosal injuries were observed in the turbinates but not in the trachea. The number of neutrophils in the epithelial layer and in the lamina propria, and epithelial hyperplasia were closely and significantly correlated with the concentrations of ammonia (r = 0.894, p < 0.001; r = 0.727, P < 0.001; and r = 0.818, p < 0.001, respectively). Except for the lamina propria, all these changes were significant (p < 0.05) at ammonia concentrations as low as 25 ppm. The percentage of the surface of the turbinate mucosa that was ciliated tended to decrease with increasing ammonia concentration (r = 0.439, p < 0.082). Ammonia induced smooth-muscle hyperresponsiveness to carbachol with a close linear correlation between individual values of the carbachol-induced maximal effect and the NH3 concentrations (r = 0.526, p < 0.003). While mechanical destruction of the epithelium induced an increase in Emax in the control group, no difference was observed between the intact and denuded strips from animals exposed to ammonia. The response to isoproterenol was not influenced by ammonia. It was concluded that quantitative histological analysis of the inflammatory infiltration and epithelial hyperplasia in the turbinates is a useful tool for quantifying the effects of atmospheric pollutants in pigs; a 6-day exposure to ammonia induces nasal irritation and functional disturbances of the tracheal smooth-muscle contractions at concentrations as low as 25 ppm [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric and genetic structure of the edible dormouse (Glis glis): A consequence of forest fragmentation in Turkey
Helvaci, Z.; Renaud, S.; Ledevin, R. et al

in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (2012), 107(3), 611-623

Past climatic fluctuations influenced forest habitats and impacted heavily the distribution of forest species, such as the edible dormouse, by changing the distribution and composition of forests ... [more ▼]

Past climatic fluctuations influenced forest habitats and impacted heavily the distribution of forest species, such as the edible dormouse, by changing the distribution and composition of forests themselves. Such effects may be valid for ongoing climate change as well. To improve our understanding of the edible dormouse's history and how it responded to changes in its environment, we investigated its variation across the understudied zone of Northern Turkey using two complementary markers of differentiation: the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for genetics, and size and shape of the first upper molar for phenotypic differences. Genetic and morphometric results were strongly discrepant. Genetic analyses evidenced an amazing homogeneity throughout the Eurasian range of the edible dormouse, whereas morphometrics pointed to a complex, step-wise differentiation along the Black Sea coast, the main signal being an opposition between Easternmost and Westernmost Turkish dormice. The genetic homogeneity suggests that this phenotypic differentiation is not the inheritance of glacial refuges, but the consequence of a more recent post-glacial isolation. The transition between the European and Asian groups is located eastwards from the Marmara straits, undermining its claimed role as an efficient barrier but stressing the importance of climatic and vegetational factors. A secondary differentiation between populations from the Central Black Sea coast and Easternmost regions was evidenced, attributed to a complex interplay of climatic, topographic, anthropogenic, and ecological factors. Turkey, at the crossroad of European and Asian species, heavily impacted by the current global change including climatic and anthropogenic factors, appears of importance for understanding the historical dynamics of differentiation and exchanges between populations that shaped the current distribution of Eurasian species and their future survival. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric dating of the fluvial landscape response to a tectonic perturbation
Demoulin, Alain ULg

in Geophysical Research Letters (2012), 39

Despite constant progress in numerical and field studies of landscape evolution, time evolution is still poorly constrained in many uplifted areas where low denudation rates prevent the use of low ... [more ▼]

Despite constant progress in numerical and field studies of landscape evolution, time evolution is still poorly constrained in many uplifted areas where low denudation rates prevent the use of low temperature thermochronology, especially outside high relief mountainous areas. Here, I show that regional statistics of the landscape metric R involving hypsometric integrals at three nested levels of a catchment are able to isolate the time effect on landscape geometry during the latter’s transient response to a tectonic perturbation. Analysis of 210 catchments from 9 regions of known uplift age worldwide shows that the regionally characteristic, R-derived SR index is in inverse power law relation with the time elapsed since a base level lowering. Suggesting a response time of 5 My, this finding has important implications for quantifying the rate of landform evolution and determining whether a landscape has reached steady-state form. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric study of the equine fetlock and coffin joints
Riccio, Barbara; Carstanjen, Bianca; Denoix, Jean-Marie et al

in Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology (2006), 111

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See detailMorphometric Study of the Equine Navicular Bone: Comparisons between Fore and Rear Limbs
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Yousfi, S.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Zentralblatt für Veterinarmedizin. Reihe A (1997), 44(9-10), 579-94

Navicular bones collected from the four limbs of 95 sound horses were studied. The anatomic bases have been laid down about morphometry of the navicular bones and their variations according to limbs ... [more ▼]

Navicular bones collected from the four limbs of 95 sound horses were studied. The anatomic bases have been laid down about morphometry of the navicular bones and their variations according to limbs, after corrections have been made for morphologic type, gender, weight, size and age. All the dimensions of the navicular bone (except for the thickness) were larger in the fore limb. This phenomenon probably reflects an attempt to compensate for the greater forces exerted upon the fore limbs during exercise and at rest. Navicular bones collected from the four limbs of 61 sound horses were studied and the anatomic bases were described for histomorphometry of the fore and rear navicular bones. Fore navicular bones possess less cortical bone at the level of the articular surface, as well as at the level of the flexor surface and proximal border, but larger amounts of cancellous bone. Articular and flexor surface cortical bone show a larger porosity in the fore navicular bones and a larger amount of mineralized cartilage. The mineralized portion for distal impar- and collateral sesamoidean ligaments are also larger for the fore navicular bones. Two distinct zones are observed for the flexor surface cortex that have never been reported in the literature before: an external zone, which is mainly composed of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, arranged in a disto-proximal oblique direction, and an internal zone, which is mainly composed of secondary bone, with a latero-medial direction of Haversian canals. Bone architecture is discussed with regard to the mechanic load, encountered by the bone during locomotion. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric Study of the Equine Navicular Bone: Variations with Breeds and Types of Horse and Influence of Exercise
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Jolly, Sandra ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Journal of Anatomy (1998), 193((Pt 4)), 535-49

Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the ... [more ▼]

Navicular bones from the 4 limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The anatomical bases were established for the morphometry of the navicular bone and its variations according to the category of horse, after corrections were made for front or rear limb, sex, weight, size and age. In ponies, navicular bone measurements were smallest for light ponies and regularly increased with body size, but in horses, navicular bone dimensions were smallest for the athletic halfbred, intermediate for draft horse, thoroughbreds and sedentary halfbreds and largest for heavy halfbreds. The athletic halfbred thus showed reduced bone dimensions when compared with other horse types. Navicular bones from 61 horses were studied histomorphometrically. Light horses and ponies possessed larger amounts of cancellous bone and less cortical bone. Draft horses and heavy ponies showed marked thickening of cortical bone with minimum intracortical porosity, and a decrease in marrow spaces associated with more trabecular bone. Two distinct zones were observed for the flexor surface cortex: an external zone composed mainly of poorly remodelled lamellar bone, disposed in a distoproximal oblique direction, and an internal zone composed mainly of secondary bone, with a lateromedial direction for haversian canals. Flexor cortex external zone tended to be smaller for heavy ponies than for the light ponies. It was the opposite for horses, with the largest amount of external zone registered for draft horses. In athletic horses, we observed an increase in the amount of cortical bone at the expense of cancellous bone which could be the result of reduced resorption and increased formation at the corticoendosteal junction. Cancellous bone was reduced for the athletic horses but the number of trabeculae and their specific surfaces were larger. Increased bone formation and reduced resorption could also account for these differences. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric study of the stromal vascularization in peritoneal endometriosis.
NISOLLE, Michelle ULg; Casanas-Roux, Françoise; Anaf, Vincent et al

in Fertility and Sterility (1993), 59(3), 681-4

To evaluate the stromal vascularization of different appearances of peritoneal endometriosis, biopsies were taken from peritoneal areas with endometriosis in a series of 135 infertile women and classified ... [more ▼]

To evaluate the stromal vascularization of different appearances of peritoneal endometriosis, biopsies were taken from peritoneal areas with endometriosis in a series of 135 infertile women and classified as typical (black), red, or white lesions. The number of capillaries per mm2 of stroma, their mean surface area, and the ratio of capillaries/stroma surface area, and the mitotic activity were analyzed in typical, red, and white lesions. Significant differences were found between the different subgroups. The higher vascularization and mitotic activity observed in red lesions suggested the hypothesis that such lesions are very active and probably the first stage of early implantation of endometrial glands and stroma. The poor vascularization and the absence of mitosis observed in white lesions suggested that these lesions are much less active than red lesions and are a quiescent stage of the disease. Our study proves that the "activity" of peritoneal endometriosis is related to the vascularity. This concept must be considered in the further discussion of American Fertility Society Endometriosis Classification. Typical, red and white lesions are three different stages of the peritoneal disease and their relative relation to infertility is also probably different. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric, immunohistological and three-dimensional evaluation of the endometrium of menopausal women treated by oestrogen and Crinone, a new slow-release vaginal progesterone.
Casanas-Roux, Françoise; NISOLLE, Michelle ULg; Marbaix, Etienne et al

in Human Reproduction (1996), 11(2), 357-63

Recently advanced computerized technology was applied to the investigation of morphometric, immunohistological and three-dimensional changes of the endometrial mucosa in order to evaluate quantitatively ... [more ▼]

Recently advanced computerized technology was applied to the investigation of morphometric, immunohistological and three-dimensional changes of the endometrial mucosa in order to evaluate quantitatively the effects of three doses of a new slow-release vaginal progesterone on the endometrium in post-menopausal women. A total of 20 menopausal women, deprived of ovarian function, were given oestrogen for 12 days and a combined therapy of oestrogen (administered orally) and progesterone for another 12 day period. Progesterone was administered vaginally through a new gel (Crinone) utilizing a bioadhesive, biocompatible polymer as a base to achieve a sustained release effect. An endometrial biopsy was taken before treatment, after oestrogen-only treatment and after the oestro-progestogen therapy. Before treatment, all the patients exhibited an atrophic endometrium. After oestrogen-only treatment, typical proliferative changes occurred: an increase in the endometrium thickness, an increase in the mitotic index, numerous cylinder-like glands and no coiled glands, and high concentrations of oestrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR). After the oestro-progestogen therapy, whatever the dose of progesterone given, a secretory transformation of the endometrial mucosa occurred, mitotic activity decreased significantly, more ramified and coiled glands were observed, and a decrease in PR content was noted in epithelial and stromal nuclei, and a decrease in PR content was also observed in epithelial nuclei but not in stromal nuclei. Accurate new techniques of image analysis have shown that crinone therapy could eliminate the proliferative effects of oestrogen treatment in post-menopausal women, despite doses as low as 45 mg of progesterone administered vaginally every other day. The results suggest that the sustained release effects of Crinone are clinically relevant. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometrical study of the equine navicular bone: age-related changes and influence of exercise
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Jolly, Sandra ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1999), 23(1), 15-40

Navicular bones from the four limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The effects of age on navicular bone morphometry and histomorphometry were estimated, after adjustment of the ... [more ▼]

Navicular bones from the four limbs of 95 horses, classified in 9 categories, were studied. The effects of age on navicular bone morphometry and histomorphometry were estimated, after adjustment of the data to even out the effects of front and rear limbs, morphometrical type, sex, weight, and size. All the external measurements of the navicular bone decreased significantly with increasing age. From the histomorphometrical data, cortical bone volume decreased with age in most horses, whereas cancellous bone volume and, in particular, the marrow spaces increased. The increase in the cancellous bone volume could have resulted from tunnelling of the internal part of the cortex, which converted it progressively into a porous trabecular-like structure. Trabecular bone volume also decreased with age and the trabecular lattice changed dramatically to become disconnected in aged horses. These observations corresponded closely to those reported for ageing of the skeletal system in humans. However, in sporting horses, the navicular cortical bone volume increased with age and the cancellous bone volume decreased. Exercise appeared to have decreased bone resorption and increased bone formation at the endocortical junction. The cancellous bone architecture was also improved. in that the trabecular lattice and trabecular bone volume remained unchanged in aged sporting horses. Our findings confirmed that exercise may be good practice to prevent age-related bone loss. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphométrie appliqué a la croissance de nouveau-nés et de juvéniles Testudo hermanni boettgeri Mojsisovic, 1889
Rotat, Christelle; Justet, Delphine; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Chéloniens : Biologie, écologie, Elevage, Conservation (2008), 11

L'article traite de la pertinence de la morphométrie appliquée chez la tortue terrestre en croissance en utilisant des données expérimentales obtenues chez des juvéniles de l'espèce Testudo hermanni ... [more ▼]

L'article traite de la pertinence de la morphométrie appliquée chez la tortue terrestre en croissance en utilisant des données expérimentales obtenues chez des juvéniles de l'espèce Testudo hermanni boettgeri (n= 70) nourries individuellement depuis la naissance jusque l'âge de 2 ans. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphométrie du pied du cheval et maladie naviculaire
Collin, B.; Gabriel, Annick ULg

in Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France (1999), 72

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