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See detailMulticenter implementation of geriatric assessment in Belgian patients with cancer: A survey on treating physicians' general experiences and expectations.
Kenis, Cindy; Heeren, Pieter; Bron, Dominique et al

in Journal of geriatric oncology (in press)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to identify treating physicians' general experiences and expectations regarding geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to identify treating physicians' general experiences and expectations regarding geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was carried out in 9 Belgian hospitals, which participated in a national GA implementation project focusing on older patients with cancer. A newly developed questionnaire was completed by their treating physicians. Data collection comprised of reviewing hospital data, general respondent data, and treating physicians' general experiences and expectations regarding GA. Descriptive statistics were calculated. RESULTS: Eighty-two physicians from 9 hospitals participated. The GA team composition can vary substantially, with a nurse as core member. Ideally, all older patients with cancer in whom a treatment decision is necessary, should benefit from the GA. Nearly all GA domains are reported as very important. Availability of GA results can be improved. Treating physicians want geriatricians to coordinate geriatric recommendations related to the identified GA problems, and expect from trained healthcare workers (THCWs) to collect GA data, to report GA results, and to follow-up the implementation of geriatric recommendations. CONCLUSION: This study identifies relevant information for improving the implementation of GA in older patients with cancer in Belgium and reveals priorities for a THCW from the treating physician's point of view. To increase the effectiveness of GA, further efforts are needed to improve the implementation of geriatric recommendations. [less ▲]

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See detailA multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Decroix, Jacques et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15(6), 434-41

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the ... [more ▼]

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the efficacy and safety of KET 2% and ZPT 1% in shampoo formulations for the alleviation of severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. This open randomized, parallel-group trial began with a 2-week run-in phase during which subjects applied a neutral non-antidandruff shampoo. It was followed by a 4-week randomized treatment phase and a subsequent 4-week follow-up phase without treatment. Shampooing during the treatment period was carried out twice weekly for the KET group and at least twice weekly for the ZPT group in accordance with the label instructions. A total of 343 subjects were recruited to enter the trial. Of the 331 eligible volunteers, 171 were randomized to KET 2% and 160 to ZPT 1%. Clinical assessments were performed. Beneficial effects were evidenced for both medicated shampoos, but the effect was significantly better for KET 2%, which achieved a 73% improvement in the total dandruff severity score compared with 67% for ZPT 1% at week 4 (p < 0.02). The recurrence rate of the disease was also significantly lower following KET 2% treatment than following ZPT 1% treatment. As a consequence, the overall clearing of the skin condition at the end of treatment and follow-up phase was in favor of the KET 2% formulation (p = 0.004). Side effects were minimal. It is concluded that after a 4-week treatment, KET 2% shampoo was significantly superior to ZPT 1% shampoo in the treatment of subjects with severe dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. It is our assumption that this difference is noticeable for the patient and as a consequence relevant. Both formulations were well tolerated. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticenter randomized-control led clinical trial of probiotics (Lactobacillus johnsonii, LA1) on early endoscopic recurrence of Crohn's disease after ileo-caecal resection
Van Gossum, André; Dewit, Olivier; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (2007), 13(2), 135-142

Background: Seventy percent of Crohn's disease (CD) patients exhibit anastomotic recurrence within I year after ileo-caecal surgery, Recent clinical trials suggest the beneficial use of probiotics in the ... [more ▼]

Background: Seventy percent of Crohn's disease (CD) patients exhibit anastomotic recurrence within I year after ileo-caecal surgery, Recent clinical trials suggest the beneficial use of probiotics in the control of intestinal inflammation in pouchitis and ulcerative colitis. This study is a multicenter clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of an oral administration of the probiotic LA1 on early postoperative endoscopic recurrence of CD. Methods: Seventy patients with CD were enrolled prior to elective ileo-caecal resection and randomly assigned after surgery to daily treatment with either Lactobacillus johnsonii, LA1, Nestle (10(10) colony-forming units, CFU) (group A, n = 34) or placebo (group B, n = 36) for 12 weeks. The primary objective was to assess the effect of LA1 on the endoscopic recurrence rate at 12 weeks. Stratification was performed according to smoking status at randomization. Results: Seven and 14 patients were excluded in the LA1 and placebo groups, respectively. In intention-to-treat analysis, the mean endoscopic score was not significantly different between the two treatment groups at 3 months (LA1 versus placebo: 1.50 +/- 1.32 versus 1.22 +/- 1.37, treatment effect: P = 0.48, smoke effect: P = 0.72). The percentage of patients with severe recurrence (i3 + i4) was 21% and 15% in the LA1 and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.33). Using a per-protocol (PP) analysis, the mean endoscopic score was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (LA1 versus placebo groups: 1.44 +/- 1.31 versus 1.05 +/- 1.21, P = 0.32). The percentage of patients with severe recurrence (i3 + i4) was 19% and 9% in the LA1 and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.054). Clinical relapse rate (CDAI [CD activity index] > 150, with an increase of CDAI > 70 points or greater from baseline) in the LAI and placebo groups was 15% (4/27) and 13.5% (3/22), respectively (PP analysis: chi-square test, P = 0.91 and log-rank test: P = 0.79). Conclusion: Oral administration of the probiotic LA1 in patients with CID failed to prevent early endoscopic recurrence at 12 weeks after ileo-caecal resection. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticenter Study of 19 Aortopulmonary Window parathyroid Tumors : The callenge of Embryologic origin
Arnault, Vincent; Beaulieu, Anthony; Lifante, Jean-Christophe et al

in World Journal of Surgery (2010), 34

Background Ectopic abnormal parathyroid glands are relatively common in the superior mediastinum but are rarely situated in the aortopulmonary window (APW). The embryological origin of these abnormal ... [more ▼]

Background Ectopic abnormal parathyroid glands are relatively common in the superior mediastinum but are rarely situated in the aortopulmonary window (APW). The embryological origin of these abnormal parathyroid glands is controversial. The purpose of this investigation was to investigate the embryological origin and the surgical management of abnormal parathyroid glands situated in the APW. Methods The databases of patients operated on for primary, secondary, and tertiary hyperparathyroidism at eight European medical centers with a special interest in endocrine surgery were reviewed to identify those with APW adenomas. Demographic features, localization procedures, and perioperative and pathology findings were documented. The embryological origin was determined based on the number and position of identified parathyroid glands. Results Nineteen (0.24%) APW parathyroid tumors were identified in 7,869 patients who underwent an operation for hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and 181 patients (2.3%) with mediastinal abnormal parathyroid glands. Ten patients had primary, eight had secondary, and one had tertiary HPT. Sixteen patients had undergone previous unsuccessful cervical exploration. In three patients, an APW adenoma was suspected by preoperative localization studies and was cured at the initial operation. Sixteen patients had persistent HPTof whom 15 were reoperated, resulting in 6 failures. Evaluation of 17 patients who had bilateral neck exploration allowed us to determine the most probable origin of the APW parathyroid tumors: 12 were supernumerary, 4 appeared to originate from a superior, and 1 from an inferior gland. Conclusions Abnormal parathyroid glands situated in the APW are rare and usually identified after an unsuccessful cervical exploration. Preoperative imaging of the mediastinum and neck are essential. The origin of these ectopically situated tumors is probably, as suggested by our data, from a supernumerary fifth parathyroid gland or from abnormal migration of a superior parathyroid gland during the embryologic development. [less ▲]

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See detailA multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing different FK778 doses (manitimus) with tacrolimus and steroids vs. MMF with tacrolimus and steroids in renal transplantation
Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew; Vanrenterghem, Yves; Krämer, Bernhard k et al

in BMC Nephrology (2012), 13

Background: This multicenter phase II study in renal transplantation compared 3 concentration-controlled ranges of FK778 (manitimus) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) both given in combination with ... [more ▼]

Background: This multicenter phase II study in renal transplantation compared 3 concentration-controlled ranges of FK778 (manitimus) with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) both given in combination with tacrolimus and corticosteroids. Methods: 364 patients were randomized to 12-month treatment: high-level FK778 group (H, N = 87) received 4x600mg/day (4 days) followed by 120 mg/day; mid-level FK778 group (M, N = 92) received 3x600mg/day (3 days) followed by 110 mg/day, low-level FK778 group (L, N = 92) received 2x600mg/day (2 days) followed by 100 mg/day, and control group received MMF 1 g/day (MMF, N = 93). After week 6, FK778 doses were adjusted to trough ranges of 75–125 μg/mL (H), 50–100 μg/mL (M) and 25–75 μg/mL (L). Tacrolimus and steroids were administered at the same dose in each of the 4 groups. Results: Biopsy proven acute rejection (BPAR) at 24 weeks, the primary study endpoint, was comparable in the L (22.8%) and MMF (17.2%) groups but higher in the H (34.5%) and M (29.3%) groups. BPAR at 12 months was comparable in the L (23.9%) and MMF (19.4%) groups but higher in the H (34.5%) and M (31.5%) groups. Graft and patient survival were lowest in the H group and renal function was poorest in the H and M groups. Premature study withdrawal was highest in the H group. Conclusions: Efficacy was similar between the low-level FK778 and MMF groups. Increased FK778 exposure was poorly tolerated and did not improve efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticentre Evaluation of a Second Generation Point-of-Care Assay with an Extended Range for the Determination of N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide
Jorgensen, Bo; Bertsch, Thomas; Bröker, Hans-Joachim et al

in Clinical Laboratory (2012), 58

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See detailMulticentre evaluation of the Tosoh HbA1c G8 analyser
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Teixeira, Jelda ULg; Maisin, Diane et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2010), 48(3), 365-371

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See detailA multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral doses dose of 311C90 in the acute treatment of migraine
Dahlöf, C.; Diener, H. C.; Goadsby, P. et al

in Clifford-Rose, F. (Ed.) New Advances in headache research (1994)

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See detailA multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of multiple treatments of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine headaches
Relja, M.; Poole, A. C.; Schoenen, Jean ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(6), 492-503

Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA; BOTOX (R)) for prophylaxis of episodic migraine. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized ... [more ▼]

Our aim was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA; BOTOX (R)) for prophylaxis of episodic migraine. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized to 225, 150 or 75 U of BoNTA or placebo after a 30-day placebo run-in for three 90-day treatment cycles. The primary efficacy end-point was the mean reduction from baseline in the frequency of migraine episodes at day 180 in the placebo non-responder stratum. All groups (N = 495) improved, with no significant differences. At day 180, the frequency of migraine episodes was reduced from baseline means of 4.3, 4.7, 4.7 and 4.4 by 1.6, 1.7, 1.5 and 1.4 for BoNTA 225 U, 150 U and 75 U and placebo, respectively. The primary end-point was not met. Treatment-related adverse events were transient and mild to moderate. BoNTA treatment was safe and well tolerated but did not result in significantly greater improvement than placebo in this study. Several factors may have confounded the results. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticentre, prospective, open study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hylan G-F 20 in knee osteoarthritis subjects presenting with pain following arthroscopic meniscectomy.
Huskin, Jean-Pierre ULg; Vandekerckhove, B.; Delince, P. et al

in Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (2008), 16(8), 747-52

The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of viscosupplementation with hylan G-F 20 in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) presenting with persistent knee pain 4-12 weeks ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of viscosupplementation with hylan G-F 20 in patients with mild to moderate osteoarthritis (OA) presenting with persistent knee pain 4-12 weeks after arthroscopic meniscectomy. A prospective, multi-centre, open study was carried out in patients with pain due to OA of the knee, not resolved by simple analgesics, 4-12 weeks after undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy. To be eligible, patients had to score > or =50 mm and < or =90 mm on both walking pain and patient global assessment visual analogue scales (VAS; 0-100 mm) at baseline and be radiologically diagnosed pre-operatively with OA grade I or II on the Kellgren-Lawrence scale, with <50% joint space narrowing. Patients received three intra-articular, 2 ml injections of hylan G-F 20 in the target knee with an interval of 1 week between injections, and were followed for 52 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in the walking pain VAS score at 26 weeks. Secondary outcome measures were the walking pain VAS scores at all other time points, the WOMAC Index at all time points, and patient and physician global assessment at all time points. The safety of the treatment was assessed using adverse event (AE) reports. A total of 62 patients (mean age 55.4 years, 52% male) were enrolled. The mean walking pain VAS score decreased by 36.8 mm from baseline at 26 weeks (P < 0.0001), and also showed statistically significant decreases (P < 0.0001) at all other time points. The change in WOMAC total and subscale scores from baseline were statistically significant (P < 0.0001) at all time points, as were the decreases in the physician and patient global assessment VAS scores. There were 18 target knee AEs (mostly pain and/or swelling and/or effusion) in 12 patients (19%) considered to be at least possibly related to treatment. The majority of these (78%) were mild or moderate in intensity. One patient (1.6%) experienced a serious adverse event (synovitis) in the target knee that was considered possibly related to study treatment. Hylan G-F 20 provides effective pain relief and improves stiffness and physical function in patients with mild to moderate OA presenting with persistent osteoarthritic pain 4-12 weeks after arthroscopic meniscectomy. Symptomatic efficacy was maximised at 12 weeks and maintained at 26 and 52 weeks. The type (pain and/or swelling and/or effusion) and the intensity (mostly mild/moderate) of AEs reported in this study are similar to those reported in other trials in different patient populations, but the incidence was higher (19%). The risk/benefit of hylan G-F 20 in this particular population of patients is favourable. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticentric evaluation of a turbidimetric myoglobin immunoassay
Lammers, M.; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Delanghe, J. et al

Poster (1992, August)

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See detailA multicentric evaluation of IDMS-traceable creatinine enzymatic assays
Pieroni, Laurence; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Boutten, Anne et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2011), 412

Chronic kidney disease definition is based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimations which are derived from creatinine-based equations. The accuracy of GFR estimation is thus largely dependent of ... [more ▼]

Chronic kidney disease definition is based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimations which are derived from creatinine-based equations. The accuracy of GFR estimation is thus largely dependent of those of serum creatinine assays. International recommendations highlight the need for traceable creatinine assays. The French Society of Clinical Biochemistry conducted a study for measuring accuracy of creatinine enzymatic methods. This evaluation involved 25 clinical laboratories. Creatinine was measured in serum pools ranging from 35.9±0.9 μmol/L to 174.5±3.1 μmol/L (IDMS determination) using 12 creatinine enzymatic methods. For all creatinine values greater than 74.4±1.4 μmol/L, the bias and imprecision did not exceed 5% and 5.9%, respectively. For the lowest value (35.9±0.9 μmol/L), the bias ranged from −1.8 to 9.9% (with one exception). At this level, the imprecision ranged from 1.9 to 7.8%. The true performances of the assays (couples of bias and relative standard deviation), were evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. Most of the assays fall within the maximum Total Error of 12% at all concentrations. This study demonstrates substantial improvements in the calibration, traceability and precision of the enzymatic methods, reaching the NKDEP recommendations. Moreover, most of these assays allowed accurate creatinine measurements for creatinine levels lower than 40 μmol/L. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticentric evaluation of turbimetric myoglobin immunoassay
Lammers, M.; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg; Delanghe, J. et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. Supplementum (1992), 52(221), 109

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See detailMulticité. Le jeu du développement urbain
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Demeuse, Yves; Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg et al

in G.E.O. (1997), 41(Numéro spécial),

Une équipe municipale doit définir le devenir de sa cité et gérer une série de projets (écoles, multiplex, logements sociaux, parcs industriels) avec comme consigne la minimisation des coûts pour la ... [more ▼]

Une équipe municipale doit définir le devenir de sa cité et gérer une série de projets (écoles, multiplex, logements sociaux, parcs industriels) avec comme consigne la minimisation des coûts pour la maximisation des retombées pour la collectivité ; elle fait appel à des bureaux d’études qui doivent monter ces projets. Le jeu se joue sur un territoire (plateau de jeu) avec ses quartiers d’habitat, son centre, ses réseaux de communication et aussi 350 îlots colorés selon l’affectation du sol et leur statut (public et privé). Le jeu – qui se déroule aussi sur deux fois 50 minutes dans sa version courte (un projet) – permet d’abord à l’équipe municipale de définir ses critères de choix et aux bureaux d’étude de monter leur projet, il met ensuite les protagonistes en contact puis en débat avant le choix final. Outre le plateau figurant le territoire, le jeu comprend encore des fiches relatives aux équipements, des consignes particulières pour les membres du bureau d’études et de l’équipe municipale (dont une fiche budget et une fiche argumentaire). À l’issue du jeu, il est possible non seulement de mettre en évidence les facteurs de localisation des équipements mais également le jeu des acteurs et les contraintes d’une politique de développement communal. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticlass classification of FDG PET scans for the distinction between Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Phillips, Christophe ULg; Schrouff, Jessica ULg et al

in NeuroImage: Clinical (2013), 2

Most available pattern recognition methods in neuroimaging address binary classification problems. Here, we used relevance vector machine (RVM) in combination with booststrap resampling (‘bagging’) for ... [more ▼]

Most available pattern recognition methods in neuroimaging address binary classification problems. Here, we used relevance vector machine (RVM) in combination with booststrap resampling (‘bagging’) for non-hierarchical multiclass classification. The method was tested on 120 cerebral 18fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed in patients who exhibited parkinsonian clinical features for 3.5 years on average but that were outside the prevailing perception for Parkinson's disease (PD). A radiological diagnosis of PD was suggested for 30 patients at the time of PET imaging. However, at follow-up several years after PET imaging, 42 of them finally received a clinical diagnosis of PD. The remaining 78 APS patients were diagnosed with multiple system atrophy (MSA, N = 31), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP, N = 26) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS, N = 21), respectively. With respect to this standard of truth, classification sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for PD were 93% 83% 75% and 96%, respectively using binary RVM (PD vs. APS) and 90%, 87%, 79% and 94%, respectively, using multiclass RVM (PD vs. MSA vs. PSP vs. CBS). Multiclass RVM achieved 45%, 55% and 62% classification accuracy for, MSA, PSP and CBS, respectively. Finally, a majority confidence ratio was computed for each scan on the basis of class pairs that were the most frequently assigned by RVM. Altogether, the results suggest that automatic multiclass RVM classification of FDG PET scans achieves adequate performance for the early differentiation between PD and APS on the basis of cerebral FDG uptake patterns when the clinical diagnosis is felt uncertain. This approach cannot be recommended yet as an aid for distinction between the three APS classes under consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticollinearity
Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Molenberghs, G.

in Chow (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2010)

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See detailMulticollinearity
Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Molenberghs, G.

in Chow, Shein-Chung (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2004)

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See detailMulticollinearity in prognostic factor analyses using the EORTC QLQ-C30: identification and impact on model selection
Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Curran, D.; Kramer, J. et al

in Statistics in Medicine (2002), 21(24), 3865-3884

Clinical and quality of life (QL) variables from an EORTC clinical trial of first line chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer were used in a prognostic factor analysis of survival and response to ... [more ▼]

Clinical and quality of life (QL) variables from an EORTC clinical trial of first line chemotherapy in advanced breast cancer were used in a prognostic factor analysis of survival and response to chemotherapy. For response, different final multivariate models were obtained from forward and backward selection methods, suggesting a disconcerting instability. Quality of life was measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire completed by patients. Subscales on the questionnaire are known to be highly correlated, and therefore it was hypothesized that multicollinearity contributed to model instability. A correlation matrix indicated that global QL was highly correlated with 7 out of 11 variables. In a first attempt to explore multicollinearity, we used global QL as dependent variable in a regression model with other QL subscales as predictors. Afterwards, standard diagnostic tests for multicollinearity were performed. An exploratory principal components analysis and factor analysis of the QL subscales identified at most three important components and indicated that inclusion of global QL made minimal difference to the loadings on each component. suggesting that it is redundant in the model, In a second approach, we advocate a bootstrap technique to assess the stability of the models. Based on these analyses and since global QL exacerbates problems of multicollinearity, we therefore recommend that global QL be excluded from prognostic factor analyses using the QLQ-C30. The prognostic factor analysis was rerun without global QL in the model, and selected the same significant prognostic factors as before. Copyright (C) 2002 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, invasive or not in agroecosystems ?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg et al

Poster (2013, September 10)

The Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to thrive principally in shrubby and arboreal habitats. Its occurrence in agroecosystems remains poorly ... [more ▼]

The Multicoloured Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known to thrive principally in shrubby and arboreal habitats. Its occurrence in agroecosystems remains poorly documented. This study focuses on the occurrence of this exotic species and its seasonal abundance in various field crops. The abundance of adults and larvae of H. axyridis was evaluated over a four-year period, from 2009 to 2012, in four important agronomical crops (wheat, corn, broad bean and potato) in Belgium. A total of 28 aphid predator species were observed including 14 coccinellid species, 13 hoverfly species and one lacewing species. H. axyridis is present and reproduces in all of the four crops studied, with the largest numbers recorded in corn and broad bean crops. In corn, H. axyridis numbers were found to increase over the four inventoried year, reaching 86% of the aphid predators in 2012, while it represented only 15% in 2009. H. axyridis was not always recorded where aphids were abundant, e.g. aphids were abundant on wheat where no H. axyridis were recorded. H. axyridis starts reproducing after the peak in aphid population, suggesting that H. axyridis is able to complete its development by feeding on alternative prey such as larvae and pupae of the same and other species of ladybird and other aphidophagous species. H. axyridis is often considered to be bivoltine but it only completes one generation per year in field crops. The second generation generally develops late in the season in other habitats. Harmonia axyridis is an invasive and an intraguild predator present in high quantities in some specific crops. In these crops, H. axyridis could negatively impact on population of native species due to IGP observed in several other studies. [less ▲]

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