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See detailA multi-step process for an alternative wheat bran biorefinery
Aguedo, Mario ULg; Fougnies, Christian; Richel, Aurore ULg

Poster (2014, May 21)

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See detailMulti-Step toolpath approach to overcome forming limitations in single point incremental forming
Verbert, J.; Belkassem, B.; Henrard, Christophe ULg et al

in Boisse, P. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 11th International ESAFORM Conference on Material Forming (2008)

Although Incremental Forming offers distinct advantages over traditional forming processes, such as short lead times and low setup costs, the process still has some drawbacks. Besides the obtainable ... [more ▼]

Although Incremental Forming offers distinct advantages over traditional forming processes, such as short lead times and low setup costs, the process still has some drawbacks. Besides the obtainable accuracy, one of the main challenges of the process are the process limits. Many workpiece geometries cannot be manufactured due to the fact that the maximum wall angle that can be formed is limited for a certain sheet material and thickness to a given angle. Different solutions to this approach have been proposed and this paper further investigates one of those solutions, the multi step approach for single point incremental forming. Experiments were performed and compared with simulations to better understand the phenomena underlying the improved process performance. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-tracer tests to evaluate the hydraulic setting of a complex aquifer system (Brévilles spring catchment, France)
Goderniaux, Pascal ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg; Gutierrez, Alexis et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2010)

For good management of groundwater resources, and to comply with European and national regulations, a detailed understanding of an aquifer’s hydraulic setting is required. In order to better characterize ... [more ▼]

For good management of groundwater resources, and to comply with European and national regulations, a detailed understanding of an aquifer’s hydraulic setting is required. In order to better characterize a sandy aquifer that is affected by diffuse pollution (Brévilles spring catchment, Val d'Oise, France), and to quantify the transfer time in the saturated zone, a multi-tracer test involving a new technique, the ‘Finite Volume Point Dilution Method’, has been performed in natural flow conditions. In November 2005, injections of four different tracers took place in four piezometers involving different locations and depths in the aquifer. Recovery of the tracers was observed at two different places near the aquifer outlet. A particularly long and unusual monitoring exercise (27 months) demonstrated the existence of several different velocities within the sandy layer, which seems to be linked to the decrease of hydraulic conductivity with depth. The new insight and parameter quantification brought by interpretation of these tests contribute to a better characterization of the saturated zone. The particularly long-term monitoring exercise also gives new information to understand and forecast the trend and persistence of groundwater contamination by pesticides in the catchment. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-trait animal model estimation of genetic parameters for linear type and gait traits in the Belgian warmblood horse
Rustin, M.; Janssens, S.; Buys, N. et al

in Journal of Animal Breeding & Genetics (2009), 126(5), 378--386

Summary Genetic parameters for the height at withers, 27 linear type and six linear gait traits were estimated for the Belgian warmblood horse. Observations on 987 mares, mostly 3 years old, were analysed ... [more ▼]

Summary Genetic parameters for the height at withers, 27 linear type and six linear gait traits were estimated for the Belgian warmblood horse. Observations on 987 mares, mostly 3 years old, were analysed using a multi-trait animal model. The statistical model included appraiser, age and location (date × place of appraisal) as fixed effects. Genetic parameters were estimated using a canonical transformation and an expectation-maximization restricted maximum likelihood algorithm with an additional deceleration step. Estimates of heritability for the 33 linear traits were between 0.15 and 0.55. Heritability of the height at withers was 0.34 ± 0.06. Estimated genetic correlations ranged from −0.60 to 0.98 with an average SE of 0.10. The highest positive correlations were found among traits of walk and among traits of trot. Volume and the quality of legs were the most negatively correlated. Estimated genetic parameters indicated that the linear scoring system is a valuable tool to assess conformation. The full (co)variance matrix is now available for breeding value estimation to support selection for conformation and gaits. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-view object tracking using sequential belief propagation
Du, Wei ULg; Piater, Justus ULg

in Computer Vision – ACCV 2006 (2006)

Multiple cameras and collaboration between them make possible the integration of information available from multiple views and reduce the uncertainty due to occlusions. This paper presents a novel method ... [more ▼]

Multiple cameras and collaboration between them make possible the integration of information available from multiple views and reduce the uncertainty due to occlusions. This paper presents a novel method for integrating and tracking multi-view observations using bidirectional belief propagation. The method is based on a fully connected graphical model where target states at different views are represented as different but correlated random variables, and image observations at a given view are only associated with the target states at the same view. The tracking processes at different views collaborate with each other by exchanging information using a message passing scheme, which largely avoids propagating wrong information. An efficient sequential belief propagation algorithm is adopted to perform the collaboration and to infer the multi-view target states. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on video-surveillance sequences. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-walled nanotubes diameter distribution by image analysis
Gommes, Cédric ULg; BLACHER, Silvia ULg; Bossuot, Christophe ULg et al

Scientific conference (2002, February)

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See detailA multi-wavelength approach to the study of high-energy phenomena associated with early-type stars
Rauw, Grégor ULg

Thèse d’agrégation de l’enseignement supérieur (2007)

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See detailA multi-wavelength investigation of the non-thermal radio emitting O-star 9 Sgr
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Blomme, R.; Waldron, W. L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 394(3), 993-1008

We report the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the O4 V star 9 Sgr (= HD164794). Our data include observations in the X-ray domain with XMM-Newton, in the radio domain with the VLA as well ... [more ▼]

We report the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the O4 V star 9 Sgr (= HD164794). Our data include observations in the X-ray domain with XMM-Newton, in the radio domain with the VLA as well as optical spectroscopy. 9 Sgr is one of a few presumably single OB stars that display non-thermal radio emission. This phenomenon is attributed to synchrotron emission by relativistic electrons accelerated in strong hydrodynamic shocks in the stellar wind. Given the enormous supply of photospheric UV photons in the wind of 9 Sgr, inverse Compton scattering by these relativistic electrons is a priori expected to generate a non-thermal power law tail in the X-ray spectrum. Our EPIC and RGS spectra of 9 Sgr reveal a more complex situation than expected from this simple theoretical picture. While the bulk of the thermal X-ray emission from 9 Sgr arises most probably in a plasma at temperature similar to3 x 10(6) K distributed throughout the wind, the nature of the hard emission in the X-ray spectrum is less clear. Assuming a non-thermal origin, our best fitting model yields a photon index of greater than or equal to2.9 for the power law component which would imply a low compression ratio of less than or equal to1.79 for the shocks responsible for the electron acceleration. However, the hard emission can also be explained by a thermal plasma at a temperature greater than or equal to2 x 10(7) K. Our VLA data indicate that the radio emission of 9 Sgr was clearly non-thermal at the time of the XMM-Newton observation. Again, we derive a low compression ratio (1.7) for the shocks that accelerate the electrons responsible for the synchrotron radio emission. Finally, our optical spectra reveal long-term radial velocity variations suggesting that 9 Sgr could be a long-period spectroscopic binary. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-wavelength observations of afterglow of GRB 080319B and the modeling constraints
Pandey, S. B.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jelínek, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 504(1), 45-51

We present observations of the afterglow of GRB 080319B at optical, mm and radio frequencies from a few hours to 67 days after the burst. Present observations along with other published multi-wavelength ... [more ▼]

We present observations of the afterglow of GRB 080319B at optical, mm and radio frequencies from a few hours to 67 days after the burst. Present observations along with other published multi-wavelength data have been used to study the light-curves and spectral energy distributions of the burst afterglow. The nature of this brightest cosmic explosion has been explored based on the observed properties and it's comparison with the afterglow models. Our results show that the observed features of the afterglow fits equally good with the Inter Stellar Matter and the Stellar Wind density profiles of the circum-burst medium. In case of both density profiles, location of the maximum synchrotron frequency $\nu_m$ is below optical and the value of cooling break frequency $\nu_c$ is below $X-$rays, $\sim 10^{4}$s after the burst. Also, the derived value of the Lorentz factor at the time of naked eye brightness is $\sim 300$ with the corresponding blast wave size of $\sim 10^{18}$ cm. The numerical fit to the multi-wavelength afterglow data constraints the values of physical parameters and the emission mechanism of the burst. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multi-Wavelength Simultaneous Study of the Composition of the Halley Family Comet 8P/Tuttle
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Dello Russo, N. et al

in Earth, Moon, and Planets (2009), 105

We report on simultaneous optical and infrared observations of the Halley Family comet 8P/Tuttle performed with the ESO Very Large Telescope. Such multi-wavelength and coordinated observations are a good ... [more ▼]

We report on simultaneous optical and infrared observations of the Halley Family comet 8P/Tuttle performed with the ESO Very Large Telescope. Such multi-wavelength and coordinated observations are a good example of what can be done to support space missions. From high resolution optical spectroscopy of the CN (0,0) 388 nm and NH[SUB]2[/SUB] (0,9,0) 610 nm bands using UVES at UT2 we determined [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C = 90 ± 10 and [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N = 150 ± 20 in CN and we derived a nuclear spin temperature of NH[SUB]3[/SUB] of 29 ± 1 K. These values are similar to those found in Oort-Cloud and Jupiter Family comets. From low resolution long slit spectroscopy with FORS1 at UT2 we determined the CN, C[SUB]3[/SUB] and C[SUB]2[/SUB] production rates and the parent and daughter scale lengths up to 5.2 10[SUP]5[/SUP] km tailward. From high resolution IR spectroscopy with CRIRES at UT1 we measured simultaneously the production rates and mixing ratios of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, HCN, C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], CH[SUB]4[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], and CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multi-Wavelength Simultaneous Study of the Composition of the Halley-Family Comet 8P/Tuttle at the VLT
Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Dello Russo, N.; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in LPI contribution 1405 (2008)

Not Available

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See detailMulti-wavelength study of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 - III. Long slit spectroscopy: micro-lensing probes the QSO structure
Sluse, Dominique; Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 468(3), 885-901

Aims. We discuss and characterize micro-lensing among the 3 brightest lensed images (A-B-C) of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (a quadruply imaged AGN) by means of long slit optical and NIR ... [more ▼]

Aims. We discuss and characterize micro-lensing among the 3 brightest lensed images (A-B-C) of the gravitational lens system RXS J1131-1231 (a quadruply imaged AGN) by means of long slit optical and NIR spectroscopy. Qualitative constraints on the size of different emission regions are derived. We also perform a spectroscopic study of two field galaxies located within 1.6 arcmin radius from the lens. Methods. We decompose the spectra into their individual emission components using a multi-component fitting approach. A complementary decomposition of the spectra enables us to isolate the macro-lensed fraction of the spectra independently of any spectral modelling. Results. 1. The data support micro-lensing de-amplification of images A and C. Not only is the continuum emission microlensed in those images but also a fraction of the Broad Line emitting Region (BLR). 2. Micro-lensing of a very broad component of Mg II emission line suggests that the corresponding emission occurs in a region more compact than the other components of the emission line. 3. We find evidence that a large fraction of the Fe II emission arises in the outer parts of the BLR. We also find a very compact emitting region in the ranges 3080-3540 angstrom and 4630-4800 angstrom that is likely associated with Fe II. 4. The [O III] narrow emission line regions are partly spatially resolved. This enables us to put a lower limit of similar to 110h(-1) pc on their intrinsic size. 5. Analysis of Mg II absorption found in the spectra indicates that the absorbing medium is intrinsic to the quasar, has a covering factor of 20%, and is constituted of small clouds homogeneously distributed in front of the continuum and BLRs. 6. Two neighbour galaxies are detected at redshifts z = 0.10 and z = 0.289. These galaxies are possible members of galaxy groups reported at those redshifts. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-wavelength study of the gravitational lens system RXS J113155.4-123155. I. Multi-epoch optical and near infrared imaging
Sluse, Dominique; Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Altieri, B. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2006), 449

Aims.RXS J113155.4-123155 (z=0.66) is a quadruply imaged lensed quasar with a resolved Einstein Ring. The goal of this paper is to provide a full characterization of this system, and more particularly ... [more ▼]

Aims.RXS J113155.4-123155 (z=0.66) is a quadruply imaged lensed quasar with a resolved Einstein Ring. The goal of this paper is to provide a full characterization of this system, and more particularly accurate astrometry and photometry. These observational constraints constitute a mandatory ingredient for the precise determination of the lens mass profile, the derivation of the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] from time delay measurements and investigations on the presence of massive substructures in the lensing galaxy.Methods.Visible and near-infrared imaging observations of RXS J113155.4-123155 were carried out at various epochs using several ground based telescopes and the HST. The frames have been deconvolved using the MCS algorithm. A Singular Isothermal Ellipsoid (SIE) + external shear has been used to model the lensing galaxy potential. Results. MCS deconvolution enables us to separate the flux of the QSO (point-like images) from that of its host galaxy and to accurately track the flux variations of the point-like images in various filters. The deconvolved frames unveil several multiply imaged structures in the Einstein ring and an unidentified object in the vicinity of the lensing galaxy. We discuss the lightcurves and the chromatic flux ratio variations and deduce that both intrinsic variability and microlensing took place during a span longer than one year. We demonstrate that microlensing may easily account for the so called anomalous flux ratios presented in the discovery paper. However, the observed flux ratios are still poorly reproduced when modeling the lens potential with a SIE+shear. We argue that this disagreement can hardly be explained by milli-lensing caused by substructures in the lensing galaxy. A solution proposed in Paper II consists in a more complex lens model including an octupole term to the lens gravitational potential. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multi-wavelength study with the ESO VLT of comet 103P/Hartley2 at the time of the EPOXI encounter
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in EPSC Abstracts 2011 (2011)

We report on simultaneous optical and infrared spectroscopic observations of the Jupiter Family comet 103P/Hartley2 performed with the UT-1 and UT-2 8-m Unit Telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope ... [more ▼]

We report on simultaneous optical and infrared spectroscopic observations of the Jupiter Family comet 103P/Hartley2 performed with the UT-1 and UT-2 8-m Unit Telescopes of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). These coordinated observations were carried on during several nights (2010 Nov. 5, 9, 10 and 11 UT) around the NASA EPOXI encounter with the comet on Nov. 4 [1] and in support to the key program « Water and related chemistry in the Solar System » (HssO) [2] of the Herschel Space Observatory. From high resolution optical spectroscopy of the CN (0,0) 388 nm band using UVES at UT2 we determined the isotopic ratios 12C/13C = 95 ± 15 and 14N/15N = 155 ± 25 in the CN radical. From the NH2 (0,9,0) and the H2O+ bands around 600 nm, we derived a nuclear spin temperature of 33 ± 3 K for NH3 and 36 +7/-6 K for H2O. These values are similar to those found in Oort- Cloud and Jupiter Family comets. From lowresolution long-slit spectroscopy with FORS2 at UT1 we will determine the CN, C2 and C3 spatial profiles and their production rates. From the high-resolution near-IR spectra that we collected with CRIRES at UT1 we will measure simultaneously the production rates and mixing ratios of the parent molecules H2O, HCN, C2H6, and CH3OH that are well detected in our spectra and we will study the link to the daughter species. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-wavelength survey of AGN in the XMM-LSS field. I. Quasar selection via the KX technique
Nakos, Theodoros; Willis, J. P.; Andreon, S. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 494

Aims. We present a sample of candidate quasars selected using the KX-technique. The data cover 0.68 deg[SUP]2[/SUP] of the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) Large-Scale Structure (LSS) survey area where ... [more ▼]

Aims. We present a sample of candidate quasars selected using the KX-technique. The data cover 0.68 deg[SUP]2[/SUP] of the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) Large-Scale Structure (LSS) survey area where overlapping multi-wavelength imaging data permits an investigation of the physical nature of selected sources. Methods: The KX method identifies quasars on the basis of their optical (R and z') to near-infrared (K_s) photometry and point-like morphology. We combine these data with optical (u^*,g', r',i',z') and mid-infrared (3.6-24 mum) wavebands to reconstruct the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of candidate quasars. Results: Of 93 sources selected as candidate quasars by the KX method, 25 are classified as quasars by the subsequent SED analysis. Spectroscopic observations are available for 12/25 of these sources and confirm the quasar hypothesis in each case. Even more, 90% of the SED-classified quasars show X-ray emission, a property not shared by any of the false candidates in the KX-selected sample. Applying a photometric redshift analysis to the sources without spectroscopy indicates that the 25 sources classified as quasars occupy the interval 0.7 <= z <= 2.5. The remaining 68/93 sources are classified as stars and unresolved galaxies. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiaxial concrete model for applications in structural fire engineering
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Millard, Alain

in Fontana, M.; Frangi, A.; Knobloch, M. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Structures in Fire (2012, June 07)

Temperature-dependent material models are required in numerical softwares dedicated to the nonlinear analysis of structures in fire. Although structural concrete is widely used in civil engineering ... [more ▼]

Temperature-dependent material models are required in numerical softwares dedicated to the nonlinear analysis of structures in fire. Although structural concrete is widely used in civil engineering, proper modelling of its thermo-mechanical behaviour remains a challenging issue for engineers mainly because of the complexity of the phenomena that result from the microcracking process in this composite material and because of the lack of numerical robustness of the models. This paper presents a new multiaxial concrete model developed for the analysis of concrete structures in fire. The multiaxial model is based on a plastic-damage formulation and incorporates an explicit term for transient creep strain. After implementation in a finite element software for structural fire engineering calculations, numerical simulations have been performed to highlight the ability of the model to capture some of the main phenomena that develop in concrete (permanent strains, degradation of the elastic properties, unilateral effect) as well as the ability to be used for the fire analysis of large-scale structural elements. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation including transient creep and cooling down phases
Gernay, Thomas ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Purpose - The present thesis aims to develop an efficient and reliable multiaxial concrete model for implementation in finite elements softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. The need ... [more ▼]

Purpose - The present thesis aims to develop an efficient and reliable multiaxial concrete model for implementation in finite elements softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. The need for proper concrete model remains a very challenging task in structural (fire) engineering because of the complexity of the concrete mechanical behavior characterization and the severe requirements for the material models raised by the development of performance-based design. Methodology - The thesis opted for a phenomenological approach for modeling the thermo-mechanical behavior of concrete. The specifications of the model are based on the study of published experimental data of concrete samples tests and on the specific needs related to the applications in structural fire engineering. With these specifications in mind, a state of the art review of concrete models is conducted in order to choose the general theoretical framework that best fits the criteria for the development of the new model. The thesis presents the theoretical development of the model and its numerical implementation in a finite elements software. Numerical simulations of experimental tests are then performed to verify that the model satisfy the specifications. Findings - The combination of elastoplasticity theory and damage theory allows to develop a phenomenological model suitable for concrete behavior modeling within the pragmatic and robust theoretical framework of continuum constitutive models based on smeared crack approach. The state of damage in concrete, assumed isotropic, is modeled by means of a fourth order damage tensor to capture the unilateral effect. When complex performance-based situations are considered, the effect of transient creep strain at high temperature must be taken into account by an explicit term in the strain decomposition. A generic transient creep model is therefore developed based on experimental data and the model is calibrated to yield the same results as the Eurocode implicit model in simple prescriptive situations. The concrete model comprises a limited number of parameters that can be identified by three simple tests; besides, a standard set of values to be used in predictive calculations is clearly defined for these parameters. Numerical simulations can deal with all stress states as the model is developed as fully three-dimensional. A large number of examples highlight the capabilities of the model that range from the modeling of sample tests to the modeling of large scale composite structures developing membrane action. Limitations – Due to the assumption that damage and plasticity are driven by the same internal variables in the model, a limitation appears for capturing the concrete post-peak behavior in highly confined stress states. This assumption allows for reducing the number of parameter but it restrains the domain of applicability of the model; it is suggested to adopt a different approach if the behavior in multiaxial compression at high confinement level has to be accurately captured. Another limitation of the model is related to the localization issue, which is only partly addressed in this work by means of the regularization of the crack energy. Further works should bring a more elaborated response while considering the case of reinforced concrete structures, in which numerous cracks develop. Finally, several simplifying assumptions have been adopted to restrain the scope of the research; for instance, the phenomenon of spalling has not been considered. Practical implications - The thesis includes implications for the development of advanced numerical tools for the simulation of concrete structures at ambient temperature and at high temperature. The use of such advanced tools in the design may lead to significant reduction in the building costs and to improved robustness of the structures. Value – The thesis contributes to fulfil an identified need to make available proper constitutive concrete model for implementation in finite elements softwares dedicated to the analysis of structures in fire. Special care is given to the numerical robustness of the model and to the clear definition of the material parameters as the model is intended to be used by structural (fire) engineers in real applications. [less ▲]

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See detailA multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Proceedings of the 13th Fire and Materials Conference (2013, January 28)

Performance-based design in fire engineering leads to increasing demand for advanced temperature-dependent material models for the load bearing materials used in building structures. These models must be ... [more ▼]

Performance-based design in fire engineering leads to increasing demand for advanced temperature-dependent material models for the load bearing materials used in building structures. These models must be valid in natural fire situations including cooling down phase and must be sufficiently robust for complex numerical calculations such as, for example, the analysis of tensile membrane action in composite slabs. Although structural concrete is widely used in civil engineering, proper modelling of its thermo-mechanical behaviour remains a challenging issue for engineers mainly because of the complexity of the phenomena that result from the microcracking process in this material and because of the necessity to ensure the numerical robustness of the models. This paper presents a new multiaxial concrete model based on a plastic-damage formulation and developed to meet the specific requirements of structural fire engineers and researchers. The model, which incorporates an explicit term for transient creep strain and encompasses a limited number of material parameters, has been implemented in a finite element software dedicated to the nonlinear analysis of structures in fire. The paper presents a series of numerical simulations conducted to highlight the model ability to capture the main phenomena that develop in concrete under fire (permanent strains, degradation of the elastic properties, unilateral effect) as well as its ability to be used for the fire analysis of large-scale structural elements. As an example, the new concrete model is used in the numerical analysis of a full scale fire test on a composite steel-concrete slab and it is shown that the computed and measured results agree. [less ▲]

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