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See detailAre ACE-inhibitors or ARB's still needed for cardiovascular prevention in high risk patients? Insights from PRoFESS and TRANSCEND
Van Mieghem, W.; Billiouw, J.-M.; Brohet, C. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2010), 65-2

The HOPE and EUROPA clinical studies have shown that treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, ramipril and perindopril, may reduce the occurence of major cardiovascular events in ... [more ▼]

The HOPE and EUROPA clinical studies have shown that treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, ramipril and perindopril, may reduce the occurence of major cardiovascular events in patients with proven atherosclerotic disease. The recently published results of the PRoFESS and TRANSCEND trials completed the much needed information concerning the use of an angiotensin receptor blocker for patients at high risk of cardiovascular events. PRoFESS compared a therapy of telmisartan 80 mg daily with placebo in patients with a recent ischemic stroke. The difference in the primary outcome of first recurrent stroke was not statistically significant between telmisartan and placebo. The secondary outcome of major cardiovascular events showed a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 7% in favour of telmsartan. This tended to be significant (p=0.06) despite a rather short follow-up period of only 28 months. In TRANSCEND 5,926 patients at high risk for cardiovascular events were randomized to a treatment with telmisartan 80 mg daily or placebo for a mean duration of follow-up of 56 months. The primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalization for heart failure showed a non-significant 8% RRR in favour of the telmisartan treated patients. The main secondary outcome of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction or stroke as used in the HOPE trial showed a non-significant RRR of 13% in favour of telmisartan treated patients (p=0,068 adjusted for multiplicity of comparisons). In comparing the Kaplan-Meier curves for the endpoint of major cardiovascular events used in HOPE, EUROPA, TRANSCEND and PRoFESS, the trends are similar. Results of most of th recently published trials have been neutral. This could partly be explained by major improvements in the optimal background therapy of the patients included. Nevertheless, the results of PRoFESS and TRANSCEND do not contradict the results from previous studies with the ACE inhibitors ramipril and perindopril and the ARB telmisartan. [less ▲]

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See detailAre agricultural ecosystems important BVOC « exchangers »? Evidences from 2 measurement years on croplands at Lonzée (Belgium)
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Schoon, Niels et al

Poster (2014, July 01)

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile ... [more ▼]

For the last decades, agricultural ecosystems have been a key biome for diverse socio-economical, environmental and climatic issues. And one of these climatic issues is just BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) emission from terrestrial ecosystems. Indeed, those compounds which are mostly emitted by plants play a great role in the atmospheric chemistry, thereby influencing the Earth surface radiative budget and the tropospheric air quality. However, so far, very few is known about BVOC exchange by crops, implying that huge uncertainties remain about qualifying, quantifying and determining sources/sinks and driving mechanisms of BVOC exchanges between croplands ecosystems and the atmosphere. We present here the first long term BVOC fluxes measurement study conducted on maize (2012) and winter wheat (2013), respectively the second and first most important worldwide crops (FAOSTAT). BVOC exchange was measured using the disjunct by mass scanning eddy covariance technique (+ PTR-MS, Ionicon) at the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (ICOS site) in Belgium. Main results are: (i) crops emit mainly methanol; (ii) BVOC fluxes from studied crops is lower than in literature, suggesting that agricultural ecosystems are poor BVOC exchangers; (iii) soil is a significant BVOC source. [less ▲]

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See detailAre all glitazones the same?
Van Gaal, Luc; Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes/Metabolism Research & Reviews (2002), 18 Suppl 2

This supplement focuses on the benefits of targeting insulin resistance through therapy with a new class of oral antidiabetic agents, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or 'glitazones'. There are important ... [more ▼]

This supplement focuses on the benefits of targeting insulin resistance through therapy with a new class of oral antidiabetic agents, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or 'glitazones'. There are important differences between the three TZD class members that warrant discussion to enable physicians to make rational and informed therapeutic choices between the agents. Overall the TZDs appear to be similar in their effects on blood glucose, as all class members have demonstrated effective glycaemic control, both as monotherapy and in combination with sulphonylureas, metformin or exogenous insulin. The safety profiles of the three agents are more diverse, with what appear to be 'TZD class effects', (probably mediated via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [PPAR gamma]) and 'TZD-specific effects', which are unique to each agent and may be a consequence of differing chemical structures. While rosiglitazone and pioglitazone share some class effects with troglitazone, they have several characteristics that define them as unique agents. By tackling the control of type 2 diabetes through direct effects on insulin resistance, the TZDs represent an important new therapeutic tool for healthcare professionals. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Amphipathic Asymmetric Peptides Ubiquitous Structures For Membrane Destabilisation?
Rahman, M.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Modeling (1997), 3(5), 203-215

The fusion of some viruses (SIV, BLV, etc) to host cells implicates short fragments of the fusion protein that are asymmetric amphipathic helices in molecular modelling. The tilted orientation of these ... [more ▼]

The fusion of some viruses (SIV, BLV, etc) to host cells implicates short fragments of the fusion protein that are asymmetric amphipathic helices in molecular modelling. The tilted orientation of these fragments at a water/lipid interface is directly related to their fusogenic capacity. On this basis, we have searched for fragments of sequences corresponding to “viral fusion peptides” in other proteins. We have developed a strategy to detect them from primary sequences. Many candidates were detected, especially in transmembrane areas of membranous proteins, in signal sequences and in globular proteins. We suggest that they are involved in the dynamics of lipid-protein interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Antibodies Responsible for a Decreased Superovulatory Response in Goats Which Have Been Treated Repeatedly with Porcine Follicle-Stimulating Hormone ?
Remy, Benoit; Baril, Gérard; Vallet, J. C. et al

in Theriogenology (1991), 36(3), 389-99

Repeated administration of xenogenic gonadotropins in human or animal species may be responsible for antibody production and refractoriness. An experiment was conducted in which goats were treated with ... [more ▼]

Repeated administration of xenogenic gonadotropins in human or animal species may be responsible for antibody production and refractoriness. An experiment was conducted in which goats were treated with porcine FSH (p-FSH) at 6-week intervals for a period of 7 months. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to detect antibodies to p-FSH in plasma samples taken at short-term intervals during a 7-month period. Antibodies appeared after the first injection, and levels increased following booster injections. A high correlation rate existed between antibody level and superovulatory response. Refractoriness in goats was associated with a high level of antibodies. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Belgian hospitals prepared for an H5NI1-pandemic?
De Cauwer, H. G.; Mortelmans, L. J. M.; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg

in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007), 14(4), 204-206

Objective Virulent airborne diseases can be a real burden to a nation's health system. The most recent threat is the fear of a mutation-induced H5N1-influenza pandemic. We studied whether Belgian ... [more ▼]

Objective Virulent airborne diseases can be a real burden to a nation's health system. The most recent threat is the fear of a mutation-induced H5N1-influenza pandemic. We studied whether Belgian hospitals are able to deal with H5N1-influenza infected patients in the case of a pandemic. Many patients, including children, may require artificial ventilation within 48h after admission. Methods A survey aimed at determining 'availability and preparedness' was sent by e-mail to the different Belgian Emergency Departments. Results and discussion Sixty-five hospitals were finally included. The amount of patients being potentially admitted is limited, owing to the reduced number of intensive care beds equipped with automatic ventilators. Furthermore, the number of available intensive care beds for children is still lower than for adult patients. The number of mortuary places, in the case of a catastrophe, is also insufficient. Although most hospitals set up a disaster plan on H5N1, there are only limited stocks of antiviral medication to protect the hospital staff in the acute phase. A separate triage area is only available in a limited number of hospitals. We conclude that Belgian hospitals and emergency departments are not equipped to deal with potential pandemic situations. [less ▲]

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See detailAre bio and nano likely to be compared? If so, what are the consequences on public participation?
Thoreau, François ULg

Conference (2009, March 29)

Like modern biotechnologies, nanotechnologies are a generic area of research linked with several interconnected disciplinary fields. They may be converted into a large panel of applications. It also ... [more ▼]

Like modern biotechnologies, nanotechnologies are a generic area of research linked with several interconnected disciplinary fields. They may be converted into a large panel of applications. It also brings, with its development, promises of a quite huge potential including important economic opportunities. Both of those emergent technologies also raise important social, ethical or environmental issues. Nevertheless, many substantive differences remain between biotechnologies and nanotechnologies. The former was introduced in society by a time public actors were less sensitive to public participation, as shows the history of parliamentary Technology Assessment. A lack of public participation is often told to have grounded some public opposition to some particular biotechnologies, with the usually quoted case of GMOs. The latter are currently under development in quite other circumstances, as social shaping of technology begins to be widely acknowledged and role played by STS community grows faster. Nanotechnologies deal with more uncertainties and more complexity. So it is commonly accepted that, within their development process, they should include more public participation to avoid some pitfalls of biotechnologies. Still, other differences that context exist between biotechnologies and nanotechnologies. It may be stressed that biotechnologies have left laboratories for a private financial designing of marketable products and that nanotechnologies are just starting to leave laboratories under great public impulsions, with wide public support and funding, as in the case of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. So in the presentation we consider whether, given those differences, biotechnologies and nanotechnologies are likely to be compared. Then we pick a look to potential consequences related to public participation. Should there be more public participation? What for? Should it be driven in a different way? [less ▲]

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See detailAre blood transfusions associated with greater mortality rates? Results of the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients study.
Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Sprung, Charles et al

in Anesthesiology (2008), 108(1), 31-9

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested worse outcomes in transfused patients and improved outcomes in patients managed with restricted blood transfusion strategies. The authors investigated the relation of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested worse outcomes in transfused patients and improved outcomes in patients managed with restricted blood transfusion strategies. The authors investigated the relation of blood transfusion to mortality in European intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: The Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients study was a multicenter, observational study that included all adult patients admitted to 198 European ICUs between May 1 and May 15, 2002 and followed them until death, until hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified depending on whether they had received a blood transfusion at any time during their ICU stay. RESULTS: Of 3,147 patients, 1,040 (33.0%) received a blood transfusion. These patients were older (mean age, 62 vs. 60 yr; P = 0.035) and were more likely to have liver cirrhosis or hematologic cancer, to be a surgical admission, and to have sepsis. They had a longer duration of ICU stay (5.9 vs. 2.5 days; P < 0.001) and a higher ICU mortality rate (23.0 vs. 16.3%; P < 0.001) but were also more severely ill on admission (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 40.2 vs. 34.7; P < 0.001; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, 6.5 vs. 4.5; P < 0.001). There was a direct relation between the number of blood transfusions and the mortality rate, but in multivariate analysis, blood transfusion was not significantly associated with a worse mortality rate. Moreover, in 821 pairs matched according to a propensity score, there was a higher 30-day survival rate in the transfusion group than in the other patients (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: This observational study does not support the view that blood transfusions are associated with increased mortality rates in acutely ill patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAre bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Smeets, François ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is nou, âvailable that describe the distribuüon, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaÿ marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby caftle farm. High numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them were Culicoides impunc{atus, a potential vector of BïV and other pâthogens. ln addition, fewer numbers of c. obsoletus/c. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Smeets, François ULg; Simonon, Grégory et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(6),

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailAre bovine muscarinic receptors activated during respiratory distress syndrome ?
Genicot, B.; Mouligneau, F.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Smaldone, G. C.; Liebert, M. A. (Eds.) Journal of Aerosol Medicine : Deposition, Clearance, and Effects in the Lung (1993)

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See detailAre CAB gene expression and flowering under the control of the same clock in Lolium temulentum Ceres ?
Hustin, Cécile; Bernier, Georges ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Biological Rhythm Research (1999), 30

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See detailAre cannibalistic morphs of the tiger salamander obligatory cannibals?
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Whiteman, Howard; Wissinger, Scott

Conference (2005)

Tiger salamanders exhibit alternative trophic morphologies, with cannibals developing a larger head and longer teeth than typical larvae. Resource partitioning is known between morphs, with cannibal ... [more ▼]

Tiger salamanders exhibit alternative trophic morphologies, with cannibals developing a larger head and longer teeth than typical larvae. Resource partitioning is known between morphs, with cannibal morphs usually foraging on conspecifics and rarely on small organisms. Our aim was to determine whether the cannibal and typical morphs shift their diets across time and particularly whether conspecifics are necessarily the main prey of cannibals and plankton the primary prey of typicals. We found that only the cannibal morph foraged on conspecifics, but not all the time. Cannibalism typically occurred only early after the ontogenetic divergence between morphs. Cannibals shifted their diet later in the summer to plankton, and this ontogenetic shift led to dietary overlap with the typical morph. In contrast to other studies, our findings suggest that the cannibal morphology actually allows the consumption of a larger variety of prey, rather than specialization on specific resources (i.e., conspecifics). The outcomes of the cannibalistic ontogenetic pathway include a higher biomass intake from food and a larger size than typicals. From a foraging perspective, the cannibalism pathway is clearly advantageous over the typical morphology. However, the increased diet breadth of cannibal morphs found in this study suggests that the maintenance of the polyphenism is more complex than has previously been suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailARE CAPABILITY INDICES USEFULL TO ASSESS ANALYTICAL METHODS VALIDITY ?
Rozet, Eric ULg; Bouabidi, Abderrahim ULg; Talbi, M. et al

Poster (2012, February)

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability ... [more ▼]

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability indices has to be made. Indeed, the commonly used formulas to compute capability indices such as Cpk, will highly overestimate the true capability of the methods. Especially during methods validation or transfer, there are only few experiments performed and, using in these situations the commonly applied capability indices to declare a method as valid or as transferable to a receiving laboratory will conduct to inadequate decisions. In this work, an improved capability index, namely Cpk-tol and the corresponding estimator of proportion of non conforming results ( ) is proposed. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, they have been shown to greatly increase the estimation of analytical methods capability in particular in low sample size situations as encountered during methods validation or transfer. Additionally, the usefulness of this capability index is illustrated through several case studies covering applications commonly encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. Finally a methodology to determine the optimal sample size required to validate analytical methods is also given using the proposed capability metric. [less ▲]

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See detailAre cardiac markers useful in patients with chronic renal failure?
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2001, May)

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See detailAre cardiac markers useful in patients with chronic renal failure?
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2001), 39(suppl), 36

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See detailAre Cities of Northern Europe at Risk ?
Plumier, André ULg; Jongmans, Denis

in Proceedings of the Workshop Mitigation of Seismic Risk - Support to recently Affected European Countries (2000, November)

A benchmark study on seimic risk has been realised on Liege, Belgium, at the request of the Regional Authority. Its main interest is that it deals with the seismic risk of a city in a low seismicity ... [more ▼]

A benchmark study on seimic risk has been realised on Liege, Belgium, at the request of the Regional Authority. Its main interest is that it deals with the seismic risk of a city in a low seismicity region. The work involves a hazard study based on the recently defined map of seismicity of Belgium, the definition of the individual vulnerability of buildings, the combination of hazard and vulnerability to define risk and static evaluations of connecting details in non engineered structures. For the evaluation of vulnerability, a simplified screening method has been defined. The main conclusion is that in regions where the Peak Ground Acceleration is higher than 0,1g and the building stock does not possess good structural quality, the seismic risk may be considered high. [less ▲]

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See detailAre CNA42 and FDC-B1 directed against ovine follicular dendritic cells?
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Piret,J; Minne , M et al

Poster (2006, October)

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See detailAre COX-2 Inhibitors Active on Intracellular Oxidative Processes? A Study on In Vitro and Cellular Models
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Deby, Carol et al

Book published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. (2006)

In the last years, there has been an increasing interest of using cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors to treat the inflammatory pain and chronic inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid ... [more ▼]

In the last years, there has been an increasing interest of using cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors to treat the inflammatory pain and chronic inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The beneficial effects were to avoid the secondary adverse effects such as bleeding and gastric irritation, generally observed with aspirin and conventional NSAIDs. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and involved in the regulation of normal homeostatic functions, while COX-2 is not detected in most tissues but induced by inflammatory stimuli. These outcomes motivated the commercial development of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Recent data suggested that the COX-2 enzyme can be expressed within atherosclerotic lesions and could play a crucial role in various types of cancers, by the way of its activity on the ROS production, gene transcription and prostaglandin (PGE2) production. Consequently, the COX-2 enzyme has become a real target for the study of various classes of compounds and specially the possible additional properties of COX-2 inhibitors. We and other groups have already investigated the pro or antioxidant profile of conventional NSAIDs and some COX-2 inhibitors. With the recent withdrawal of two compounds of the coxib’s family (rofecoxib and celecoxib), for adverse cardiovascular events, concerns regarding the safety of all COX-2 inhibitors have been raised. To answer to these concerns, different approaches were developed by studying on in vitro models, the potential inhibiting-or-stimulating activities on oxidative phenomena of new drugs with already recognized therapeutic effects. Preliminary data obtained with COX-2 inhibitors showed a moderate inhibiting effect on the intracellular oxidant processes and others a stimulating activity. New hypotheses for the treatment of inflammation are now suggested for compounds like nimesulide and its analogous, which are selective towards COX-2 with little activity on COX-1. Here, we reported the in vitro effects of some Cox-2 inhibitors, in comparison with traditional drugs (ibuprofen, diclofenac and aceclofenac) by using two cellular models: a human lung type II alveolar cell line (A549) and a human promonocyte cell line (THP-1). The direct interactions between the drugs and ROS were also investigated in cell-free systems. [less ▲]

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