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See detailAre Belgian hospitals prepared for an H5NI1-pandemic?
De Cauwer, H. G.; Mortelmans, L. J. M.; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg

in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2007), 14(4), 204-206

Objective Virulent airborne diseases can be a real burden to a nation's health system. The most recent threat is the fear of a mutation-induced H5N1-influenza pandemic. We studied whether Belgian ... [more ▼]

Objective Virulent airborne diseases can be a real burden to a nation's health system. The most recent threat is the fear of a mutation-induced H5N1-influenza pandemic. We studied whether Belgian hospitals are able to deal with H5N1-influenza infected patients in the case of a pandemic. Many patients, including children, may require artificial ventilation within 48h after admission. Methods A survey aimed at determining 'availability and preparedness' was sent by e-mail to the different Belgian Emergency Departments. Results and discussion Sixty-five hospitals were finally included. The amount of patients being potentially admitted is limited, owing to the reduced number of intensive care beds equipped with automatic ventilators. Furthermore, the number of available intensive care beds for children is still lower than for adult patients. The number of mortuary places, in the case of a catastrophe, is also insufficient. Although most hospitals set up a disaster plan on H5N1, there are only limited stocks of antiviral medication to protect the hospital staff in the acute phase. A separate triage area is only available in a limited number of hospitals. We conclude that Belgian hospitals and emergency departments are not equipped to deal with potential pandemic situations. [less ▲]

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See detailAre bio and nano likely to be compared? If so, what are the consequences on public participation?
Thoreau, François ULg

Conference (2009, March 29)

Like modern biotechnologies, nanotechnologies are a generic area of research linked with several interconnected disciplinary fields. They may be converted into a large panel of applications. It also ... [more ▼]

Like modern biotechnologies, nanotechnologies are a generic area of research linked with several interconnected disciplinary fields. They may be converted into a large panel of applications. It also brings, with its development, promises of a quite huge potential including important economic opportunities. Both of those emergent technologies also raise important social, ethical or environmental issues. Nevertheless, many substantive differences remain between biotechnologies and nanotechnologies. The former was introduced in society by a time public actors were less sensitive to public participation, as shows the history of parliamentary Technology Assessment. A lack of public participation is often told to have grounded some public opposition to some particular biotechnologies, with the usually quoted case of GMOs. The latter are currently under development in quite other circumstances, as social shaping of technology begins to be widely acknowledged and role played by STS community grows faster. Nanotechnologies deal with more uncertainties and more complexity. So it is commonly accepted that, within their development process, they should include more public participation to avoid some pitfalls of biotechnologies. Still, other differences that context exist between biotechnologies and nanotechnologies. It may be stressed that biotechnologies have left laboratories for a private financial designing of marketable products and that nanotechnologies are just starting to leave laboratories under great public impulsions, with wide public support and funding, as in the case of the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. So in the presentation we consider whether, given those differences, biotechnologies and nanotechnologies are likely to be compared. Then we pick a look to potential consequences related to public participation. Should there be more public participation? What for? Should it be driven in a different way? [less ▲]

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See detailAre blood transfusions associated with greater mortality rates? Results of the Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients study.
Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Sprung, Charles et al

in Anesthesiology (2008), 108(1), 31-9

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested worse outcomes in transfused patients and improved outcomes in patients managed with restricted blood transfusion strategies. The authors investigated the relation of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested worse outcomes in transfused patients and improved outcomes in patients managed with restricted blood transfusion strategies. The authors investigated the relation of blood transfusion to mortality in European intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: The Sepsis Occurrence in Acutely Ill Patients study was a multicenter, observational study that included all adult patients admitted to 198 European ICUs between May 1 and May 15, 2002 and followed them until death, until hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified depending on whether they had received a blood transfusion at any time during their ICU stay. RESULTS: Of 3,147 patients, 1,040 (33.0%) received a blood transfusion. These patients were older (mean age, 62 vs. 60 yr; P = 0.035) and were more likely to have liver cirrhosis or hematologic cancer, to be a surgical admission, and to have sepsis. They had a longer duration of ICU stay (5.9 vs. 2.5 days; P < 0.001) and a higher ICU mortality rate (23.0 vs. 16.3%; P < 0.001) but were also more severely ill on admission (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 40.2 vs. 34.7; P < 0.001; Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, 6.5 vs. 4.5; P < 0.001). There was a direct relation between the number of blood transfusions and the mortality rate, but in multivariate analysis, blood transfusion was not significantly associated with a worse mortality rate. Moreover, in 821 pairs matched according to a propensity score, there was a higher 30-day survival rate in the transfusion group than in the other patients (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: This observational study does not support the view that blood transfusions are associated with increased mortality rates in acutely ill patients. [less ▲]

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See detailAre bogs reservoirs for emerging disease vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Smeets, François ULg et al

Poster (2013, October)

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vec{ors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is nou, âvailable that describe the distribuüon, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaÿ marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby caftle farm. High numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them were Culicoides impunc{atus, a potential vector of BïV and other pâthogens. ln addition, fewer numbers of c. obsoletus/c. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Bogs Reservoirs for Emerging Disease Vectors? Evaluation of Culicoides Populations in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Smeets, François ULg; Simonon, Grégory et al

in PLoS ONE (2013), 8(6),

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe ... [more ▼]

Several species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges serve as biological vectors for the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently described Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in northern Europe. Since their recent emergence in this part of the continent, these diseases have caused considerable economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. Much data is now available that describe the distribution, population dynamics, and feeding habits of these insects. However, little is known regarding the presence of Culicoides in unusual habitats such as peaty marshes, nor their potential vector capacity. This study evaluated Culicoides biting midges present in the bogs of a Belgian nature reserve compared to those residing at a nearby cattle farm. Culicoides were trapped in 2011 at four different sites (broadleaved and coniferous forested areas, open environments, and at a scientific station) located in the Hautes Fagnes Nature Reserve (Belgium). An additional light trap was operated on a nearby cattle farm. Very high numbers of biting midges were captured in the marshy area and most of them (70 to 95%) were Culicoides impunctatus, a potential vector of BTV and other pathogens. In addition, fewer numbers of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus species, C. chiopterus, and C. dewulfi were observed in the bogs compared to the farm. The wet environment and oligotrophic nature of the soil were probably responsible for these changes in the respective populations. A total of 297,808 Culicoides midges belonging to 27 species were identified during this study and 3 of these species (C. sphagnumensis, C. clintoni and C. comosioculatus) were described in Belgium for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailAre bovine muscarinic receptors activated during respiratory distress syndrome ?
Genicot, B.; Mouligneau, F.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Smaldone, G. C.; Liebert, M. A. (Eds.) Journal of Aerosol Medicine : Deposition, Clearance, and Effects in the Lung (1993)

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See detailAre CAB gene expression and flowering under the control of the same clock in Lolium temulentum Ceres ?
Hustin, Cécile; Bernier, Georges ULg; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Biological Rhythm Research (1999), 30

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See detailAre cannibalistic morphs of the tiger salamander obligatory cannibals?
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Whiteman, Howard; Wissinger, Scott

Conference (2005)

Tiger salamanders exhibit alternative trophic morphologies, with cannibals developing a larger head and longer teeth than typical larvae. Resource partitioning is known between morphs, with cannibal ... [more ▼]

Tiger salamanders exhibit alternative trophic morphologies, with cannibals developing a larger head and longer teeth than typical larvae. Resource partitioning is known between morphs, with cannibal morphs usually foraging on conspecifics and rarely on small organisms. Our aim was to determine whether the cannibal and typical morphs shift their diets across time and particularly whether conspecifics are necessarily the main prey of cannibals and plankton the primary prey of typicals. We found that only the cannibal morph foraged on conspecifics, but not all the time. Cannibalism typically occurred only early after the ontogenetic divergence between morphs. Cannibals shifted their diet later in the summer to plankton, and this ontogenetic shift led to dietary overlap with the typical morph. In contrast to other studies, our findings suggest that the cannibal morphology actually allows the consumption of a larger variety of prey, rather than specialization on specific resources (i.e., conspecifics). The outcomes of the cannibalistic ontogenetic pathway include a higher biomass intake from food and a larger size than typicals. From a foraging perspective, the cannibalism pathway is clearly advantageous over the typical morphology. However, the increased diet breadth of cannibal morphs found in this study suggests that the maintenance of the polyphenism is more complex than has previously been suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailARE CAPABILITY INDICES USEFULL TO ASSESS ANALYTICAL METHODS VALIDITY ?
Rozet, Eric ULg; Bouabidi, Abderrahim ULg; Talbi, M. et al

Poster (2012, February)

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability ... [more ▼]

Analytical methods capability evaluation can be a useful methodology to assess the fitness of purpose of these methods for their future routine application. However, care on how to compute the capability indices has to be made. Indeed, the commonly used formulas to compute capability indices such as Cpk, will highly overestimate the true capability of the methods. Especially during methods validation or transfer, there are only few experiments performed and, using in these situations the commonly applied capability indices to declare a method as valid or as transferable to a receiving laboratory will conduct to inadequate decisions. In this work, an improved capability index, namely Cpk-tol and the corresponding estimator of proportion of non conforming results ( ) is proposed. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, they have been shown to greatly increase the estimation of analytical methods capability in particular in low sample size situations as encountered during methods validation or transfer. Additionally, the usefulness of this capability index is illustrated through several case studies covering applications commonly encountered in the pharmaceutical industry. Finally a methodology to determine the optimal sample size required to validate analytical methods is also given using the proposed capability metric. [less ▲]

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See detailAre cardiac markers useful in patients with chronic renal failure?
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2001, May)

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See detailAre cardiac markers useful in patients with chronic renal failure?
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2001), 39(suppl), 36

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See detailAre Cities of Northern Europe at Risk ?
Plumier, André ULg; Jongmans, Denis

in Proceedings of the Workshop Mitigation of Seismic Risk - Support to recently Affected European Countries (2000, November)

A benchmark study on seimic risk has been realised on Liege, Belgium, at the request of the Regional Authority. Its main interest is that it deals with the seismic risk of a city in a low seismicity ... [more ▼]

A benchmark study on seimic risk has been realised on Liege, Belgium, at the request of the Regional Authority. Its main interest is that it deals with the seismic risk of a city in a low seismicity region. The work involves a hazard study based on the recently defined map of seismicity of Belgium, the definition of the individual vulnerability of buildings, the combination of hazard and vulnerability to define risk and static evaluations of connecting details in non engineered structures. For the evaluation of vulnerability, a simplified screening method has been defined. The main conclusion is that in regions where the Peak Ground Acceleration is higher than 0,1g and the building stock does not possess good structural quality, the seismic risk may be considered high. [less ▲]

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See detailAre CNA42 and FDC-B1 directed against ovine follicular dendritic cells?
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Piret,J; Minne , M et al

Poster (2006, October)

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See detailAre COX-2 Inhibitors Active on Intracellular Oxidative Processes? A Study on In Vitro and Cellular Models
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Deby, Carol et al

Book published by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. (2006)

In the last years, there has been an increasing interest of using cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors to treat the inflammatory pain and chronic inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid ... [more ▼]

In the last years, there has been an increasing interest of using cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors to treat the inflammatory pain and chronic inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The beneficial effects were to avoid the secondary adverse effects such as bleeding and gastric irritation, generally observed with aspirin and conventional NSAIDs. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues and involved in the regulation of normal homeostatic functions, while COX-2 is not detected in most tissues but induced by inflammatory stimuli. These outcomes motivated the commercial development of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Recent data suggested that the COX-2 enzyme can be expressed within atherosclerotic lesions and could play a crucial role in various types of cancers, by the way of its activity on the ROS production, gene transcription and prostaglandin (PGE2) production. Consequently, the COX-2 enzyme has become a real target for the study of various classes of compounds and specially the possible additional properties of COX-2 inhibitors. We and other groups have already investigated the pro or antioxidant profile of conventional NSAIDs and some COX-2 inhibitors. With the recent withdrawal of two compounds of the coxib’s family (rofecoxib and celecoxib), for adverse cardiovascular events, concerns regarding the safety of all COX-2 inhibitors have been raised. To answer to these concerns, different approaches were developed by studying on in vitro models, the potential inhibiting-or-stimulating activities on oxidative phenomena of new drugs with already recognized therapeutic effects. Preliminary data obtained with COX-2 inhibitors showed a moderate inhibiting effect on the intracellular oxidant processes and others a stimulating activity. New hypotheses for the treatment of inflammation are now suggested for compounds like nimesulide and its analogous, which are selective towards COX-2 with little activity on COX-1. Here, we reported the in vitro effects of some Cox-2 inhibitors, in comparison with traditional drugs (ibuprofen, diclofenac and aceclofenac) by using two cellular models: a human lung type II alveolar cell line (A549) and a human promonocyte cell line (THP-1). The direct interactions between the drugs and ROS were also investigated in cell-free systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAre crises separating stock markets?
Muller, Aline ULg; Babaei, Hamid ULg

E-print/Working paper (2012)

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See detailAre Designers Sufficiently Instructed to Make the Most Rewarding Use of the Latest Steel Codes?
Maquoi, René ULg

in 2013 SSRC Stability Conference (2013)

Series of comments stressing some points of Eurocode 3 which must be duly mastered to enable more economical design of steel structures.

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See detailAre deterministic models helpful to delineate groundwater protection zones in karstic aquifers ?
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg

in Günay, G.; Johnson, I. (Eds.) Karst Waters & Environmental Impacts (Proc. of the 5th Int. Conf.) (1997)

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See detailAre diatoms good integrators of temporal variability in stream water quality?
Lavoie, Isabelle; Campeau, Stephane; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

in Freshwater Biology (2008), 53(4), 827-841

1. Although diatoms have been used for many decades for river monitoring around the world, studies showing evidence that diatoms integrate temporal variability in water chemistry are scarce. 2. The ... [more ▼]

1. Although diatoms have been used for many decades for river monitoring around the world, studies showing evidence that diatoms integrate temporal variability in water chemistry are scarce. 2. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of the Eastern Canadian Diatom Index (IDEC: Indice Diatomees de l'Est du Canada) with respect to temporal water chemistry variability using three different spatio-temporal data sets. 3. Along a large phosphorus gradient, the IDEC was highly correlated with averaged water chemistry data. Along within-stream phosphorus gradients, the IDEC integrated phosphorus over various periods of time, depending on the trophic status of the site studied (Boyer, Nicolet or Ste. Anne river) and variability in nutrient concentration. 4. In the Ste. Anne River, where nutrient concentrations were low and generally stable, an input of phosphorus induced a rapid change in diatom community structure and IDEC value within the following week. In the mesotrophic Nicolet River, the observed integration period was approximately 2 weeks. Diatom communities in the eutrophic Boyer River appeared to be adapted to frequent and significant fluctuations in nutrient concentrations. In this system, the IDEC therefore showed a slower response to short term fluctuations and integrated nutrient concentrations over a period of 5 weeks. 5. Our results suggest that the integration period varies as a function of trophic status and nutrient concentration variability in the streams. Oligotrophic streams are more sensitive to nutrient variations and their diatom communities are directly altered by nutrient increase, while diatom communities of eutrophic rivers are less sensitive to nutrient fluctuations and major variations take a longer time to be integrated into index values. 6. The longer integration period in the eutrophic environment may be attributed to the complexity of the diatom community. The results from this study showed that the diversity and evenness of the communities increased with trophic status. [less ▲]

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See detailAre ecological indices based on macrophytes communities pertinent tools to monitor ecological potential of Walloon reservoirs?
Sossey Alaoui, Khadija ULg; Galoux Daniel, SPW; Rosillon, Francis ULg

Poster (2012, June 19)

Diversity and trophic metrics based on macrophyte communities were calculated to test their pertinence to assess the ecological potential of Walloon reservoirs (Belgium). The BE-FL method (four ... [more ▼]

Diversity and trophic metrics based on macrophyte communities were calculated to test their pertinence to assess the ecological potential of Walloon reservoirs (Belgium). The BE-FL method (four complementary metrics) and the United Kingdom method (five metrics calculated using information on taxonomic composition and abundance of macrophyte species and groups of such species) were tested. Highly significant correlations were found between the chemical variables (o-P (mg P/l); P tot (µg P/l); NH4+ (mg N/l) DCO (mg/l) Cond (µS/cm), the phytoplankton assemblage index, Q (Padisak et al., 2006) applied for the same reservoirs (Descy et al., 2010). and trophic metric LMNI and between them and the abundance of disturbance indicators (V). Groupe of macrfophyte species metrics do not necessarily provide any direct information on the quality or degree of degradation of the environment from which the sample was taken, whereas trophic indices do. [less ▲]

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