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See detailAnthropologie philosophique ou Wissenschaftslehre?
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2008, October 09)

Quelle place la philosophie doit-elle faire à la « question anthropologique » ou à la « question de l’homme » ? En dépit du succès incontestable de l’anthropologie philosophique dans le courant du ... [more ▼]

Quelle place la philosophie doit-elle faire à la « question anthropologique » ou à la « question de l’homme » ? En dépit du succès incontestable de l’anthropologie philosophique dans le courant du vingtième siècle, cette question est peut-être, comme on sait, plus complexe qu’il n’y paraît. Les travaux de Daniel Giovannangeli, en retraçant les médiations que l’on connaît (Kant lu par Heidegger, lui-même lu par Sartre et relu par Foucault), ont largement mis en lumière cette complexité. Sur quoi repose-t-elle ? Pourquoi l’orientation sur l’homme semble-t-elle à la fois incontournable et trop réductrice ? Je me bornerai ici à avancer une hypothèse, vers laquelle convergent, me semble-t-il, les travaux de D. Giovannangeli, et que je formulerais pour ma part de la manière suivante : le traitement philosophique de la question anthropologique est indissociable d’un problème de fondation, la philosophie se caractérisant elle-même prioritairement par une dimension fondationnelle. [less ▲]

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See detailL'anthropologue en plein conflit: secrets, silences et éthique en anthropologie du droit
Andreetta, Sophie ULg

Conference (2013)

En mai dernier, je déjeunais avec un ami avocat lorsqu’il me fit part de l’anecdote suivante : quelques mois auparavant, il remportait une affaire pour laquelle une compensation financière, destinée à des ... [more ▼]

En mai dernier, je déjeunais avec un ami avocat lorsqu’il me fit part de l’anecdote suivante : quelques mois auparavant, il remportait une affaire pour laquelle une compensation financière, destinée à des clients, avait été versée sur son compte bancaire. Comme ces derniers ne réclamaient pas immédiatement leur dû, l’avocat décida alors d’investir le montant qui « dormait dans son compte » en le prêtant à une connaissance. Lorsque les clients se manifestèrent enfin, il leur restitua l’argent et conserva les intérêts. Au-delà de la protection de l'anonymat de mon informateur, aurais-je dû garder cette anecdote secrète? Dans le cadre de mes recherches sur les conflits d’héritage au Sud-Bénin, je me suis intéressée au fonctionnement des tribunaux, aux pratiques des professionnels de la justice et à leurs relations avec les usagers. Je me suis penchée sur les arguments des parties, sur leur conception du droit et sur leur parcours depuis les funérailles jusqu'au tribunal ou au bureau du notaire. Je reviendrai ici sur les difficultés pratiques et éthiques de mon travail sur le terrain. En effet, s’intégrer au point de passer presque inaperçu est l'objectif de tout anthropologue ayant recours à l'observation participante. Il s’agit pour nous d’une manière de découvrir les « relations réelles » et les jeux de pouvoir, d'aller au-delà des discours officiels dans lesquels la réalité paraît souvent trop bien rangée. Au-delà des limites en termes d’accès à l’information, quelles sont les conséquences en matière d'éthique et de consentement? Comment utiliser ce que nos informateurs mentionnent « off the record », avant ou après un entretien, les choses qu'ils expliquent alors que nous les accompagnons lors d’une journée de travail? Lorsque l'observateur n’est plus perçu comme tel, mais comme un confident, le consentement des participants ne devient-il pas implicite, voire même caduc? Lorsque l’on touche aux dynamiques familiales, aux situations conflictuelles et au secret professionnel, nombreuses sont aussi les questions auxquelles les gens refusent de répondre, les institutions qui déclinent certaines demandes d'accès. Il s’agit alors de comprendre ce à quoi les gens disent « non » et pourquoi. Enfin, si des solutions pour contourner les limites inhérentes à toute recherche sont envisageables, ces dernières vont de pair avec une série de questions éthiques. Peut-on contacter une partie à l'insu de l'autre et ainsi trahir la confiance de certains informateurs ? Provoquer sur base d'informations obtenues lors d'autres entretiens ? Ces questions soulèvent également celle, plus large, de la propriété des données : peut-on considérer qu'une fois enregistré, un entretien appartient à celui qui l'a réalisé ? Qu'en est-il, enfin, du rôle de l'anthropologue « en plein conflit » ? Ces questions sont particulièrement pertinentes dans le cadre d’une ethnographie des administrations publiques (dans mon cas, les tribunaux) en Afrique de l'Ouest : fortement subventionnées par des organismes occidentaux, la pratique montre cependant que ces institutions ne correspondent pas (encore) au standard de la bureaucratie « rationnelle » occidentale. Dans ce cadre, la manière dont les professionnels décrivent leurs pratiques quotidiennes, ce qu’ils acceptent de dire – et à qui – est définitivement partie intégrante de l’analyse. Entre des secrets difficiles à garder et des silences qui en disent parfois long, je reviendrai ici sur la manière dont j’ai abordé mon terrain, sur les difficultés pratiques et sur les dilemmes éthiques. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthroponymie châtelettaine
Lempereur, Emile; Boutier, Marie-Guy ULg

in Dialectes de Wallonie (1998), 25-26

Marie-Guy Boutier a procédé à l'édition d'un "dossier" anthroponymique constitué par Emile Lempereur dans sa ville natale de Châtelet (Belgique, prov. de Hainaut, arr. de Charleroi), selon un classement ... [more ▼]

Marie-Guy Boutier a procédé à l'édition d'un "dossier" anthroponymique constitué par Emile Lempereur dans sa ville natale de Châtelet (Belgique, prov. de Hainaut, arr. de Charleroi), selon un classement rendant le corpus accessible aux onomasticiens et aux dialectologues; cf. plan an annexe. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti SSA and anti SSB autoantibodies: an immunofluorescence, ultrastructural and immunoblotting study
Thiry, Marc ULg; Vigneron, Alain; Humbel, René et al

Poster (1987)

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See detailAnti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies and immune complexes in children with Henoch-Schonlein purpura or IgA nephropathy
Davin, J. C.; Malaise, Michel ULg; Foidart, J. et al

in Kidney International (1987), 31(5), 1132-1139

Episodes of hematuria in IgA nephropathy or Henoch-Schonlein purpura are frequently associated with microbial infections. Some of those infectious agents bear alpha-galactosyl residues on their cell ... [more ▼]

Episodes of hematuria in IgA nephropathy or Henoch-Schonlein purpura are frequently associated with microbial infections. Some of those infectious agents bear alpha-galactosyl residues on their cell surface. These observations prompted us to determine, by passive hemagglutination, the titers of natural anti-galactosyl antibodies in the serum of children presenting with Henoch-Schonlein purpura (10 cases) or IgA nephropathy (7 cases). Antibody titers of normal subjects (103 cases), children with a pharyngitis of unknown etiology (7 cases), and children exhibiting mesangial IgA deposits but no hematuria at the time of testing (6 cases) ranged from 1:20 to 1:80. Elevated titers (greater than 1:80) were observed in nine of 11 patients with mesangial IgA deposits and micro- or macroscopic hematuria, in nine of 19 children with other evolutive glomerular diseases (5 cases of acute glomerulonephritis and 4 cases of minimal change disease), and in most subjects presenting with a M. pneumoniae (4/5 cases) or a E. Coli (4/5 cases) infection. Antibody titers decreased after incubation of normal and pathological sera with D-galactose (10 mM) or with alpha-galactosyl-glucoside (10 mM), but not with D-glucose (10 mM). The anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies purified, by affinity chromatography, from sera of 10 normal children, 10 pathological controls and four children with mesangial IgA deposits without hematuria belonged to IgG class. In contrast, both IgG and IgA anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies were detected in six of six patients with mesangial IgA deposits and hematuria. The IgA content of immune complexes detected in those patients decreased after incubation of sera with alpha-galactosyl-glucoside, but not with D-glucose. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-American Sentiment and America’s Perceived Intent to Dominate: An 11-Nation Study
Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T; Abrams, Dominique et al

in Basic & Applied Social Psychology (2006), 28(4), 363-173

Perceptions of America as a powerful but malevolent nation decrease its security. On the basis of measures derived from the stereotype content model (SCM) and image theory (IT), 5,000 college students in ... [more ▼]

Perceptions of America as a powerful but malevolent nation decrease its security. On the basis of measures derived from the stereotype content model (SCM) and image theory (IT), 5,000 college students in 11 nations indicated their perceptions of the personality traits of, intentions of, and emotional reactions to the United States as well as their reactions to relevant world events (e.g., 9/11). The United States was generally perceived as competent but cold and arrogant. Although participants distinguished between the United States’ government and its citizens, differences were small. Consistent with the SCM and IT, viewing the United States as intent on domination predicted perceptions of lack of warmth and of arrogance but not of competence and status. The discussion addresses implications for terrorist recruitment and ally support. [less ▲]

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See detailThe anti-angiogenic peptide Anginex blocks osteoclastogenesis
Muller, Joséphine ULg; Binsfeld, Marilène ULg; DUBOIS, Sophie ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Hematology (2015), Abstracts book

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See detailAnti-angiogenic therapy of exudative age-related macular degeneration: current progress and emerging concepts
Noël, Agnès ULg; Jost, Maud; Lambert, Vincent ULg et al

in Trends in Molecular Medicine (2007), 13(8), 345-352

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in elderly patients. The more aggressive exudative form is characterized by abnormal blood-vessel development that occurs beneath ... [more ▼]

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in elderly patients. The more aggressive exudative form is characterized by abnormal blood-vessel development that occurs beneath the retina as a result of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF) has emerged as the key mediator of CNV formation; this has led to intensive research on VEGF and the recent approval of anti-VEGF compounds by the US Food and Drug Administration. Despite this successful introduction of anti-angiogenic therapies into the clinical setting, there is still a lack of treatments that definitively reverse damaged vision. Here, we consider the importance of putative molecular targets other than VEGF that might have been underestimated. Emerging cellular mechanisms offer additional opportunities for innovative therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-basement membrane glomerulopathy in experimental trypanosomiasis.
Bruijn, J. A.; Oemar, B. S.; Ehrich, J. H. et al

in Journal of Immunology (1987), 139(7), 2482-8

The nature of kidney lesions in BD IX rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Proteinuria developed and increased up to 236 +/- 35 mg/24 hr at 7 wk after the infection. Antibodies were ... [more ▼]

The nature of kidney lesions in BD IX rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei was investigated. Proteinuria developed and increased up to 236 +/- 35 mg/24 hr at 7 wk after the infection. Antibodies were found to be deposited along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) predominantly in a linear fashion, which changed to a more granular pattern 7 wk after the infection. At this stage of the disease, electron-dense deposits were found subendothelially along the GBM. In the sera and kidney eluates of diseased rats, anti-GBM antibodies were present. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies showed antibodies which reacted with GBM components laminin and type IV collagen and not with fibronectin. The antibody specificity was confirmed by using competitive and cross-absorption ELISA techniques, as well as immunoblotting. With the use of indirect immunofluorescence, no common antigenic sites were found on trypanosomes and GBM components. The observed linear immunofluorescence pattern seems to be caused by glomerular binding of antibodies directed against laminin and type IV collagen, which are known to be able to induce renal disease. Subendothelial complex formation in later stages of the disease might result from a molecular rearrangement of GBM components after in situ binding of the antibodies. The formation of auto-antibodies directed against laminin and type IV collagen is probably caused by restricted polyclonal B cell stimulation, a well known feature of trypanosomiasis. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-basement-membrane antibodies in the serum of healthy subjects.
Bernard, A.; Lauwerys, R.; Mahieu, P. et al

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (1986), 314(22), 1456-7

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See detailAnti-biofilm activities from marine cold adapted bacteria against staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Papa, R.; Selan, L.; Parrilli, E. et al

in Frontiers in Microbiology (2015), 6

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See detailAnti-bromodeoxyuridine monoclonal antibody: an alternative tool for the identification of replicated DNA at the electron microscope level.
Thiry, Marc ULg; Dombrowicz, D.

in Biology of the Cell (1988), 62(1), 99-102

A new method for identifying the replicated DNA at the electron microscope level is described. Cells were first exposed in vitro to 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) in conjunction with 5-fluorodeoxyuridine ... [more ▼]

A new method for identifying the replicated DNA at the electron microscope level is described. Cells were first exposed in vitro to 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) in conjunction with 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) and BUdR incorporated into DNA was then detected on Lowicryl-embedded sections by immunogold technique using a monoclonal anti-BUdR antibody. After using this method, chromatin and chromosomes are strongly labelled. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-CD3/anti-epidermal growth factor receptor-bispecific antibody retargeting of lymphocytes against human neoplastic keratinocytes in an autologous organotypic culture model
Renard, I.; Mezzanzanica, Delia; Canevari, Silvana et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2002), 160(1), 113-122

Local cellular immune defects have been described in several tumors including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer. This observation suggests the potential therapeutic benefit of immune ... [more ▼]

Local cellular immune defects have been described in several tumors including human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical cancer. This observation suggests the potential therapeutic benefit of immune manipulations that restore cellular immunity. Here, we evaluated the ability of bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bimAbs) to redirect T cells against keratinocytes transformed in vitro by HPV in an autologous three-dimensional culture model (organotypic cultures). The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was chosen as target for an anti-CD3/anti-EGFR bimAb because it is overexpressed in many malignant epithelial lesions and only weakly expressed in the basal layers of normal squamous epithelium. Interestingly, in organotypic cultures, the pattern of expression of EGFR was similar to that observed in vivo. The ability of T cells retargeted by CD3/EGFR bimAb to lyse HPV-transformed cell lines was confirmed in monolayer cultures. In autologous organotypic cultures, an increase in apoptotic HPV(+) keratinocytes and a significant decrease in the thickness of HPV(+) organotypic cultures were observed when activated lymphocytes and bimAbs were added to the cultures, whereas organotypic cultures of normal keratinocytes were not significantly affected. These data were similar to those obtained in the allogeneic model. These results suggest the potential usefulness of CD3-EGFR bimAb-retargeted lymphocytes in immunotherapeutic protocols for malignant epithelial lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-D Prophylaxis Reviewed in the Erea of Foetal RHD Genotyping
MINON, Jean-Marc; GERARD, CH; CHANTRAINE, Frédéric ULg et al

in Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion (2015), 6(5),

A few years ago, the prevention of anti-D immunization was currently based on systematic postnatal prophylaxis associated with targeted antenatal injection in high-risk situations of foeto-maternal ... [more ▼]

A few years ago, the prevention of anti-D immunization was currently based on systematic postnatal prophylaxis associated with targeted antenatal injection in high-risk situations of foeto-maternal haemorrhage. The failures of prevention are mainly due to the non-respect of established guidelines for RhIG prophylaxis, and to spontaneous undetected foetal-maternal haemorrhages without any obvious cause during the third trimester of pregnancy. In order to reduce the rate of residual post-pregnancy anti-D immunization, several countries decided to associate the classical prophylaxis to a routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis (RAADP) during the 28th or 29th week of gestation. Since about ten years, the foetal RHD genotyping in maternal plasma enables us to limit the antenatal prophylaxis only to those D- women carrying a D+ foetus. This paper deals with: the advantages of an antenatal prevention in the light of non invasive foetal RHD genotyping, the rules rendering prevention protocols efficient whatever the algorithm applied, and the recommended immuno-haematology follow-up of women who have received RhIG. [less ▲]

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See detailThe anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam reverses the inhibition by negative allosteric modulators of neuronal GABA- and glycine-gated currents
Rigo, Jean-Michel; Hans, Grégory ULg; Nguyen, Laurent ULg et al

in British Journal of Pharmacology (2002), 136(5), 659-672

1 In this study in vitro and in vivo approaches were combined in order to investigate if the anti-epileptic mechanism(s) of action of levetiracetam (LEV; Keppra(R)) may involve modulation of inhibitory ... [more ▼]

1 In this study in vitro and in vivo approaches were combined in order to investigate if the anti-epileptic mechanism(s) of action of levetiracetam (LEV; Keppra(R)) may involve modulation of inhibitory neurotransmission. 2 GABA- and glycine-gated currents were studied in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques applied on cultured cerebellar granule, hippocampal and spinal neurons. Protection against clonic convulsions was assessed in vivo in sound-susceptible mice. The effect of LEV was compared with reference anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs): carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproate, clonazepam, phenobarbital and ethosuximide. 3 LEV contrasted the reference AEDs by an absence of any direct effect on glycine-gated currents. At high concentrations, beyond therapeutic relevance, it induced a small reduction in the peak amplitude and a prolongation of the decay phase of GABA-gated currents. A similar action on GABA-elicited currents was observed with the reference AEDs, except ethosuximide. 4 These minor direct effects contrasted with a potent ability of LEV (EC50 = 1-10 muM) to reverse the inhibitory effects of the negative allosteric modulators zinc and beta-carbolines on both GABA(A) and glycine receptor-mediated responses. 5 Clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate showed a similar ability to reverse the inhibition of beta-carbolines on GABA-gated currents. Blockade of zinc inhibition of GABA responses was observed with clonazepam and ethosuximide. Phenytoin was the only AED together with LEV that inhibited the antagonism of zinc on glycine-gated currents and only clonazepam and phenobarbital inhibited the action of DMCM. 6 LEV (17 mg kg(-1)) produced a potent suppression of sound-induced clonic convulsions in mice. This protective effect was significantly abolished by co-administration of the beta-carboline FG 7142, from a dose of 5 mg kg(-1). In contrast, the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (up to 10 mg kg(-1)) was without any effect on the protection afforded by LEV. 7 The results of the present study suggest that a novel ability to oppose the action of negative modulators on the two main inhibitory ionotropic receptors may be of relevance for the anti-epileptic mechanism(s) of action of LEV. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 132 (32 ULg)