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See detailModifications du tonus musculaire sous l'effet de l'entraînement isocinétique excentrique et concentrique chez le sujet sain
Monfils, Thierry; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Havard, V. et al

in Actualités en Rééducation Fonctionnelle et Réadaptation, 20ème série (1995)

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See detailModifications environnementales et migrations
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2009)

Comment les changements climatiques bouleversent aujourd'hui la vie des réfugiés environnementaux et la nôtre demain. Situation, enjeux et perspectives. Afin d'approcher cette thématique complexe de ... [more ▼]

Comment les changements climatiques bouleversent aujourd'hui la vie des réfugiés environnementaux et la nôtre demain. Situation, enjeux et perspectives. Afin d'approcher cette thématique complexe de manière plurielle, des intervenants de multiples disciplines et de divers secteurs nous apporteront leur éclairage spécifique : Pierre Ozer, Docteur en Géographie, attaché au Département des Sciences et Gestion de l'Université de Liège. Jean-Pierre Jacques, avocat au Barreau de Liège, assistant en droit international à l'Université de Louvain, chargé de cours en droit international à l'HELMo. Eric Wynants, coordinateur de l'asbl Point d'Appui à Liège. François Gemenne, chercheur à l'Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales (IDDRI), maître de conférences à Sciences Po Paris et chercheur qualifié FNRS attaché au CEDEM (Centre d'études de l'ethnicité et des migrations - ULg). [less ▲]

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See detailModifications environnementales et santé publique
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Learning material (2011)

Le cours aborde un aspect des impacts des activités anthropiques sur l’environnement : la problématique du changement climatique. Il en justifie l’importance d’une part car elle résulte d’un long ... [more ▼]

Le cours aborde un aspect des impacts des activités anthropiques sur l’environnement : la problématique du changement climatique. Il en justifie l’importance d’une part car elle résulte d’un long processus de dégradation environnementale et, d’autre part, car ses effets sont globaux et se font déjà ressentir partout dans le monde (vagues de chaleur, événements pluviométriques extrêmes, sécheresses, etc.). En fonction du degré de vulnérabilité de nos sociétés, ces effets affectent notamment le domaine de la santé publique, d’autant plus qu’il est désormais acquis que la tendance ne pourra être renversée dans les prochaines décennies, quoi que nous fassions. Le cours explore les effets de ces stress climatiques sur nos sociétés et les différentes réponses internationales qui sont apportées pour tenter d’y remédier. [less ▲]

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See detailModifications fonctionelles et tissulaires induites par la préservation et la reperfusion des greffons pulmonaires
Detry, Olivier ULg

Doctoral thesis (1999)

The lungs are organs whose sensitivity to ischaemia and reperfusion is well known. In a rabbit model of lung ischaemia, we showed that the cold ischaemia longer than 6 hours is accompanied by a ... [more ▼]

The lungs are organs whose sensitivity to ischaemia and reperfusion is well known. In a rabbit model of lung ischaemia, we showed that the cold ischaemia longer than 6 hours is accompanied by a significant reduction in tissue contents in vitamins E and C, two important protectors against the lesions appearing at the time of ischaemia and the reperfusion (Pincemail 1999). Moreover, lungs are different from the other transplanted organs by the importance of a fragile structure, the alveole, zone of exchange between the alveolar air and the capillary blood. It was shown that among the alveolar cells, the type II pneumatocytes, secreting the surfactant, is of primary importance for the post-transplant function. It was shown that the quality of surfactant decreases after conservation and reperfusion of the lungs, and that, in vitro, the effectiveness of surfactant continuously decreases with the prolongation of the duration of ischaemia (Erasmus 1994). Moreover the administration of surfactant before the pulmonary reperfusion improves the postoperative function of the grafts in the rat (Erasmus 1996). It is known that, if all the pulmonary cells contain mitochondria, more than 50% of the mitochondria isolated from lungs come from type II pneumatocytes (Fisher, 1976). We chose to study the mitochondrial respiratory function of these important alveolar cells for the pulmonary function after ischaemia and reperfusion. In this work, we developed a porcine model of ischaemia (hypo- and/or normothermic) and of normothermic reperfusion. This reperfusion was accompanied by a postoperative non-function, objectified by aerodynamic and hemodynamic parameters, as by the appearance of pulmonary oedema. This non-function was observed after 24 hours a hypothermic ischaemia, which is incompatible with a normal function of the pulmonary grafts in clinical transplantation. The reperfusion with a solution of Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate remove any immunological artefact and any influence of the circulating blood cells in the pulmonary lesions appearing at the time of the reperfusion. On the other hand, this solution is different from blood to a significant degree, by not containing protectors against the production of free radicals at reperfusion. It is thus possible that our model exacerbates this production of free radicals, more especially as the lung is a tissue particularly rich in polymorphonuclear cells. In this model, we could show that after 24 hours of cold ischaemia the mitochondria underwent a moderate deterioration of the oxidoreductases but without decrease in the effectiveness of oxidative phosphorylation, decrease that could be demonstrated after 48 hours of cold ischaemia. These lesions are comparable to the mitochondrial lesions that we had observed after cold ischaemia of rabbit kidney (Willet 1995). After reperfusion, the mitochondrial lesions are more severe, with a decrease in the effectiveness of oxidative phosphorylation. Concerning normothermic ischaemia, the first 30 minutes did not cause significant mitochondrial lesions. These results at least corroborate the literature data on the relative good pulmonary tolerance to normothermic ischaemia, explained in theory by the persistence of oxygen in the airways and thus of the persistence of aerobic metabolism in spite of the circulatory arrest. For the other organs, the circulatory arrest implies anoxia, that is not really the case of lung, as oxygen is present in airways. Pulmonary transplantation could thus profit from an increase in graft pool available by harvesting lung graft from non-heart beating donors. After 45 minutes of normothermic ischaemia, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction appears, related to a significant deterioration in the ATP synthase function. These results confirm that the cellular metabolism is then disturbed by the appearance of cellular anoxia because of the progressive consumption of oxygen present in the alveoles, or of the substrates necessary to the cellular metabolism. The description and the discussion of the importance of these mitochondrial alterations in the genesis of lung graft dysfunction after transplantation must be integrated with the very broad framework of the disturbances appearing at the time of tissue ischaemia and reperfusion. From our study it comes out that hypothermia at 4°C protects effectively the pulmonary mitochondrial function since significant deteriorations do not appear before 24 hours of hypothermic ischaemia. To determine if mitochondrial deteriorations appearing after normothermic reperfusion are the cause or the consequence of the non-function of the lung appears difficult. On the other hand the lesions appearing after 45 minutes of normothermic ischaemia deserve in an unquestionable way a later study, with evaluation of the mitochondrial function after circulatory arrest in normothermy (30 and 45 minutes) and normothermic reperfusion, and with evaluation of the mitochondrial function after 30 and 45 minutes (or more) of circulatory arrest normothermic but continuation of pulmonary ventilation, or conservation of the lungs in inflation with air or pure oxygen. Our mitochondrial data should also be compared with a study of the pulmonary function by a model of transplantation with survival of the receiver pig. [less ▲]

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See detailModifications hémodynamiques de la coeliochirurgie
Joris, Jean ULg

in Balagny, E.; Chauvin, M.; Lienhart, A. (Eds.) et al L'anesthésie pour la coelioscopie (1996)

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See detailModifications histo-physiologiques de l'amnios chez la ratte en fin de gestation.
Baeckeland, E.; Heinen, Ernst ULg; Papart, Luc ULg

in Comptes Rendus des Séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales (1978), 172(2), 374-6

Amniotic epithelium of the rat has been studied during the eight last days of pregnancy, by scanning electron microscope analysis. The cells of this organ progressively become larger and flatter. Changes ... [more ▼]

Amniotic epithelium of the rat has been studied during the eight last days of pregnancy, by scanning electron microscope analysis. The cells of this organ progressively become larger and flatter. Changes on their surface have also been observed : density of microvilli increases but single cilia disappear. These changes are related to modifications in the exchange processes. [less ▲]

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See detailLes modifications morphologiques bronchiques dans l'asthme
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg; Godon, A. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(7), 715-20

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways clinically characterised by recurrent bronchial obstructions at least partially reversible. Recent epidemiologic data suggest that asthmatics have an ... [more ▼]

Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways clinically characterised by recurrent bronchial obstructions at least partially reversible. Recent epidemiologic data suggest that asthmatics have an increased rate of decrease of their expiratory volumes during life. This irreversible lung function impairment is associated with fundamental structural changes of the bronchial wall in terms of conjunctive tissue and smooth muscle composition. We describe these changes and explore the different mechanisms proposed to explain these structural modifications. We also review their consequences in terms of bronchial physiology and their potential influence on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailModifications of negative contingent variation (CNV) induced by oxytocin infusion
Timsit-Berthier, Martine; Mantanus, Huguette; Geenen, Vincent ULg et al

in Neurophysiologie Clinique = Clinical Neurophysiology (1988), 18

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See detailModifications of the extracellular matrix of aneurysmal abdominal aortas as a function of their size.
SAKALIHASAN, Natzi ULg; HEYERES, Antoine ULg; Richelle, Betty ULg et al

in European Journal of Vascular Surgery (1993), 7(6), 633-7

Collagen and elastin are the main extracellular matrix proteins providing the aortic wall with adequate mechanical properties and resistance for proper function. Our study aimed at investigating the ... [more ▼]

Collagen and elastin are the main extracellular matrix proteins providing the aortic wall with adequate mechanical properties and resistance for proper function. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between the elastin concentration of the wall of normal and aneurysmal abdominal aortas (AAA), the collagen concentration, and its extractability, as a function of their size. Infrarenal aortas were collected from 30 patients undergoing operative repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Age-matched control samples were obtained from eight autopsies of individuals without vascular disease. Samples were divided into five groups according to the aortic diameter: control group (group N, n = 8); < 50 mm (group I, n = 6; between 50-75 mm (group II, n = 10); > 75 mm (group III, n = 7); and ruptured (group IV, n = 7). The collagen concentration in samples from group I was similar to the controls. An increased collagen concentration was observed in group II and remained at the same level in the largest and ruptured aneurysms. Extractability of collagen was found to be increased in group III and was even higher in group IV. A highly significant reduction in elastin concentration was observed in group I and there was progressive reduction with increasing diameter and rupture. A significant correlation could be established between aortic diameter, increased collagen extractability and decreased elastin content. [less ▲]

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See detailModifications of vascular reactivity. 1. Structural alterations of the utero-placental arteries
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Rorive, G.; Lambotte, R.

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (1980), 9(1), 48-9

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See detailModifications optiques du bleu de phtalocyanine de cuivre en présence d’hydrocarbures aromatiques : problématiques en conservation-restauration d’œuvres d’art
Defeyt, Catherine ULg

in Actes des 13es journées d’études de la SFIIC, Art d’aujourd’hui patrimoine de demain,conservation et restauration des oeuvres contemporaines (2009)

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See detailModified beam elements - an efficient alternative to plate finite elements for modelling the behaviour of thin-walled steel structures
Degée, Hervé ULg

in Proceedings EPMESC VIII (International Conference on Enhancement and Promotion of Computational Methods in Engineering and Sciences (2001)

In the current steel constructions, the use of thin-walled members has become an everyday reality, through the use of welded profiles on one side and cold-formed profiles on the other side. This tendency ... [more ▼]

In the current steel constructions, the use of thin-walled members has become an everyday reality, through the use of welded profiles on one side and cold-formed profiles on the other side. This tendency leads the engineers, even for structural elements having a beam aspect, to account for a wide range of phenomena, neglected in the traditional steel constructions, and associated with the deformability of the cross sections of the used profiles. So phenomena such as local buckling, distortional buckling, lateral buckling of the flanges, or torsion resistance by distortion of the profile cannot be ignored anymore. In this perspective, the present paper presents some theoretical bases for the development of a special plane beam element allowing to account for the cross section deformability. The main idea consists in adding a complementary local displacement field, describing the cross section deformation, on a classical beam element, for which the section is assumed to be rigid. Some results are then presented, for both critical and non linear behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailModified Cap Group Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Derivatives Reveal Improved Selective Antileukemic Activity
Chanaz, Salmi-Smail; Fabre, Aurélie; Dequiedt, Franck ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2010), 53(8)

A series of SAHA cap derivatives was designed and prepared in good-to-excellent yields that varied from 49% to 95%. These derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in several human ... [more ▼]

A series of SAHA cap derivatives was designed and prepared in good-to-excellent yields that varied from 49% to 95%. These derivatives were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity in several human cancer cell lines. Antiproliferative activity was observed for concentrations varying from 0.12 to >100 microM, and a molecular modeling approach of selected SAHA derivatives, based on available structural information of human HDAC8 in complex with SAHA, was performed. Strikingly, two compounds displayed up to 10-fold improved antileukemic activity with respect to SAHA; however, these compounds displayed antiproliferative activity similar to SAHA when assayed against solid tumor-derived cell lines. A 10-fold improvement in the leukemic vs peripheral blood mononuclear cell therapeutic ratio, with no evident in vivo toxicity toward blood cells, was also observed. The herein-described compounds and method of synthesis will provide invaluable tools to investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for the reported selectively improved antileukemic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailA modified DOI-based method to statistically estimate the depth of investigation of dc resistivity surveys
Deceuster, J.; Etienne, A.; Robert, Tanguy et al

in Journal of Applied Geophysics (2014), 103

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using ... [more ▼]

Several techniques are available to estimate the depth of investigation or to identify possible artifacts in dc resistivity surveys. Commonly, the depth of investigation (DOI) is mainly estimated by using an arbitrarily chosen cut-off value on a selected indicator (resolution, sensitivity or DOI index). Ranges of cut-off values are recommended in the literature for the different indicators. However, small changes in threshold values may induce strong variations in the estimated depths of investigation. To overcome this problem, we developed a new statistical method to estimate the DOI of dc resistivity surveys based on a modified DOI index approach. This method is composed of 5 successive steps. First, two inversions are performed by using different resistivity reference models for the inversion (0.1 and 10 times the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). Inversion models are extended to the edges of the survey line and to a depth range of three times the pseudodepth of investigation of the largest array spacing used. In step 2, we compute the histogram of a newly defined scaled DOI index. Step 3 consists of the fitting of the mixture of two Gaussian distributions (G1 and G2) to the cumulative distribution function of the scaled DOI index values. Based on this fitting, step 4 focuses on the computation of an interpretation index (II) defined for every cell j of the model as the relative probability density that the cell j belongs to G1, which describes the Gaussian distribution of the cells with a scaled DOI index close to 0.0. In step 5, a new inversion is performed by using a third resistivity reference model (the arithmetic mean of the logarithm of the observed apparent resistivity values). The final electrical resistivity image is produced by using II as alpha blending values allowing the visual discrimination between well-constrained areas and poorly-constrained cells. The efficiency of the proposed methodology is assessed on synthetic and field data. By using synthetic benchmark analysis, we demonstrate that the selected well-constrained cells are well-reconstructed in size and shape as well as in resistivity contrasts. Compared to the existing image appraisal tools, the proposed statistical method allows the identification of the statistically well-constrained cells of the model without using any arbitrary cut-off value. Using this statistical method in combination with the resolution, when interpreting dc resistivity surveys, provides the geophysicist valuable information to avoid over- or misinterpretation of ERT images. [less ▲]

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See detailA modified economic-statistical design of the T2 control chart with variable sample sizes and control limits
Seif, A.; Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Statistics (2011), 38(11), 2459-2469

Recent studies have shown that using variable sampling size and control limits (VSSC) schemes result in charts with more statistical power than variable sampling size (VSS) when detecting small to ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that using variable sampling size and control limits (VSSC) schemes result in charts with more statistical power than variable sampling size (VSS) when detecting small to moderate shifts in the process mean vector. This paper presents an economic-statistical design (ESD) of the VSSC T2 control chart using the general model of Lorenzen and Vance [22]. The genetic algorithm approach is then employed to search for the optimal values of the six test parameters of the chart. We then compare the expected cost per unit of time of the optimally designed VSSC chart with optimally designed VSS and FRS (fixed ratio sampling) T2 charts as well as MEWMA charts. [less ▲]

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See detailA modified economic-statistical design of the VP multivariate control charts
SEIF, Asghar; Faraz, Alireza ULg

Scientific conference (2012, January 15)

Hotelling’s T2 control chart is one of the most popular multivariate control charts for monitoring multiple variables simultaneously. Recent studies have shown that applying the T2 control chart by using ... [more ▼]

Hotelling’s T2 control chart is one of the most popular multivariate control charts for monitoring multiple variables simultaneously. Recent studies have shown that applying the T2 control chart by using a variable parameters (VP) scheme yields more rapid detection of assignable causes than the classical method of taking fixed sample sizes at fixed intervals of time. This paper presents an economic-statistical design (ESD) of the VP T2 control chart using the general model of Lorenzen and Vance. The genetic algorithm (GA) is then employed to search for the optimal values of the eight test parameters of the chart. Furthermore, VP and FRS schemes are compared with respect to the expect cost per unit time. [less ▲]

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