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See detailLocal measurement system for optical and electro-optic characterization and homogeneity analysis of photorefractive sillenite crystals
Lemaire, Philippe ULg; Georges, Marc ULg

in Roosen, G.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Schirmer, O. (Eds.) Proceedings of Symposium C on Photorefractive Materials of the 1994 E-MRS Spring Conference (1994, May)

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See detailLocal measurements of void fraction and liquid holdup in packed columns using X-ray computed tomography
Toye, Dominique ULg; Marchot, Pierre ULg; Crine, Michel ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering & Processing (1998), 37(6), 511-520

A 'tailor made' computed X-ray tomographic scanner has been developed as a tool for the analysis of the distribution of gas, liquid and solid phases in packed columns. The very good spatial resolution of ... [more ▼]

A 'tailor made' computed X-ray tomographic scanner has been developed as a tool for the analysis of the distribution of gas, liquid and solid phases in packed columns. The very good spatial resolution of the scanner has first been assessed by the imaging of objects of known shape and size, called 'physical' phantoms. Images have then been realized on a 0.6 m diameter and 2 m height column packed with Cascade Mini-Ring 1A packing elements, which is a random polypropylene packing designed to be used in absorption columns. The solid phase distribution, leading to the void fraction distribution, has been analyzed on cross-section images of the dry packed column (without any liquid flowrate). The measured value of the bed void fraction is equal to the value provided by the manufacturer. The analysis of the axial profile of void fraction shows that the 'end effect' may be neglected, whereas the analysis of the radial profile evidences the existence of a non negligible 'wall effect'. Images have then been carried out on the packed column irrigated by a liquid flowrate ranging between 0 and 6000 1 h(-1) (0-6.10(-3) m s(-1)). Hold-up values have been measured in different cross-sections of the column and averaged in order to obtain the total hold-up value in the bed. The computed values are in very good agreement with those reported in the literature for similar packing. The dependence of the liquid hold-up on the liquid superficial velocity can be expressed in terms of a power law. The fitted value of the exponent, equal to 0.65, is in the range of exponent values found in correlations of the literature. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Mechanical Stimuli Regulate Bone Formation and Resorption in Mice at the Tissue Level
Schulte, Friederike A.; Ruffoni, Davide ULg; Lambers, Floor M. et al

in PLOS ONE (2013), 8(4), 62172-12

Bone is able to react to changing mechanical demands by adapting its internal microstructure through bone forming and resorbing cells. This process is called bone modeling and remodeling. It is evident ... [more ▼]

Bone is able to react to changing mechanical demands by adapting its internal microstructure through bone forming and resorbing cells. This process is called bone modeling and remodeling. It is evident that changes in mechanical demands at the organ level must be interpreted at the tissue level where bone (re) modeling takes place. Although assumed for a long time, the relationship between the locations of bone formation and resorption and the local mechanical environment is still under debate. The lack of suitable imaging modalities for measuring bone formation and resorption in vivo has made it difficult to assess the mechanoregulation of bone three-dimensionally by experiment. Using in vivo micro-computed tomography and high resolution finite element analysis in living mice, we show that bone formation most likely occurs at sites of high local mechanical strain (p<0.0001) and resorption at sites of low local mechanical strain (p<0.0001). Furthermore, the probability of bone resorption decreases exponentially with increasing mechanical stimulus (R-2 = 0.99) whereas the probability of bone formation follows an exponential growth function to a maximum value (R-2 = 0.99). Moreover, resorption is more strictly controlled than formation in loaded animals, and ovariectomy increases the amount of non-targeted resorption. Our experimental assessment of mechanoregulation at the tissue level does not show any evidence of a lazy zone and suggests that around 80% of all (re) modeling can be linked to the mechanical microenvironment. These findings disclose how mechanical stimuli at the tissue level contribute to the regulation of bone adaptation at the organ level. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation (K-LOGIC) from digital ground-based magnetic measurements
Stankov, Stanimir; Stegen, Koen; Warnant, René ULg

Report (2011)

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See detailLocal order of the high-pressure metallic phase of liquid selenium: a diffraction study
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULg; Le Bihan, T. et al

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (1999), 11(50), 10243-1024910249

Liquid selenium undergoes a phase transition towards a metallic phase when sufficient pressure is applied. We performed an x-ray diffraction experiment at the 1D30 beamline of the ESRF at the wavelength ... [more ▼]

Liquid selenium undergoes a phase transition towards a metallic phase when sufficient pressure is applied. We performed an x-ray diffraction experiment at the 1D30 beamline of the ESRF at the wavelength of 0.149 Aring to investigate the local order of the metallic liquid. The diffraction pattern of liquid Se has been recorded with the large-volume Paris-Edinburgh cell between (20degC, 3 GPa) and (1650degC, 4.1 GPa). The local order of the metallic liquid selenium is found to be close to that of liquid tellurium. In particular, the coordination number Z increases with temperature from 2.6 to 3.0 [less ▲]

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See detailLocal order, dynamics and stability of C and N doped phase change materials
Hippert, Françoise; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Noé, Pierre et al

Conference (2013, July 26)

Doping Chalcogenide Phase Change Materials, such as Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe used in non-volatile phase change memories, was shown to improve the stability of the amorphous phase and to strongly increase the ... [more ▼]

Doping Chalcogenide Phase Change Materials, such as Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe used in non-volatile phase change memories, was shown to improve the stability of the amorphous phase and to strongly increase the crystallization temperature. We combined total X-ray scattering experiments [1], Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy and ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations to address the stabilization of the amorphous phase of GeTe doped with Carbon or Nitrogen. The comparison between the simulation and exp erimental results allows in depth understanding of the role of dopants. They deeply modify the structure of the amorphous phase by introducing tetrahedral units centered on C or N, triangular environments and short C chains in C-doped GeTe, N-Ge3 pyramids and N2 molecules in N-doped GeTe. One major difference between N and C doping is the fact that C can form short bonds with Te, although in smaller proportion than C-Ge, while short N-Te bonds are absent in N-doped GeTe. The inclusion of C or N leads to an increase in high frequency vibrational modes, to a reduction of the density of floppy vibrational modes that drive the crystallization and to an increase of the rigidity. This stabilization mechanism could apply more generally to various GST materials as well as to other iono-covalent glasses. [1] G.E. Ghezzi, J.Y.Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 (2011) 151906 [less ▲]

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See detailLocal ordering and magnetism in Ga0.9Fe3.1N
Burghaus, Jens; Sougrati, Moulay T.; Moechel, Anne et al

in Journal of Solid State Chemistry (2011), 184(9), 2315-2321

Prior investigations of the ternary nitride series Ga1-xFe3+xN (0 <= x 1) have indicated a transition from ferromagnetic gamma'-Fe4N to antiferromagnetic ``GaFe3N''. The ternary nitride ``GaFe3N'' has ... [more ▼]

Prior investigations of the ternary nitride series Ga1-xFe3+xN (0 <= x 1) have indicated a transition from ferromagnetic gamma'-Fe4N to antiferromagnetic ``GaFe3N''. The ternary nitride ``GaFe3N'' has been magnetically and spectroscopically reinvestigated in order to explore the weakening of the ferromagnetic interactions through the gradual incorporation of gallium into gamma'-Fe4N. A hysteretic loop at RI reveals the presence of a minority phase of only 0.1-0.2 at\%, in accord with the sound two-step synthesis. The composition of the gallium-richest phase ``GaFe3N'' was clarified by Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis and leads to the berthollide formula Ga0.91(1)Fe3.09(10)N1.05(7). Magnetic measurements indicate a transition around 8 K, further supported by Mossbauer spectral data. The weakening of the ferromagnetic coupling through an increasing gallium concentration is explained by a simple Stoner argument. In Ga0.9Fe3.1N the presence of iron on the gallium site affects the magnetism by the formation of 13-atom iron clusters. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal orders in II-VI liquid compounds
Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULg; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Ceolin, R. et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (1996), 205-207

The structure of liquid CdTe, HgTe and ZnTe is studied by neutron scattering. Upon melting, drastically different behaviors are found: CdTe and ZnTe keep their fourfold coordination in the melt and remain ... [more ▼]

The structure of liquid CdTe, HgTe and ZnTe is studied by neutron scattering. Upon melting, drastically different behaviors are found: CdTe and ZnTe keep their fourfold coordination in the melt and remain semiconductors, whereas HgTe becomes sixfold coordinated and metallic. This dissimilarity is discussed in terms of the electronegativity difference and of the repulsive potential hardness. Entropic aspects are also discussed [less ▲]

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See detailLocal perceptions and attitudes towards synanthrope long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in Padangtegal Monkey forest, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULg; Paquay, Leila; Wandia, I.Nengah et al

Conference (2013, October 03)

The sympatric relationship between humans and other primates in interface zones is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. The expanding landscapes anthropization leads to an intensification of human-other ... [more ▼]

The sympatric relationship between humans and other primates in interface zones is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. The expanding landscapes anthropization leads to an intensification of human-other primate interactions ranging from conflict to co-operation scenarios. Our study investigated the commensal relationships between long-tailed macaques and humans at the tourist Padangtegal Monkey Forest. We present here results related to human-macaque interactions and local people’s perceptions and attitudes towards the latter. We used ethological methods to quantify the nature of the interactions and we conducted a questionnaire survey to identify the macaques’ status in local public opinion. 99 respondents (62 males and 37 females) were selected in a radius of 2km around the Monkey Forest. Perceptions and attitudes were explicitly measured on self-reports and were attributed to a 4 point score. Macaques interacted with humans for 1.1% of their activity budget and these interactions were mostly aggressive (0.6%), food-related (0.4%) or neutral (0.1%). 80% of the aggressive interactions were initiated by humans but the majority aimed at protecting crops and properties from macaques’ incursions. Overall, most of the respondents had positive perceptions and attitudes towards macaques, except neighbouring landowner farmers who suffered from crop damage. Despite nuisances caused by macaques, the majority of the interviewees reported to derive compensatory economic and cultural benefits from their relationships with macaques. The religious and economic contexts might explain the high tolerance level towards macaques that represents a source of hope for a sustainable coexistence, although some management strategies minimizing crop damage still need to be reinforced. [less ▲]

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See detailA local potent glucocorticosteroid decreases the induction of galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase in suction blisters but has no effect on basement membrane structures.
Oikarinen, A.; Peltonen, L.; Hintikka, J. et al

in British Journal of Dermatology (1983), 108(2), 171-8

The effects of local glucocorticosteroid treatment on collagen biosynthesis and basement membrane components were studied in suction blisters in human abdominal skin. Pretreatment with clobetasol-17 ... [more ▼]

The effects of local glucocorticosteroid treatment on collagen biosynthesis and basement membrane components were studied in suction blisters in human abdominal skin. Pretreatment with clobetasol-17-propionate, applied three times a day for 4 days, did not affect the activity of galactosylhydroxylysyl glucosyltransferase (GGT) in fresh blisters but post-blistering treatment for 3 days with the steroid markedly inhibited the increase of this enzyme activity during the initial phases of re-epithelialization. The GGT activity was over 50% lower in steroid-treated blisters compared with control values. Protein concentrations and blister fluid volumes were also significantly decreased in healing 3-day blisters after steroid treatment. These results suggest that local glucocorticosteroid decreases either the synthesis of GGT or its release from the tissue into the blister fluid. The treatment did not affect the blister histology nor the early process of re-epithelialization. Immunohistochemically, type IV and V collagens and laminin of the basement membrane zone were similarly located in blisters of steroid-treated and placebo-treated skin, suggesting that local glucocorticosteroid does not affect the integrity of the basement membrane. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal probing of the vortex-antivortex dynamics in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg; Gladilin, V. N.; Van de Vondel, J. et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2011), 24(2),

In-plane ferromagnetic bars, densely packed in a linear array underneath a superconducting bridge, create two types of vortex chains of opposite polarity inside the superconductor. In this work we ... [more ▼]

In-plane ferromagnetic bars, densely packed in a linear array underneath a superconducting bridge, create two types of vortex chains of opposite polarity inside the superconductor. In this work we investigate both experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of these vortex chains as a function of an external magnetic field for two different arrangements of magnetic moments, namely parallel and antiparallel. The theoretical approach, based on the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism, confirms previously proposed empirical models implemented to describe the basic properties of these hybrid systems. In addition, local transport measurements allow us to probe the dynamics of individual vortex channels as a function of the applied magnetic field. These measurements evidence a drastic reduction of the dissipation in the channel populated with vortices having opposite polarity to the applied field. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal search heuristics for large-scale discrete structural optimization with expensive black-box evaluations
Bay, Maud ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg

Report (2009)

This paper considers large-scale structural optimization problems featuring discrete variables, as well as nonlinear implicit constraints which can only be evaluated through time-expensive computations. A ... [more ▼]

This paper considers large-scale structural optimization problems featuring discrete variables, as well as nonlinear implicit constraints which can only be evaluated through time-expensive computations. A prominent application consists in the preliminary structural design of large ships, where many of the variables take their values in discrete sets which model standard element dimensions to be selected from catalogs, and where the evaluation of the constraints involves a complex structural analysis performed by black-box software. The resulting large-scale nonlinear combinatorial problems are particularly hard, and even nding a discrete feasible solution may prove challenging for some instances. In this paper, we propose two heuristics that combine local search methods and a sequential optimization method based on approximations of the implicit constraints. The heuristics are applied to the structural optimization of several large ships. For these instances, the heuristics provide discrete feasible solutions whose value is close to the optimal value of the continuous relaxation obtained by disregarding the discrete nature of the variables. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Second Gradient Models and Damage Mechanics: 1D Post-Localization Studies in Concrete Specimens
Kotronis, Panagiotis; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Bésuelle, Pierre et al

in Exadaktylos, G.; Vardoulakis, Ioannis (Eds.) Bifurcations, Instabilities, Degradation in Geomechanics (2007)

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See detailLocal second gradient models and damage mechanics: application to concrete
Kotronis, Panagiotis; Chambon, René; Mazars, Jacky et al

Conference (2005)

The non linear behaviour of concrete is often simulated using local constitutive models based on the continuous damage mechanics theory. This approach however is not adequate for post-localisation studies ... [more ▼]

The non linear behaviour of concrete is often simulated using local constitutive models based on the continuous damage mechanics theory. This approach however is not adequate for post-localisation studies with strain softening. It is well known that spurious mesh dependence appears in computations and cases of failure without energy dissipation. In order to improve computational performance second grade local models are chosen to include a meso scale in the continuous damage model. This approach differs from the nonlocal one in the sense that it is a local theory with higher order stresses depending only on the local cinematic history. 1D numerical computations with concrete specimens are presented. Using a random initialisation of the iterative solver of the equilibrium equation we search the existence of various solutions for the boundary value study and also to see if the second grade term regularise the problem giving results that are mesh insensitive and objective. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal stability results for the collective behaviors of infinite populations of pulse-coupled oscillators
Mauroy, Alexandre ULg; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (2011)

In this paper, we investigate the behavior of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire oscillators. Because the stability analysis of finite populations is intricate, we investigate stability results in the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we investigate the behavior of pulse-coupled integrate-and-fire oscillators. Because the stability analysis of finite populations is intricate, we investigate stability results in the approximation of infinite populations. In addition to recovering known stability results of finite populations, we also obtain new stability results for infinite populations. In particular, under a weak coupling assumption, we solve for the continuum model a conjecture still prevailing in the finite dimensional case. © 2011 IEEE. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Stakeholders’ Perceptions About the Introduction of Performance-Based Financing in Benin: A Case Study in Two Health Districts
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Sossouhounto, Nadine; Eclou, Dieudonné

in International Journal of Health Policy and Management (2014), 3

Background: Performance-Based Financing (PBF) has been advanced as a solution to contribute to improving the performance of health systems in developing countries. This is the case in Benin. This study ... [more ▼]

Background: Performance-Based Financing (PBF) has been advanced as a solution to contribute to improving the performance of health systems in developing countries. This is the case in Benin. This study aims to analyse how two PBF approaches, piloted in Benin, behave during implementation and what effects they produce, through investigating how local stakeholders perceive the introduction of PBF, how they adapt the different approaches during implementation, and the behavioural interactions induced by PBF. Methods: The research rests on a socio-anthropological approach and qualitative methods. The design is a case study in two health districts selected on purpose. The selection of health facilities was also done on purpose, until we reached saturation of information. Information was collected through observation and semi-directive interviews supported by an interview guide. Data was analysed through contents and discourse analysis. Results: The Ministry of Health (MoH) strongly supports PBF, but it is not well integrated with other ongoing reforms and processes. Field actors welcome PBF but still do not have a sense of ownership about it. The two PBF approaches differ notably as for the organs in charge of verification. Performance premiums are granted according to a limited number of quantitative indicators plus an extensive qualitative checklist. PBF matrices and verification missions come in addition to routine monitoring. Local stakeholders accommodate theoretical approaches. Globally, staff is satisfied with PBF and welcomes additional supervision and training. Health providers reckon that PBF forces them to depart from routine, to be more professional and to respect national norms. A major issue is the perceived unfairness in premium distribution. Even if health staff often refer to financial premiums, actually the latter are probably too weak — and ‘blurred’ — to have a lasting inciting effect. It rather seems that PBF motivates health workers through other elements of its ‘package’, especially formative supervisions. Conclusion: If the global picture is quite positive, several issues could jeopardise the success of PBF. It appears crucial to reduce the perceived unfairness in the system, notably through enhancing all facilities’ capacities to ensure they are in line with national norms, as well as to ensure financial and institutional sustainability of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal structure of liquid GeTe via neutron scattering and ab initio simulations
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Godlevsky, V. V.; Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2002), 65

We examine the local atomic order as well as some dynamic properties of the semiconducting liquid GeTe. We employ hot-neutron two-axis diffraction at three temperatures above the melting point and compare ... [more ▼]

We examine the local atomic order as well as some dynamic properties of the semiconducting liquid GeTe. We employ hot-neutron two-axis diffraction at three temperatures above the melting point and compare these results with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations were based on interatomic forces derived from pseudopotentials constructed within density functional theory. At the melting temperature, the Peierls distortion responsible for the lower-temperature crystal phase is shown to manifest itself within the liquid structure. At higher temperatures in the liquid, increasing disorder in the Ge environment determines the eventual semiconductor-metal transition. The calculated kinematic viscosity of the liquid is found to agree with the experimental value and is shown to arise from the small diffusion coefficient of the Te atoms. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal Structure of Mn in (La1-xHox)2/3Ca1/3MnO3 Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure
Pietnoczka, A.; Pekala, M.; Bacewicz, R. et al

in Acta Physica Polonica A (2010), 117(2), 257-261

Results of X-ray absorption fine structure measurements in manganites (La1-xHox)2/3Ca1/3MnO3 with 0.15 < x < 0.50 are presented. When LaMnO3 is doped with a divalent element such as Ca2+, substituting ... [more ▼]

Results of X-ray absorption fine structure measurements in manganites (La1-xHox)2/3Ca1/3MnO3 with 0.15 < x < 0.50 are presented. When LaMnO3 is doped with a divalent element such as Ca2+, substituting forLa3+, holes are induced in the filled Mn d orbitals. This leads to a strong ferromagnetic coupling between Mn sites. Ca ions in La1-xCaxMnO3 introduce a distortion of the crystal lattice and mixed valence Mn ions (Mn3+ and Mn4+). On the other hand, in manganites (La1-xHox)2/3Ca1/3MnO3 the substitution of La for Ho causes a lattice distortion and induces a disorder, which reduces a magnetic interaction. The ferromagnetic transition temperature and conductivity decrease very quickly with increasing x. The magnetic and transport properties of compounds depend on the local atomic structure around Mn ions. The information on the bond lengths and Debye–Waller factor are obtained from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data analysis. The charge state of Mn is determined from the position of the absorption edge in X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data. XAFS results are in good agreement with magnetic characteristics of the studied materials. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Local Time Propagation of Electron and Proton Shock-Induced Aurora and the Role of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Solar Wind
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

Conference (2004, May 01)

Shock-induced aurora observed with satellite-borne ultraviolet imagers shows distinct characteristics from the more common and extensively studied aurora generated during magnetospheric substorms. It is ... [more ▼]

Shock-induced aurora observed with satellite-borne ultraviolet imagers shows distinct characteristics from the more common and extensively studied aurora generated during magnetospheric substorms. It is initiated in the noon sector immediately following dynamic pressure pulses associated with the arrival of enhanced solar wind plasma at the front of the magnetosphere. The brightness enhancement rapidly propagates toward the dawn and dusk sectors and may trigger the development of an auroral substorm on the nightside. The FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite has the ability to discriminate between proton and electron precipitation. This feature has been used to study the morphology and dynamics of the electron and proton precipitation following pulse-induced magnetospheric perturbations. A set of 14 cases occurring during positive and negative Bz periods has been selected and studied. A different dynamics is observed for aurora caused by electron and proton precipitation. The important role played by the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field is analyzed as well. A correlation between the precipitated power deduced from FUV images and solar wind (SW) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) measured by ACE is presented. The effect of SW and IMF conditions prevailing before and during the shock on shock aurora is studied separately in order to distinguish the role of the preconditioning of the magnetosphere and the effects induced by the shock itself. The time evolution of the injected power is also studied in the entire oval and in individual MLT sectors. [less ▲]

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