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See detailThe metropolis-hastings algorithm, a handy tool for the practice of environmental model estimation : illustration with the biochemical oxygen demand data
Torre, F.; Boreux, Jean-Jacques ULg; Parent, E.

in Cybergeo : Revue Européenne de Géographie = Cybergeo - European Journal of Geography (2001), 187

Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i) stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii) data are rare or imprecise; (iii) facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships ... [more ▼]

Environmental scientists often face situations where: (i) stimulus-response relationships are non-linear; (ii) data are rare or imprecise; (iii) facts are uncertain and stimulus-responses relationships are questionable.In this paper, we focus on the first two points. A powerful and easy-to-use statistical method, the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, allows the quantification of the uncertainty attached to any model response. This stochastic simulation technique is able to reproduce the statistical joint distribution of the whole parameter set of any model. The Metropolis-Hastings algorithm is described and illustrated on a typical environmental model: the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The aim is to provide a helpful guideline for further, and ultimately more complex, models. As a first illustration, the MH-method is also applied to a simple regression example to demonstrate to the practitioner the ability of the algorithm to produce valid results. [less ▲]

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See detailLa métropolisation, une nouvelle donne
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Acta Geographica Lovaniensia (1994), (34), 165-174

The recent economic growth of many big cities has led to the new concept of "metropolization" and to numerous research based on new models of urban growth. In trying to draw up on this theme, one has ... [more ▼]

The recent economic growth of many big cities has led to the new concept of "metropolization" and to numerous research based on new models of urban growth. In trying to draw up on this theme, one has tackled successively four points: the concepts of metropolis and metropolization, the metropolization process, the metropolization and the city systems, the metropolization in Europe and Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailMetropolitan governance of European medium-size cities. Linking cities trajectories and mode of governance.
Breuer, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, August 16)

In the past few years, an increased attention has been paid to the effect of governance on regional development and trajectories. It is commonly argued by scholars and practitioners that governance is a ... [more ▼]

In the past few years, an increased attention has been paid to the effect of governance on regional development and trajectories. It is commonly argued by scholars and practitioners that governance is a key factor of regional competitiveness and differentiation. In this context, some institutions as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations (UN) or the European Commission (EC) claim that a better governance (or actually “good governance”) leads to better places to live, enhanced competitiveness and less segregation. In the same time, research, public efforts and investments has been focused on metropolitan regions as lever for economic development. If there is a consensus on the role of governance on metropolitan and urban development, researches mainly focused on cases analysis and bigger metropolis regions. Few empirical studies tried to link metropolitan governance and metropolitan trajectories in European Union, particularly for medium-size cities and metropolitan area (100.000 - 1.000.000 inhabitants), which represents a significant proportion of the European population and economy. Nowadays, some exploratory researches based on the Urban Audit (European Commission) and complementary surveys give us additional information on governance of such cities. In our research, we aimed to explore the link between metropolitan governance of medium-sized cities and their trajectories. We used latest data from the European Commission (Urban Audit, Perception survey, Regional Statistic Database - Eurostat) and additional sources for socio-economic, environmental and governance indicators (especially metropolitan governance typology). We integrated in our work previous researches on this topic. Our exploratory research pointed out pattern and similarities in European medium-sized cities governance and trajectories. Despite some difficulties to distinguish governance effects to other determinants of well-being and competitiveness, it opens questions on “governance matters” leitmotiv, public policy adequacy and innovation capacity in European cities. [less ▲]

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See detailMetropolitan governance rescaling in Belgium, France and United Kingdom. Studying boundaries of urban governments through the application of an analytical framework for institutional changes.
Breuer, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, August 20)

Second tier European cities (small metropolis or regional cities) are subject to permanent reconfigurations of their governance. These changes are the response to both external and internal ... [more ▼]

Second tier European cities (small metropolis or regional cities) are subject to permanent reconfigurations of their governance. These changes are the response to both external and internal transformations. On the one side, they are facing external pressures as increased competition between cities, European integration, legislative evolution or paradigm switch. On the other side, cities are dealing with internal problems: urban sprawl, socio-spatial segregation, actors’ fragmentation, financial issues, etc. These tensions renew themselves and take various shapes. They are wondering cities governance and ways to manage them. To cope with new challenges in a new context, cities are trying to reconfigure their collective action in a new spatiality and with new coordination modes. In this context, inherited institutional boundaries – that could be seen as obsolete or inadequate in a changing World – are particularly under pressure. Cities governments and their spatial limits are a central issue for researchers, politicians and urban actors, and a major component of the urban or metropolitan governance. Although second-tier cities are an essential part of the “polycentric system of European cities”, attention has essentially been focused on large metropolis and capital cities, where the problem occurred earlier. Furthermore, there is an extended literature on institutional change and the “rescaling”, but research mainly focused on the response of cities to economic changes; few analysis offer a good comprehension of particular trajectories and evolution of cities limits which are highly embedded in local context. These shortcomings make the reading of contemporary mutations particularly complex for local actors. Our paper presents our research on the development and the validation of an analytical framework to interpret changes in cities’ governments boundaries. We improved and used a framework based on institutional change and social change, which combined both institutional design theories and self-organization theories. The analytical framework had been tested on the last decades government limits changes of regional cities and small metropolis in France (Saint-Étienne, Metz), United Kingdom (Sheffield) and Belgium (Liège, Brussels). The research was carried on with historical and geographical data collected during research stays in each of these cities: historical evolution of cities limits, legislation’ development, urbanization trajectory, etc. The research leads to some conclusions. Firstly, it is possible to develop a generic analytical framework to identify and interpret mutations of city government limits. This framework helps to make a systematic identification of actors’ dynamics, internal or external pressure and spatial changes, and go ahead apparent dichotomy between quick adjustment and high stability of some governance configuration. Secondly, the analytical model shows there is a common scheme of city limits evolution, which is driven among others things by European common dynamics (specifically economic and political dynamic). Thirdly, despite similarities in cities government boundaries changes, the analytical model demonstrates the importance of local contexts to understand individual evolutions and the specific trajectory of a city’ limits. [less ▲]

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See detailMettalic foreign body in a horse: case report
Evrard, Laurence ULg; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Gougnard, Alexandra ULg et al

Poster (2011, January 22)

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See detailMettre en place un suivi écologique villageois
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Triplet, Patrick (Ed.) Manuel de gestion des aires protégées d'afrique de L'ouest (2009)

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (7 ULg)
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See detailMettre en question les manifestations de l'intention littéraire
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (2006), 67

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See detailMettre les savoirs relatifs à la langue et à ses usages au service des pratiques de communication
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (2012), 83

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See detailMettre les sources à la disposition du public : l'exemple des Dossiers Pédagogiques Gallia Belgica
Longrée, Dominique ULg; Bauzier, Carine

in Breyer, Catherine; et alii (Eds.) Actes des VIIe Congrès de l'Association des Cercles francophones d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Belgique et LIVe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d'Archéologie et d'Histoire de Belgique, Congrès d'Ottignies - Louvain-la-Neuve, 26, 27 et 28 aôut 2004 (2007)

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See detailMETZOON : Development of a quantitative microbial risk assessment for human salmonellosis through household consumption of fresh minced pork méat in Belgium.
Bollaerts, Kaatje; Messens, Winy; Delhalle, Laurent ULg et al

in Risk Analysis : An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis (2009), 29(6), 820-840

A quantitative microbial risk assessment according to the Codex Alimentarius Principles is conducted to evaluate the risk on human salmonellosis through household consumption of fresh minced pork meat in ... [more ▼]

A quantitative microbial risk assessment according to the Codex Alimentarius Principles is conducted to evaluate the risk on human salmonellosis through household consumption of fresh minced pork meat in Belgium. The quantitative exposure assessment is carried out by building a modular risk model, called the METZOON-model, which covers the pork production from farm to fork. In the METZOON-model, the food production pathway is split up in six consecutive modules: (1) primary production, (2) transport & lairage, (3) slaughterhouse, (4) post-processing, (5) distribution & storage and (6) preparation & consumption. All the modules are developed to resemble as closely as possible the Belgian situation making use of the available national data. Several statistical refinements and improved modeling techniques are proposed. The model produces highly realistic results. The baseline predicted number of annual salmonellosis cases is 20513 [st. dev. 9061.45]. The risk is estimated higher for the susceptible population [est. 4.713 × 10−5; st. dev. 1.466 × 10−5] compared to the normal population [est. 7.704 × 10−6; st. dev. 5.414 × 10−6] and is mainly due to cross contamination via cook’s hands and only for a small extent to undercooking. [less ▲]

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See detailLes meubles cultuels des églises paroissiales ou cathédrales
Desseilles, François ULg

Master of advanced studies dissertation (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
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See detailMeurtre odieux, glorieux martyre : interprétation jésuite d’un fait divers
Delfosse, Annick ULg

in Bulletin de l'Institut Historique Belge de Rome (2007), LXXVII

Au printemps 1674, dans les rues de Douai, un jeune jésuite, étudiant en théologie, meurt assassiné dans les rues de Douai par un soldat devenu fou. En quelques semaines, les supérieurs du collège ... [more ▼]

Au printemps 1674, dans les rues de Douai, un jeune jésuite, étudiant en théologie, meurt assassiné dans les rues de Douai par un soldat devenu fou. En quelques semaines, les supérieurs du collège réécrivent ce sordide fait divers : ils érigent ce jeune homme en martyr, mort pour la foi et la gloire de la Compagnie. L’article tente de mettre en lumière les stratégies adoptées pour assoir la conviction du martyre et montre quels sont les enjeux de cette opération de redéfinition. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Meuse au fil des crues
Devuyst, Paul; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailLa Meuse. Obstacle ou Source de Vie ?
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Classes du Patrimoine. Liège (1996)

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See detailMexiko: (De-)Konstruktion von Nation und Ethnie im Diskurs der Guerilla
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg; Maddens, Bart

in WeltTrends : Zeitschrift für internationale Politik und vergleichende Studien. (2003), 38

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See detailMexique: David Toscana
Scheffer, Aurélie; Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

Article for general public (2010)

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See detailThe Mg II equatorial airglow altitude distribution
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Monfils, A.

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1978), 83

Four occasional measurements of the altitude distribution of the 2796-2803-Å doublet equatorial airglow have been made with the astronomical TD-1A satellite during winter 1973-1974. The observations ... [more ▼]

Four occasional measurements of the altitude distribution of the 2796-2803-Å doublet equatorial airglow have been made with the astronomical TD-1A satellite during winter 1973-1974. The observations indicate the presence of layers of Mg[SUP]+[/SUP] ions in the evening twilight F region in the African sector. Horizontal column densities reaching 8×10[SUP]9[/SUP]Mg[SUP]+[/SUP] ions/cm[SUP]2[/SUP] are observed with peak altitudes varying from 230 to 480 km. Steep topside gradients with scale heights of about 5 km are observed on three occasions. [less ▲]

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See detailMG-63 Osteoblast Culture on Biodegradable Textiles for Bone Tissue Regeneration
Moniotte, Nicolas; Borget, Pascal; Pirotte, Fabrice et al

Poster (2007)

The primary aim of bone scaffold is to restore, maintain and improve the structure and properties of damaged bones. The scaffold acts as a 3-D template for guided tissue-engineering and provides an ... [more ▼]

The primary aim of bone scaffold is to restore, maintain and improve the structure and properties of damaged bones. The scaffold acts as a 3-D template for guided tissue-engineering and provides an excellent transition from in vitro to in vivo systems, avoiding auto- or allo-grafting treatments, both associated with serious limitations. The pore size of the scaffold must be large enough to allow cell migration and proliferation through the structure, but small enough to provide sufficient specific area for cell attachment. In this work, degradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) yarns were knitted into complexes superstructures and evaluated as 3-D scaffold to promote cell bone reconstruction. PLA fabrics were knitted from multi-filaments in a double layer interlock structure to produce a weft knit. The fabrics are made of two porosities, one defined by the open space inside a loop (~1mm) and the second by the distance between the filaments (1-10 µm), with high control and reproducibility inherent to the manufacturing process. Human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were seeded on PLA textiles and cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using MTS (tetrazolium salt) assays, DNA quantitative analysis (hoechst), fluorescence staining (acridine orange) and scanning electron microscopy. Alkaline Phosphatase activity in cell lysates was also investigated. After 3 days of culture, MG-63 fully expressed their fibroblastic phenotype. Although the number of cells was high, mitochondrial activity was shown to be reduced when cells are on the PLA fibres (compared to culture on a glass slide). This may be due the release of lactic acid by slow hydrolysis of PLA ester-bonds. Only a small population of cells was dead. Furthermore, it could be due to cells in a less active phase, such as cells entering the G0 phase, or in a maturing phase. From 6 to 12 days, the number of cell inside the PLA fabrics increased and typical fibroblastic morphology was maintained. Cells were mainly observed in the spaces between fibres. After 24 days of culture, MG-63 colonization is covering all the PLA knit. Small granular structures are present on the cell surface and low ALP concentration is detected, indicating the beginning of the differentiation process, rather than a toxic effect of PLA hydrolysis. This work shows that knitted PLA fabrics, seeded with autogeneous osteoblast cells can potentially be used as tissue-engineered implants for the treatment of bone defects. [less ▲]

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See detailMG-63 Osteoblast culture on P culture on PLA– based copolymers for bone tissue engineering applications
Moniotte, Nicolas; Shim, Yong-Ho; Borget, Pascal et al

Poster (2007)

Physical injury or pathological changes such as removal of a tumor can result in large bone defects, preventing the recovery of its original function. Autogenous bone grafting, which is the most common ... [more ▼]

Physical injury or pathological changes such as removal of a tumor can result in large bone defects, preventing the recovery of its original function. Autogenous bone grafting, which is the most common technique for bone defect repairing, is associated with serious limitations, e.g. limited supply and donor site morbidity. Since a few years bone tissue engineering by degradable biomaterials has been shown as a very promising avenue for providing bone substitutes. Among these materials, bioresorbable synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) are very appealing because their chemistry and properties are controllable and reproducible. Cellular activity and proliferation of osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63) on films were determined by the tetrazolium salt MTT assay and by phase contrast/fluorescence microscope observations. The cytotoxicity of the materials was found to be low or negligible. Cells viability variations were observed on the surface of the films. Long-term cell culture and degradability of PLA-PEOpolymer film was investigated by optical microscopy (Giemsa staining) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Hydrolysis of the PLLA ester linkages led to slow film degradation. After 113 days, optical microscope observations revealed the presence of large cracks on the surface, and even breaks of small polymer fragments, while MG-63 proliferation was still very important, showing a tissue-like aspect, with extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. These results show that PLA-PEO copolymers are very interesting bioresorbable materials for long-term bone tissue engineering applications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 ULg)