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Peer Reviewed
See detailMethodology for optimization of operation to reduce site-scale energy use in production plants
Heyen, Georges ULg; Kalitventzeff, Boris ULg

in Applied Thermal Engineering (1997), 17(8-10), 1005-1014

A methodology was developed to improve energy usage in the process industries by optimizing plant operation. The first step was to build fine tuned site-scale models of energy intensive production plants ... [more ▼]

A methodology was developed to improve energy usage in the process industries by optimizing plant operation. The first step was to build fine tuned site-scale models of energy intensive production plants and of combined heat and power utility distribution networks (heat, power, cooling), and later to optimize them using various numerical techniques. The methodology not only comprises these models, but also the selected optimization methods, their implementation in algorithms suited for the problems to be solved and the evaluation of the results in terms of their applicability ia real industrial problems. The detailed models were tuned on the basis of actual plant data. They were used to calculate accurate energy balances, and thus to identify sources of energy waste. Finally they allowed optimization of energy usage by adjusting operating conditions at a medium time scale (a few hours to a couple of days). Energy savings in the range 5%-10% could be obtained for energy intensive processes, where even a low percentage represents a considerable amount. (C) European Communities 1997. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for Sampling Design dedicated to the Evaluation of Effects of Soil Type and Land Use on the Fate of Metallic Trace Elements in Contaminated Soils
Liénard, Amandine ULg; Bock, Laurent ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

Poster (2011, July 04)

Contaminated soils may present a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fate of metallic trace elements (Cd, Pb and Zn) brought to soils from atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Contaminated soils may present a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fate of metallic trace elements (Cd, Pb and Zn) brought to soils from atmospheric fallouts according to soil type and land use. We have developed a sampling soil strategy in order to both map soil contaminations and assess the effects of soils and land use on the mobility of MTE. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for The Appropriation And The Isolation of Nodal Diameter Modes in Cyclic Symmetric Structures
Nyssen, Florence ULg; Viguié, Régis; Simon, Daniel et al

in Proceedings of ASME 2013 International Design Engineering Technical Conference & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2013 (2013, August)

This paper presents a methodology enabling the appropriation and the isolation of a chosen nodal diameter modes in cyclic symmetric structures. In particular, a study about the minimum number and the ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a methodology enabling the appropriation and the isolation of a chosen nodal diameter modes in cyclic symmetric structures. In particular, a study about the minimum number and the optimized location of the excitation sources required in laboratory conditions to isolate a specific nodal diameter mode is conducted. This work includes a theoretical approach based on energy concepts. It is followed by the numerical and experimental validations on a stator stage of an axial compressor. The concept of modal appropriation is investigated here as the first step of the calibration procedure before engine tests. [less ▲]

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See detailA METHODOLOGY FOR THE CALCULATION OF POLLUTANT LOADS IN AN ESTUARY - APPLICATION TO THE WESTERN ESCAUT ESTUARY
Ronday, François ULg; Mouchet, Anne ULg

in Nival, P; Saliot, A (Eds.) FATE OF CHEMICAL POLLUTANTS (1992)

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See detailMethodology for the characterization of the microstructure of nanocomposite polymeric foams using X-ray microtomography
Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Marchot, Pierre ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Micro-CT User Meeting Abstract Book (2011, April 13)

Polymeric foams used in electromagnetic shielding applications are characterized using X-ray microtomography. These foams contain a conductive nanometric reinforcement, carbon nanotubes, but the scale of ... [more ▼]

Polymeric foams used in electromagnetic shielding applications are characterized using X-ray microtomography. These foams contain a conductive nanometric reinforcement, carbon nanotubes, but the scale of characterization described here is that of the microscopic cells. Although nanotube dispersion is important for the final properties of the material, the structure and distribution of the porosity also play a role in terms of dielectric constant and conductivity. Unfortunately, cell wall thinness and limited resolution of laboratory microtomographs makes poper cell identification difficult. Therefore we present a new statistical method based on the 3D autocorrelation function, that allows to some extent to measure mean cell size and structure anisotropy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 95 (37 ULg)
See detailMethodology for the development of a transportation plan
Marchal, Jean ULg

Learning material (1995)

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See detailMethodology for the development of a transportation plan.
Marchal, Jean ULg

Learning material (1994)

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See detailMethodology for the elaboration of Natura 2000 sites designation acts in Wallon egion (Belgium): calcareous grasslands in the Lesse and Lomme area.
Bottin, G.; Etienne, M.; Verté, P. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2005), 9

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See detailMethodology for the Validation of Analytical Methods involved in Uniformity of Dosage Units tests
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2013), 760

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving ... [more ▼]

Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving the quality of the end products starting from its early design stage. However, no regulatory guideline or none of the published methodologies to assess method validation propose decision methodologies that effectively take into account the final purpose of developed analytical methods. In this work a solution is proposed for the specific case of validating analytical methods involved in the assessment of the Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units of a batch of pharmaceutical drug products as proposed in the European or US pharmacopoeias. This methodology uses statistical tolerance intervals as decision tools. Moreover it adequately defines the Analytical Target Profile of analytical methods in order to obtain analytical methods that allow to make correct decisions about Content Uniformity or Uniformity of Dosage Units with high probability. The applicability of the proposed methodology is further illustrated using an HPLC-UV assay as well as a Near Infra-Red Spectrophotometric method. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodology for Updating Large Scale Ortho-Photomaps by Means of VHR Satellite imagery
Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg; Seba, Gautier; de Béthune, Stanislas et al

in Maktav, Derya; Jürgens, Carsten; Erber Sunar, Filiz (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 3d International Symposium of Remote Sensing of Urban Areas (2002)

Some authorities (DGPL) of the Walloon Region (Belgium) are involved in the realization of a complete regional coverage (16,844 km²) of natural colour ortho-photomap to be used at large scales (up to 1 ... [more ▼]

Some authorities (DGPL) of the Walloon Region (Belgium) are involved in the realization of a complete regional coverage (16,844 km²) of natural colour ortho-photomap to be used at large scales (up to 1:4000). These are made of very high-resolution digital ortho-rectified aerial photos presented as raster files. Those rasters are grouped by corresponding administrative boundaries and distributed to the local authorities in order to be used for various land and urban planning purposes. One goal of the DGPL is to provide the local administrations with up to date image data, within the limits of some obvious financial constraints. Because significant changes in the landscape appear at different rates over the time and space, it was suggested to devise a methodology to find out these changes would require a rapid update of the imagery. In regard to this situation, a pilot project has been set up in the year 2000 aiming at detecting the location, the extent and the nature of landscape changes in contrasted areas - urban, suburban, rural - from adequately processed very high resolution (VHR) satellite images - typically Ikonos multi-spectral (4m) and panchromatic (1m) images. Hence, this project had to cope with various issues related to multi-source analysis, geometric and radiometric aspects of the processing VHR data, diachronic analysis, in order to provide the administration with the basic knowledge and the appropriate tools to carry out the proposed task. This communication presents the proposed operational methodology for change detection including all processing steps from the digital image processing (image fusion technique, ortho-rectification analysis, change detection schemes). Along the way it also introduces an assessment of the possible complementarities and convergence of VHR satellite imagery and aerial photography. [less ▲]

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See detailMETHODOLOGY OF ANNOTATING VIDEOS AND STILL IMAGES AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOFTWARE COVER
Guillaumont, Brigitte; Carré, Cyril ULg; van den Beld, Inge et al

Conference (2011, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (10 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMethodology of high speed railway network planning
Marchal, Jean ULg; Han, Baoming

in Proceedings of the Second Conference of Hongkong Society for Transportation Studies HKSTS (1997)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailMethodology of the biological risk classification of animal pathogens in Belgium
Van Vaerenbergh, B.; Koenen, Frank; Pauwels, K. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique / Office International des Epizooties = Revista Cientifica y Tecnica / Officina Internacional de Epizootias = Scientific and Technical Review / International Office of Epizootics (2010), 29(3), 513-522

The biological hazards posed by micro-organisms have lead to their categorisation into risk groups and the elaboration of classification lists. Current classification systems rely on criteria defined by ... [more ▼]

The biological hazards posed by micro-organisms have lead to their categorisation into risk groups and the elaboration of classification lists. Current classification systems rely on criteria defined by the World Health Organization, considering the severity of the disease the micro-organism might cause, its ability to spread and the availability of prophylaxis or efficient treatment. Animal pathogens are classified according to the definitions of the World Organization of Animal Health whereby also economic aspects are considered. In Europe, classification is often directly linked to containment measures. The Belgian classification however, considers only the inherent characteristics of the micro-organism, not its use, making it independent of containment measures. Also a common list for human and animal pathogens is elaborated, allowing a comprehensive approach. Evolution of scientific knowledge requires regular updating of classification lists. This paper describes the particularities of the Belgian classification and the methodology that was used for its peer-reviewed revision, hereby focusing on animal pathogens. [less ▲]

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See detailA methodology to assess the exactness of Stream Network modeling process on agricultural watersheds
Ouedraogo, Mohamar ULg; Degre, Aurore ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2011)

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled ... [more ▼]

The goal of our study is to evaluate the exactness of stream network modeling process on agricultural watersheds. Agricultural watersheds topography is always changing, making it difficult to be modeled. According to the standard ISO-7078 (ISO-7078, 1985) of the Inernational Organization of Standardization, the exactness of a measurement process or a modeled process can be defined as the difference between results obtained from the measurement process and a reference accepted as the «true value». A small watershed of a dozen hectares size has been surveyed by terrestrial LiDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging) scanner and photogrammetrical techniques to produce a row data of 30 cm resolution. Three interpolation techniques i.e. natural neighbourg, multiquadratic radial basis function and inverse distance weighted have been applied on the original data to create original digital elevation models (DEM) of 1 m resolution. RTK (Real Time Kinematics) GPS (Global Positionning System) ground control points have been surveyed on the watershed to evaluate DEM errors and fit a variogram that is used by a conditional sequencial gaussian simulation model to generate error maps. However, ground control point’s elevations accuracy is depending on the microtopography of parcels in an agricultural watershed. Depending on the crop that is planned by the farmer, the soil tillage will be different, and soil structure and roughness can considerably influence ground control point’s elevation. Analysis of variance and geostatistical methods have been applied on total station and RTK GPS data to estimate intervals in which, ground control points elevations vary. These intervals have been estimated for two parcels that soils are tilled in different ways. These errors are added to the generated errors maps to create final error maps. The final errors maps are added to the original DEM to create likely DEM realizations for the watershed (Temme and al., 2007). Then, two spurious sinks filtering methods (Colson 2006; Lindsay and Creed, 2005) and one flat area treatment method (Jenson and Domingue, 1988) are applied on each DEM realization for preprocessing. Finally, the three common flow direction extraction methods (D8, D-infity and Multiple Flow Direction) are applied on each preprocessed DEM to extract stream Network. The extracted stream network is overlapped with RTK GPS field positioned stream network i.e. a polyline format data. To estimate the exactness of the stream extraction methods, the polyline format is converted in raster format. That allows to compute for each pixel of the observed stream network, the distance to the extracted stream network. Then, for each pixel the mean distance can be calculated, and can be represented through the stream network. LiDAR technology is becoming useful for environment modeling because of his accuracy. Such quantity of data is not free of errors. This research will allow us to estimate the uncertainty of stream network modeled from agricultural watersheds by considering the main sources of errors that are propagated through computing processes. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailA Methodology to Improve the Robustness of Gas Turbine Engine Performance Monitoring Against Sensor Faults
Dewallef, Pierre ULg; Borguet, Sébastien ULg

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (2013), 135(5),

For turbine engine performance monitoring purposes, system identification techniques are often used to adapt a turbine engine simulation model to some measurements performed while the engine is in service ... [more ▼]

For turbine engine performance monitoring purposes, system identification techniques are often used to adapt a turbine engine simulation model to some measurements performed while the engine is in service. Doing so, the simulation model is adapted through a set of so-called health parameters whose values are intended to represent a faithful image of the actual health condition of the engine. For sake of low computational burden, the problem of random errors contaminating the measurements is often considered to be zero-mean, white and Gaussian random variables. However, when a sensor fault occurs, the measurement errors no longer satisfy the Gaussian assumption and the results given by the system identification rapidly become unreliable. The present contribution is dedicated to the development of a diagnosis tool based on a Kalman filter whose structure is slightly modified in order to accommodate sensor malfunctions. The benefit in terms of the diagnostic reliability of the resulting tool is illustrated on several sensor faults that may be encountered on a current turbofan layout. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (12 ULg)
See detailMethods
Richelle, Marc ULg; Lejeune, Helga ULg; Mantanus, H. et al

in Richelle, Marc; Lejeune, Helga (Eds.) Time in animal behaviour (1980)

Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg)