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See detailLe militaire belge en opérations : aspects politiques et sociologiques
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Courrier hebdomadaire du CRISP (2007), 1960

L’armée belge est pour l’essentiel une force multinationalisable, mettant en valeur ses capacités médianes et ses compétences sectorielles (les niches capacitaires) associées aux nouvelles missions de ... [more ▼]

L’armée belge est pour l’essentiel une force multinationalisable, mettant en valeur ses capacités médianes et ses compétences sectorielles (les niches capacitaires) associées aux nouvelles missions de gestion de crise dans le cadre de l’Union européenne, de l’OTAN et de l’ONU. L’appareil militaire n’a en effet de sens qu’au service d’une politique de défense, élément sectoriel d’une politique de sécurité qui ne peut s’inscrire que dans un cadre européiste et transatlantique. Et même si la plupart des militaires belges continuent à travailler entre eux, le fait qu’ils soient déployés pendant plusieurs mois dans un espace restreint et fermé aux côtés d’autres nationalités les amènent à nouer des contacts avec les militaires étrangers. Dans les quatre missions étudiées, ceux-ci se sont passés sans difficultés majeures et nous avons observé une fréquence plus élevée de contacts entre les individus qui parlaient la même langue et avaient également une certaine proximité culturelle. Nous avons également relevé que la vie quotidienne des militaires déployés semblait influencée par différents facteurs. Nous avons, d’une part, mis en évidence différents éléments liés au travail effectué sur le terrain et au cadre contextuel de la mission engagée. De plus, comme les militaires vivent 24 heures sur 24 dans une certaine promiscuité, les relations interpersonnelles avec les collègues et les chefs jouent également un rôle de premier plan. Au niveau des facteurs qui concourent à un mauvais moral, nous avons relevé des facteurs récurrents liés à l’ennui, à la fatigue ainsi qu’au manque de contacts avec l’extérieur. À ces éléments s’ajoute également l’éloignement de la famille qui reste une source d’inquiétudes même si la période pendant la mission se déroule relativement bien pour les familles restées au pays. Les militaires belges des missions étudiées se montraient donc, dans l’ensemble, assez satisfaits du déroulement de la mission à laquelle ils ont pris part car la participation aux opérations extérieures demeure, pour un nombre important d’entre eux, la raison même de leur engagement dans les forces armées. Reste toutefois que la monotonie des missions actuelles ne répond pas entièrement aux attentes de certains militaires qui sont davantage demandeurs de missions moins routinières et d’action. De manière plus générale, si la Belgique inscrit son engagement dans un cadre élargi européen, « à savoir qu’il faut faire la paix dans le voisinage pour ne pas avoir la guerre chez nous » (Alain Joxe), l’universalisme européen se heurte rapidement aux enjeux politiques et moraux nationaux. Si on ne peut combattre le ressentiment identitaire et les guerres asymétriques par « des frappes tirées à distance de sécurité », la présence des militaires au sol dans des zones instables (rétablissement, imposition et maintien de la paix) met en évidence la question du degré de participation du pays face à des enjeux non vitaux tels que la défense territoriale nationale et celle de nos alliés avec lesquels la Belgique a signé des traités de solidarité commune. Bien que les conclusions de la commission Rwanda aient abouti à ce que les missions extérieures de l’armée belge soient organisées en disposant des matériels, du mandat et d’engagements précis, les gouvernements, quelle que soit la coalition, seront toujours enclins, parce que responsables politiques de la vie des militaires citoyens, à réduire autant que possible le niveau de la prise de risque. Il s’agira toujours pour la Belgique de trouver l’équilibre entre les nécessaires interventions, les conséquences humaines, politiques et diplomatiques des événements mouvants et souvent incontrôlés sur le terrain, les intérêts du pays et la légitime motivation des militaires dont la grande majorité a pleinement conscience des enjeux et « se sent utile » en opération » face à une minorité qui, dans ses extrêmes, serait soit le « soldat fanfaron », soit le militaire « fonctionnaire ». Il s’agira enfin de trouver, au cas par cas, les bonnes réponses à la question renouvelée du partage des risques entre pays alliés. [less ▲]

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See detailMilitantisme pas mort ?
Biquet, Véronique ULg; Jacquemain, Marc ULg; Stangherlin, Gregor

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2003), (29), 12-15

L'article reprend les thèses classiques sur la transformation du militantisme vers un engagement distancié (Ion) en montrant comment ces thèses peuvent s'appuyer sur les théories du postmatérialisme ... [more ▼]

L'article reprend les thèses classiques sur la transformation du militantisme vers un engagement distancié (Ion) en montrant comment ces thèses peuvent s'appuyer sur les théories du postmatérialisme (Inglehart). Il s'interroge aussi sur la capacité de l'altermondialisme, dans ce contexte, à constituer à terme une alternative au militantisme classique. [less ▲]

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See detailMilitary Cultures and Education: Harmonizing or Standardizing Europe?
Paile, Sylvain ULg

in Univers Strategic - Revista Universitara Romana de Studii de Securitate (2010), 2(1), 274

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See detailMilitary cultures and education: harmonizing or standardizing Europe?
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Conference (2009, May)

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See detailMilitary Higher Education Stocktaking Report
Paile, Sylvain ULg

Book published by EU Council DGF (Press) (2010)

This stocktaking report, drafted in collaboration with the EU Member States, their institutions and the European Security and Defence College aims at presenting a state of the art of the European officers ... [more ▼]

This stocktaking report, drafted in collaboration with the EU Member States, their institutions and the European Security and Defence College aims at presenting a state of the art of the European officers' educational systems and at supporting scientifically the implementation of the Initiative for the exchange of young officers, inspired by Erasmus, undertaken under the Franch EU Presidency (second semester 2008). [less ▲]

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See detailMilk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples
Schantz; Eppe, Gauthier ULg; Focant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2013), 405

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 ULg)
See detailMilk collection and processing
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg

Conference (2009, February 23)

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See detailMilk fat globule membrane and buttermilks: from composition to valorization
Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Bodson, Pascal; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2010), 14(3), 485-500

Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained ... [more ▼]

Buttermilk, the by-product from butter manufacture, is low cost and available in large quantities but has been considered for many years as invaluable. However, over the last two decades it has gained considerable attention due to its specific composition in proteins and polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). The aim of this review is to take stock of current buttermilk knowledge. Firstly, the milk fat globule membrane composition and structure are described. Secondly, buttermilk and its associated products are defined according to the milk fat making process. Structure and mean composition of these products are summarized from recent dairy research data and related to technological properties, especially the emulsifying properties provided by MFGM components. Finally, new applications are presented, leading to promising valorizations of buttermilk and its derivate products. [less ▲]

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See detailThe milk fat globule membrane MFGM : natural source of functional compounds.
Bodson, Pascal; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg et al

Poster (2007, October 11)

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See detailMilk in a diet for growing-fattening bulls : Effects on animal performances and on meat characteristics
Gauthier, Sabine; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of E.A.A.P (1994)

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See detailMILK INGREDIENT ENRICHED IN POLAR LIPIDS AND USES THEREOF
Dalemans, Daniel; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Bodson, Pascal et al

Patent (2010)

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See detailMilk production and marketing in small dairy holders in the Northern area of Vietnam : a case study in Phu Dong
Bui, Thi Nga ULg; Tran Huu, Cuong; Luong Thi Thu et al

in Hanoi University of Agriculture; Francophone Joint University Council (CIUF) (Eds.) Proceedings of Scientific Research Results - Institutional University Cooperation Program 2008-2012 (2013)

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See detailMilk production and Marketing in small holder dairy in the Northern area of Vietnam: A case study in Phu Dong Commune
Bui, Thi Nga ULg; Tran Huu, Cuong; Luong Thi Thu, Ha et al

in Vietnam’s Socio-Economic Development [=VSED]: a Social Science Review (2012), (71/September 2012), 57-69

Dairy cows in small holders in Phu Dong contribute to improve the welfare of farm households. It generates income, provides a highly nutritious food for people, create employment opportunities in the ... [more ▼]

Dairy cows in small holders in Phu Dong contribute to improve the welfare of farm households. It generates income, provides a highly nutritious food for people, create employment opportunities in the society. However, most dairy farmers have a few cows, which will be difficult to improve their lives. They are more vulnerable because milk is easy to be rotten, feed costs are high and increasing; market is fluctuated with shock while gate farm price is almost stable. This study analyzes the situation of milk production and marketing in small holders in Phu Dong. The Heckman two-step procedure is used to estimate factors affecting the decision of market participation and milk marketed volume of dairy households. The main findings are: The pure HF breed dairy cows produced higher productivity but shorter lactation period than that of cross breed cows. The productivity was highest in the pure HF breed medium-size farms and lowest in the cross breed medium-size farms. However, there is not much difference in milk yield per lactation between these breeds. Age of the household, education level, experience in dairy production, distance from milk market and number of milking cows significant impact the probability of the household in milk market participation. Number of milking cows, education level of the households, and non-dairy source financial incomes are important factors affecting sale volume of milk. [less ▲]

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See detailMilk production correlates negatively with plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) during the early fetal period in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses
Lopez-Gatius, F.; Garbayo, J. M.; Santolaria, P. et al

in Domestic Animal Endocrinology (2007), 32(1), 29-42

This study was designed to establish possible factors affecting plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations during early pregnancy in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses. Blood ... [more ▼]

This study was designed to establish possible factors affecting plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations during early pregnancy in high producing dairy cows with live fetuses. Blood samples were obtained on days 35, 42, 49, 56 and 63 of gestation from 80 lactating cows in two herds carrying live fetuses. Radioimmunoassay systems were used to determine PAG (RIA-497 and RIA-706) and progesterone concentrations. We evaluated the effects on PAG concentrations of herd, lactation number, sire of fetus, day of gestation, fetus number, plasma progesterone and milk production at each time point established, along with possible paired interactions. Mean milk production per cow approached 41 kg during the study period. PAG concentrations were not affected by herd, lactation number or plasma progesterone concentration. Significant positive effects on PAG concentrations were shown by the gestation day, and the interaction between day of gestation and twin pregnancy. Significant differences between bulls and a significant negative correlation between milk production and PAG values on day 63 of pregnancy were also detected. Proportions of blood samples showing undetectable PAG levels and false negative diagnoses throughout the study period were significantly higher (P < 0.001) using the RIA-497 system (2.5% and 5.3%, respectively) compared to RIA-706 (0% and 0.8%, respectively). Our findings suggest that PAG concentrations during the early fetal period are related to the day of gestation, milk production, number of fetuses and sire of fetus in high producing dairy cows. Under our working conditions, the RIA-706 method was better at detecting plasma PAG molecules than the RIA-497 system. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMilk production of Holsteins under Mediterranean conditions: case of the Tunisian population
Ben Gara, Abderrahmen; Borni, Jemmali; Hammami, Hedi ULg et al

in Rekik, Boulbaba (Ed.) Milk Production (2012)

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See detailMilk production of imported heifers and Tunisian-born Holstein cows
Rekik, Boulbaba; Bouraoui, Rachid; Ben gara, Abderrahmen et al

in American-Eurasian Journal of Agronomy (2009), 1(3), 36-42

Test day (TD) records of milk, fat and protein yields and somatic cell scores (SCS) were studied in Holstein cows in Tunisia. There were 43114, 32923 and 24633 lactation records collected on first, second ... [more ▼]

Test day (TD) records of milk, fat and protein yields and somatic cell scores (SCS) were studied in Holstein cows in Tunisia. There were 43114, 32923 and 24633 lactation records collected on first, second and third parity cows between 1992 and 2004 in 182 herds. Records were of cows born in Tunisia (22000 cows) and those imported from Europe (10830 cows) and North America (850 cows). Variation of total days in milk (DIM) per lactation was studied in function of the herd, calving year x calving season interaction and the origin of the cow. Test-day records were analyzed using a linear model that included calving year x calving season and herd x test-day date interactions, calving season, calving year and origin of the cow. The effective length of lactation was affected by all factors included in the model (p< 0.0001) in all lactations. Test- day milk, protein and fat yields and TD SCS varied (p< 0.01) with management and climatic factors (calving year x calving season and herd x test-day date interactions and year and season of calving). A cow produced 18.8 kg, 0.61 kg and 0.58 kg of milk, fat and protein yields on a daily basis in all lactations, respectively. Average SCS was 2.8 in the three lactations. The origin of the cow was an important (p < 0.05) source of variation for DIM, yields and SCS in all lactations except for first lactation cell scores (p>0.05). Cows born in Tunisia seemed to perform better than imported cows in the first lactation while imported cows showed clearly better performances in later lactations. North American cows produced the highest yields and had the lowest SCS among all cows in the second and third lactations. Imported high producing cows seemed able to adjust to Tunisian management conditions following their first lactation. [less ▲]

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See detailMilk urea content as influenced by geographical area and season in Wallonia
Meura, Stéphane; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Permanent and temporary grassland plant, environment and economy; A. De Vliegher and L. Carlier (Eds); Proceedings of 14th symposium of the European Grassland Federation (2007)

Milk urea concentration is routinely determined in commercial dairy farms along with the official milk analyses carried out on milk samples for the dairies by the “Comité du lait”. The milk urea content ... [more ▼]

Milk urea concentration is routinely determined in commercial dairy farms along with the official milk analyses carried out on milk samples for the dairies by the “Comité du lait”. The milk urea content do not modify milk price but can be useful for the farmers for diet calculation, milk urea content being related to the energy-protein ratio in the diet. The aim of this paper was to study the evolution of the milk urea content according to the months and the areas. Milk urea concentration changed according to the months owing to the diet: the summer diets, mainly composed by grass in many farms, were characterized by higher nitrogen content which as result an increase in milk urea concentration. The geographic areas can also influence milk urea concentration due to dietary difference. For example, in the Hesbaye area, beet and cereals are produced while in the Ardennes, grasslands are dominant. The urea content in milk can be an useful measurement for the diet calculations in order to decrease nitrogen waste and to reduce the feed costs. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (9 ULg)