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See detailMixing in magnetic OB stars
Morel, Thierry ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2011), 80

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See detailMixing in two magnetic OB stars discovered by the MiMeS collaboration
Morel, Thierry ULg

in IAU Symposium 272: Active OB Stars: Structure, Evolution, Mass Loss and Critical Limits (2011)

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See detailMixing proximal regularization, penalization and parallel decomposition in convex programming
Tossings, Patricia ULg

in Oettli, W.; Pallaschke, D. (Eds.) Advances in Optimization (W. Oettli - D. Pallaschke Editors), Proceedings FRG, Lambrecht (1991)

Let A and B be two mutually complementary subspaces of a real Hilbert space H, T being a maximal monotone operator on H. The method of partial inverses has been introduced by J. Spingarn in 1983 for ... [more ▼]

Let A and B be two mutually complementary subspaces of a real Hilbert space H, T being a maximal monotone operator on H. The method of partial inverses has been introduced by J. Spingarn in 1983 for solving problems in which the object is to find x in A and y in B such that y in Tx. We present a perturbed version of this method and its most important application: a perturbed method of parallel decomposition in convex programming. [less ▲]

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See detailMixmaster universe in fourth-order gravity theories
Cotsakis, S.; Demaret, Jacques; De Rop, Yves ULg et al

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (1993), 48

We analyze the behavior of the Bianchi type-IX cosmological model in the full fourth-order theory of gravity in four space-time dimensions on approach to the singularity both analytically and numerically ... [more ▼]

We analyze the behavior of the Bianchi type-IX cosmological model in the full fourth-order theory of gravity in four space-time dimensions on approach to the singularity both analytically and numerically. By directly analyzing the full fourth-order field equations we prove explicitly that the Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz (BKL) analytic solution (and the accompanying bounce law) is also a solution to the more general case that we consider. But it appears to be nongeneric, because a perturbation analysis shows that power-law Kasner asymptotes are unstable on approach to the singularity. On the other hand, we find that the model possesses a stable isotropic monotonic power-law asymptotic solution and accordingly we show that there is a general solution which is nonchaotic near the space-time singularity. Numerical experiments confirm the existence of such a behavior. The inclusion of matter fields does not alter the evolution in the neighborhood of the singularity. The role of space-time dimensionality on the chaotic evolution of the mixmaster universe in these theories is also spelled out. In particular, we show that it is impossible to build a mixmaster universe in space-time dimensions higher than four in the full fourth-order gravity theory based on the BKL approximation scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailMixture model for inferring susceptibility to mastitis in dairy cattle: a procedure for likelihood-based inference
Gianola, D.; Odegard, J.; Heringstad, B. et al

in Genetics, Selection, Evolution (2004), 36(1, JAN-FEB), 3-27

A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop ... [more ▼]

A Gaussian mixture model with a finite number of components and correlated random effects is described. The ultimate objective is to model somatic cell count information in dairy cattle and to develop criteria for genetic selection against mastitis, an important udder disease. Parameter estimation is by maximum likelihood or by an extension of restricted maximum likelihood. A Monte Carlo expectation- maximization algorithm is used for this purpose. The expectation step is carried out using Gibbs sampling, whereas the maximization step is deterministic. Ranking rules based on the conditional probability of membership in a putative group of uninfected animals, given the somatic cell information, are discussed. Several extensions of the model are suggested. [less ▲]

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See detailA mixture model to assess the effect of a hormonal stimulation on the development of follicles in prepubertal heifers
Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society : Series C (Applied Statistics) (2002), 4

The goal of this study is to assess the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the growth of follicles in prepubertal heifers. Adams and co-workers have shown that follicles develop in waves as ... [more ▼]

The goal of this study is to assess the effect of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the growth of follicles in prepubertal heifers. Adams and co-workers have shown that follicles develop in waves as in post-pubertal heifers: after a few days, a dominant follicle arises on one of the two ovaries whereas the other subordinate follicles regress.The dominant follicle remains detectable when the next wave occurs. The number and the diameters of these follicles have been measured for 14 days.The same experiment was repeated after a 3-day FSH stimulation. Several large follicles now arise simultaneously on both ovaries together with small follicles which cannot be detected any more when the next wave occurs. Unfortunately, follicles were not individually tracked. Therefore a three-component mixture model was used to describe the potential simultaneous observation of dominant, decaying dominant and subordinate follicles before the FSH stimulation; the same type of model was considered for large, decaying large and small follicles after the hormonal stimulation. Moreover, for technical reasons, only follicles larger than 2 mm are observable. Measurements were thus left truncated.The models fitted are used to quantify the effects of the stimulation and to determine the ideal time point at which follicles should be punctured under ultrasonography to harvest ovocytes that will be fertilized and cultured in vitro. [less ▲]

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See detailMixtures of Bagged Markov Tree Ensembles
Schnitzler, François ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Cano Utrera, Andrès; Gómez-Olmedo, Manuel; Nielsen, Thomas (Eds.) Proceedings of the 6th European Workshop on Probabilistic Graphical Models (2012, September)

Markov trees, a probabilistic graphical model for density estimation, can be expanded in the form of a weighted average of Markov Trees. Learning these mixtures or ensembles from observations can be ... [more ▼]

Markov trees, a probabilistic graphical model for density estimation, can be expanded in the form of a weighted average of Markov Trees. Learning these mixtures or ensembles from observations can be performed to reduce the bias or the variance of the estimated model. We propose a new combination of both, where the upper level seeks to reduce bias while the lower level seeks to reduce variance. This algorithm is evaluated empirically on datasets generated from a mixture of Markov trees and from other synthetic densities. [less ▲]

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See detailA MLPA-oligochromatographic multiplex assay for identification of the toxin genotype and the hypervirulent ribotype O27 of Clostridium difficile
Durenne, Bastien ULg; Laurent, Thierry; Leclipteux, Thierry et al

in Clinical Microbiology & Infection (2009, May), 15(s4),

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See detailMMP-19 Deficiency Promotes Tenascin-C Accumulation and Allergen-induced Airway Inflammation.
Guéders, Maud ULg; Hirst, S.; Quesada Calvo, Florence ULg et al

in American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (2010), 43(3), 286-95

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) recently appeared as key regulators of inflammation, allowing recruitment and clearance of inflammatory cells and modifying the biological activity of many peptidic ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) recently appeared as key regulators of inflammation, allowing recruitment and clearance of inflammatory cells and modifying the biological activity of many peptidic mediators by cleavage. MMP-19 is a newly described MMP and preferentially cleaves matrix proteins such as collagens and tenascin-C. The role of MMP-19 in asthma has not been described to date. The purpose of the present study was to assess MMP-19 expression in a murine asthma model and to address biological effects of MMP-19 deficiency in mice. Allergenexposed wild-type (WT) mice displayed an increased expression of MMP-19 mRNA and an increased number of MMP-19-positive cells in the lungs detected by immunohistochemistry. After allergen challenge of MMP-19 knockout (MMP-19-/-) mice, an exacerbated eosinophilic inflammation was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial tissue along with an increased airway responsiveness to methacholine. A shift towards increased Th2-driven inflammation in MMP-19-/- mice was demonstrated by 1) increased numbers of cells expressing the IL-33 receptor T1/ST2 in lung parenchyma, 2) increased IgG1 levels in serum and 3) higher levels of IL-13 and CCL11 in lung extracts. Tenascin-C was found accumulated in peribronchial areas of MMP-19-/- after allergen challenges as assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. We conclude that MMP-19 is a new mediator in asthma, preventing tenascin-C accumulation and directly or indirectly controlling Th2-driven airway eosinophilia and airway hyperreactivity. Our data suggest that MMP-19 might act on Th2 inflammation homeostasis through preventing tenascin protein accumulation. [less ▲]

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See detailMMP-2 and MMP-9 activity is increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic cats
Kirschvink, N.; Delvaux, François ULg; Leemans, J. et al

in Autumn Meeting, Belgian Society of Fundamental and Clinical physiology and Pharmacology - Liège - Belgique - novembre 2003 (2003, November)

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See detailMMP-2 and MMP-9 synergize in promoting choroidal neovascularization
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Wielockx, B.; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in FASEB Journal (2003), 17(15), 2290-2292

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 are increased in human choroidal neovascularization (CNV) occurring during the exudative most aggressive form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 are increased in human choroidal neovascularization (CNV) occurring during the exudative most aggressive form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but their precise role and potential interactions remain unclear. To address the question of MMP-2 and MMP-9 functions, mice deficient in the expression of MMP-2 (MMP-2 KO), MMP-9 (MMP-9 KO), and both MMP-2 and MMP-9 (MMP-2,9 KO) with their corresponding wild-type mice (WT) underwent CNV induction by laser-induced rupture of the Bruch's membrane. Both the incidence and the severity of CNV were strongly attenuated in double deficient compared with single gene deficient mice or corresponding WT controls. The reduced neovascularization was accompanied by fibrinogen/fibrin accumulation. Furthermore, overexpression of the endogenous MMP inhibitors TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 (delivered by adenoviral vectors) in WT mice or daily injection of a synthetic and gelatinase selective MMP inhibitor (Ro 26-2853) significantly decreased the pathological reaction. These findings suggest that MMP-2 and MMP-9 may cooperate in the development of AMD and that their selective inhibition represents an alternative strategy for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization. [less ▲]

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See detailMMP-2 and MMP-9-Linked Gelatinolytic Activity in the Sputum from Patients with Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in International Archives of Allergy & Immunology (2000), 123(3), 259-67

BACKGROUND: The course of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with bronchial morphological changes. Metalloproteinases are thought to play a role in these structural ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The course of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with bronchial morphological changes. Metalloproteinases are thought to play a role in these structural changes. METHODS: We studied the gelatinolytic activity present in the induced sputum from 20 patients with asthma, 20 with COPD and 19 healthy controls. The assessment of gelatinolytic activity was performed by quantitative zymography, and gelatinolytic species were identified by Western blot analysis. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was detected by reverse zymography and ELISA. RESULTS: From zymography, we found significantly higher gelatinolytic activity linked to pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9) in the sputum from asthmatics (p < 0.0001) and COPD patients (p < 0.0001) compared to the control group. Furthermore, the activated form of MMP-9 (85 kD) was found in the sputum from 60% of asthmatics and 85% of COPD patients, but was absent in that of control subjects (p < 0.0001). Importantly, although less frequently detectable than pro-MMP-9, pro- MMP-2 (72 kD) was found more frequently in asthmatics (50%) than in control subjects (5%) (p < 0. 005). We also described two unusual gelatinolytic species of 45 and 120 kD and showed that they derived from MMP-9 according to their ability to bind gelatin and anti-MMP-9 antibody. Levels of TIMP-1 were higher in asthmatics (p < 0.05) and COPD patients (p < 0.05) than in controls. CONCLUSION: Asthmatics and COPD patients display an increased gelatinolytic activity linked to MMP-2 and MMP-9 and higher levels of TIMP-1 in their sputum. [less ▲]

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See detailMMP-9 activity and 8-ISO-PGF2alphaare increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a model of feline asthma
Kirschvink, Nathalie; Leemans, Jérôme ULg; Delvaux, F. et al

in Proceedings of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (2005)

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See detailMMP-9 regulates both positively and negatively collagen gel contraction - A nonproteolytic function of MMP-9
Defawe, Olivier D; Kenagy, Richard D; Choi, Chun et al

in Cardiovascular Research (2005), 66(2), 402-409

Objective: Constrictive remodeling accounts for lumen loss in postangioplasty restenosis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been shown to prevent constrictive remodeling in vivo. To investigate ... [more ▼]

Objective: Constrictive remodeling accounts for lumen loss in postangioplasty restenosis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been shown to prevent constrictive remodeling in vivo. To investigate potential mechanisms for this observation, we investigated the role of MMP-9 in smooth muscle cell (SMC)-mediated collagen gel contraction, an in vitro model of constrictive remodeling. Methods: Fischer rat SMCs were stably transfected with a construct-expressing rat-MMP-9 under the control of a tetracycline (Tet)-off promoter. SMCs were seeded in type 1 collagen gels (2.4 mg/ml) in the presence or not of tetracycline (1 mu g/ml), and gel contraction was defined as the percentage of retraction of the collagen gel. The depletion of MMP-9 was obtained by using siRNA targeting MMP-9 mRNA or a blocking antibody. Results: Gel contraction was significantly reduced at all times when MMP-9 was overexpressed (Tet-) as compared with the control condition (Tet+). However, MMP-9 depletion of control (Tet+) SMCS (using siRNA or antibody) also inhibited gel contraction. To resolve the apparent discrepancy and determine if MMP-9 exerts a dose-dependent biphasic effect on gel contraction, conditioned medium and purified rat-MMP-9 were prepared. Gel contraction was significantly increased by addition of 0.8 mg/ml of MMP-9, while high concentrations of MMP-9 (>= 100 mg/ml) inhibited contraction. The addition of BB94 and TIMP-1 did not alter the inhibitory or stimulatory effect of MMP-9. Conclusions: Our data Suggest that MMP-9, independent of its proteolytic function, has a biphasic effect on SMC-mediated collagen gel contraction. Understanding the different roles of MMP-9 Should allow the development of better therapeutic strategies for restenotic vascular disease. (c) 2004 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMMP-Mediated Collagen Remodeling and Vessel Functions
Noël, Agnès ULg; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg

in Brix, Klaudia; Stocker, Walter (Eds.) Proteases: Structure and Function (2013)

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See detailMMP-Mediated Collagen Remodeling and Vessel Functions
Noël, Agnès ULg; Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg

in BRIX, K.; STOCKER, W. (Eds.) Proteases: Structure and Function, (2014)

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See detailMMPs and their inhibitors in vascular remodeling and vascular disease
Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg

Conference (2010, March)

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See detailMMPs regulation of vascular permeability in cancer
Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg

Conference (2009, May 29)

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See detailMnasistratos, the hierophant at Andania (IG 5.1.1390 and Syll.³ 735)
Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Kuiper, Yme B.; Dijkstra, Jitse H.F.; Kroesen, Justin E.A. (Eds.) Myths, Martyrs and Modernity – Studies in the History of Religion in Honor of Jan N. Bremmer (2010)

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