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See detailHuman Biomonitoring of Persistent Toxicants using Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography and Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Sjodin, Andreas; Patterson, Donald G.

in Niessen, W. M. A. (Ed.) The Encyclopedia of Mass Spectrometry, Volume 8, Hyphenated Methods (2006)

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See detailHuman bone cells from abundant matrix in tridimentional culture
Franchimont, N; Bassleer, C; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Calcified Tissue International (1993), 52(S1), 10

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See detailHuman bone marrow adipocytes block granulopoiesis through neuropilin-1-induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor inhibition.
Belaid-Choucair, Zakia ULg; Lepelletier, Yves; Poncin, Géraldine ULg et al

in Stem Cells (2008), 26(6), 1556-64

Adipocytes are part of hematopoietic microenvironment, even though up to now in humans, their role in hematopoiesis is still questioned. We have previously shown that accumulation of fat cells in femoral ... [more ▼]

Adipocytes are part of hematopoietic microenvironment, even though up to now in humans, their role in hematopoiesis is still questioned. We have previously shown that accumulation of fat cells in femoral bone marrow (BM) coincides with increased expression of neuropilin-1 (NP-1), while it is weakly expressed in hematopoietic iliac crest BM. Starting from this observation, we postulated that adipocytes might exert a negative effect on hematopoiesis mediated through NP-1. To test this hypothesis, we set up BM adipocytes differentiated into fibroblast-like fat cells (FLFC), which share the major characteristics of primitive unilocular fat cells, as an experimental model. As expected, FLFCs constitutively produced macrophage colony stimulating factor and induced CD34(+) differentiation into macrophages independently of cell-to-cell contact. By contrast, granulopoiesis was hampered by cell-to-cell contact but could be restored in transwell culture conditions, together with granulocyte colony stimulating factor production. Both functions were also recovered when FLFCs cultured in contact with CD34(+) cells were treated with an antibody neutralizing NP-1, which proved its critical implication in contact inhibition. An inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin-1 beta or dexamethasone modulates FLFC properties to restore granulopoiesis. Our data provide the first evidence that primary adipocytes exert regulatory functions during hematopoiesis that might be implicated in some pathological processes. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman bone marrow, umbilical cord or liver mesenchymal stromal cells fail to improve liver function in a model of CCl4-induced liver damage in NOD/SCID/IL-2Ry(null) mice
BRIQUET, Alexandra ULg; GREGOIRE, Céline ULg; Comblain, Fanny ULg et al

in Cytotherapy (2014), 16

Background aims. Transplantation is the gold standard procedure for treating acute and chronic end-stage liver diseases. Given the shortage of organs, the development of cellular sources other than human ... [more ▼]

Background aims. Transplantation is the gold standard procedure for treating acute and chronic end-stage liver diseases. Given the shortage of organs, the development of cellular sources other than human liver is urgent. The main objective of this project was to examine the effect of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) (bone marrow, umbilical cord and liver MSCs) intravenous injection on liver regeneration in a model of hepatic damage in NOD/SCID/IL non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient/Interleukin-2Rg(null) (NSG) mice. Methods. Mice received 3 intraperitoneal injections of CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride per week for 4 weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last injection of CCl4, mice received 500,000 MSCs or phosphate-buffered saline by intravenous injection. We examined hepatic damage by means of quantitative image analysis and blood enzyme analysis 24 h, 1 week or 8 weeks after MSC or phosphate-buffered saline injection. We also examined MSC homing by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction of human albumin. Results. We adapted a model of liver injury in immunodeficient mice. In this model, accumulation of collagen in newly formed scar septa was apparent up to 8 weeks after CCl4 treatment. Human albumin DNA was found in all organs tested. However, intravenous MSC injection, even after CXCR4 C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 transduction and whatever the origin of MSCs, failed to improve liver damage. Conclusions. In this liver injury model, MSCs were propagated in various tissues, particularly filtering organs. For the treatment of hepatic damage, intravenous administration of moderate doses of MSCs does not appear to be effective. Yet, this adapted liver injury model is appropriate for investigating engraftment of human cells. [less ▲]

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See detailA human brain network derived from coma-causing brainstem lesions
Fischer, David; Boes, A.D; Demertzi, Athina ULg et al

in Neurology (2016), 87(23), 2427-2434

OBJECTIVE To characterize a brainstem location specific to coma-causing lesions, and its functional connectivity network. METHODS We compared 12 coma-causing brainstem lesions to 24 control brainstem ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE To characterize a brainstem location specific to coma-causing lesions, and its functional connectivity network. METHODS We compared 12 coma-causing brainstem lesions to 24 control brainstem lesions using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in a case-control design to identify a site significantly associated with coma. We next used resting-state functional connectivity from a healthy cohort to identify a network of regions functionally connected to this brainstem site. We further investigated the cortical regions of this network by comparing their spatial topography to that of known networks and by evaluating their functional connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness. RESULTS A small region in the rostral dorsolateral pontine tegmentum was significantly associated with coma-causing lesions. In healthy adults, this brainstem site was functionally connected to the ventral anterior insula (AI) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC). These cortical areas aligned poorly with previously defined resting-state networks, better matching the distribution of von Economo neurons. Finally, connectivity between the AI and pACC was disrupted in patients with disorders of consciousness, and to a greater degree than other brain networks. CONCLUSIONS Injury to a small region in the pontine tegmentum is significantly associated with coma. This brainstem site is functionally connected to 2 cortical regions, the AI and pACC, which become disconnected in disorders of consciousness. This network of brain regions may have a role in the maintenance of human consciousness [less ▲]

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See detailHuman breast adenocarcinoma cell lines promote angiogenesis by providing cells with uPA-PAI-1 and by enhancing their expression
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Lewalle, J. M.; Martinez, C. R. et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2002), 100(5), 501-506

During angiogenesis, endothelial cells use uPA and PAI-I to migrate and degrade the basement membrane surrounding capillary blood vessels. Invasive tumor cells produce a large amount of uPA that could ... [more ▼]

During angiogenesis, endothelial cells use uPA and PAI-I to migrate and degrade the basement membrane surrounding capillary blood vessels. Invasive tumor cells produce a large amount of uPA that could bind uPAR present at the endothelial cell surface to facilitate their invasion. To verify this hypothesis, endothelial cells were incubated with conditioned medium (CM) from two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA MB 231 cells). Within a short incubation period (30 min) with both CM, an increase of uPA, PAW and uPA-PAI-I complex was detected in endothelial cell layer as assessed by casein zymography, ELISA and uPA immunostaining. The extent of this enhancement was related to the levels of uPA secreted by tumor cells (high in MDA MB 231 cells and low in MCF7 cells). After 2 hr of incubation, the CM from both tumor cells upregulated uPA and PAI-I mRNA levels in endothelial cells in a time-dependent manner. The uPA increase in the cell layer could not be attributable to an increase of uPAR level. Only the CM from highly invasive MDA MB 231 cells increased the angiogenic morphotype of endothelial cells assessed in a collagen gel. A single addition of amino-terminal fragment of uPA (ATF) was able to abolish the angiogenic effect induced by MDA MB 231 cell CM. Our data demonstrate that the interactions occurring between breast tumor cells and endothelial cells can modulate tumor angiogenesis at least by two mechanisms: an increase of uPA and PAI-I cell surface-binding and of their expression by endothelial cells. (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman brucellosis in North-East Ecuador: prevalence, typifying Brucella spp., and risk factors
Ron-Roman, J; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Ron-Garrido, L et al

Poster (2011)

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See detailHuman Brucellosis in Northwest Ecuador: Typifying Brucella spp., Seroprevalence, and Associated Risk Factors
Ron Roman, J.; Ron Garrido, L.; Abatih, E. et al

in Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases (2014), 14(2),

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See detailHuman chondrocytes in tridimensional culture.
Bassleer, C.; Gysen, Ph; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology : Journal of the Tissue Culture Association (1986), 22

Cartilage was taken from the macroscopically normal part of human femoral heads immediately after orthopedic surgical operations for total prothesis consecutive to hip arthrosis. After clostridial ... [more ▼]

Cartilage was taken from the macroscopically normal part of human femoral heads immediately after orthopedic surgical operations for total prothesis consecutive to hip arthrosis. After clostridial collagenase digestion and repeated washings, chondrocytes (10(6) cells) were cultivated in a gyrotory shaker (100 rpm). Under these conditions, cells were kept in suspension and after 3 to 5 d formed a flaky aggregate which, on Day 10, became dense. These chondrocytes were morphologically differentiated: they had a round shape, were situated inside cavities, and were surrounded by a new matrix. Histochemical methods showed the presence of collagen and polysaccharides in cell cytoplasm and in intercellular matrix, and the immunofluorescence method using specific antisera (anticartilage proteoglycans and anti-type II collagen) showed that these two constituents were in intercellular matrix. The measurement of the amounts of proteoglycans (PG) released into culture medium and those present in chondrocyte aggregate (by a specific PG radioimmunoassay) showed a maximum production on Days 3 to 5 of culture, then the production decreased and stabilized (from Day 10 to the end of culture). The observed difference between the amounts of PG in aggregates after 20 d and those after 2 h of culture demonstrated that PG neosynthesis did occur during cultivation. This conclusion was supported by other results obtained by [14C]glucosamine incorporation in chondrocyte aggregates. Moreover, the aggregate fresh weight related to cell number (appreciated by DNA assay) increased significantly with culture duration. Three-dimensional chondrocyte culture represents an interesting model: chondrocytes were differentiated morphologically as well as biosynthetically and synthesized a new cartilage matrix. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman chorionic gonadotropin and growth factors at the embryonic-endometrial interface control leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion by human endometrial epithelium
PERRIER d'HAUTERIVE, Sophie ULg; Charlet, Jeanne de Chantal ULg; Berndt, Sarah ULg et al

in Human Reproduction (2004), 19(11), 2633-2643

BACKGROUND: The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo contributes to its implantation is an area of extensive research. The main objective of this study was to investigate the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo contributes to its implantation is an area of extensive research. The main objective of this study was to investigate the pattern of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion by human endometrial epithelium, and their regulation by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and other growth factors present at the embryonic-endometrial interface. METHODS: Endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) were isolated from biopsies collected at both proliferative and secretory phases of fertile women. RESULTS: HCG (1-50 IU/ml) increased LIF secretion by EEC cultures derived from follicular phase (up to 285+/-75%) or from secretory phase (up to 212+/-16%). In contrast, hCG reduced IL-6 secretion by EEC in both phases. The hCG/LH receptor gene was transcribed by EEC as evidenced by RT-PCR. Insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 increased LIF secretion by EEC. Transforming growth factor beta1 stimulated LIF and reduced IL-6 secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Through hCG, the blastocyst may be involved in the control of its implantation (via an increase of proimplantatory LIF) and tolerance (via an inhibition of proinflammatory IL-6). Other growth factors present at the embryonic-endometrial interface are also involved in the control of LIF and IL-6 endometrial secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman Chorionic Gonadotropin: a hormone with immunological and angiogenic properties.
Tsampalas, M.; Gridelet, Virginie ULg; Berndt, Sarah ULg et al

in Journal of Reproductive Immunology (2010), 85(1), 93-8

The success of implantation depends on a receptive endometrium, a normal blastocyst and synchronized cross-talk at the maternal–fetal interface. The progression of pregnancy then requires immunological ... [more ▼]

The success of implantation depends on a receptive endometrium, a normal blastocyst and synchronized cross-talk at the maternal–fetal interface. The progression of pregnancy then requires immunological tolerance which allows conceptus survival. A cascade of cytokines mediates this dialogue and is crucial in the cross-talk between the immune and endocrine systems. The first known human embryo-derived signal is chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by which the embryo profoundly influences immunological tolerance and angiogenesis at the maternal–fetal interface. hCG levels coincide with the development of trophoblast tolerance. Indeed, it increases the number of uterine natural killer cells that play a key role in the establishment of pregnancy. hCG also intervenes in the development of local immune tolerance through the cellular system of apoptosis via Fas/Fas-Ligand. It modulates the Th1/Th2 balance and acts on complement C3 and C4A/B factors modulating decidual immunity. The transient tolerance evident during gestation is at least partially achieved via the presence of regulatory T cells which are attracted by hCG at the fetal–maternal interface. Finally, hCG treatment of activated dendritic cells results in an up-regulation of MHC class II, IL-10 and IDO expression, reducing the ability to stimulate T cell proliferation. Successful implantation requires an extensive endometrial angiogenesis in the implantation site. Recent data demonstrate angiogenic effects of hCG via its interaction with endometrial and endothelial LH/hCG receptors. Our review focuses on these functions of hCG, giving new insight into the endocrine–immune dialogue that exists between the conceptus and immune cells within the receptive endometrium at the time of implantation. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman cognition during REM sleep and the activity profile within frontal and parietal cortices: a reappraisal of functional neuroimaging data
Maquet, Pierre ULg; Ruby, P.; Maudoux, Audrey ULg et al

in Progress in Brain Research (2005), 150(Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology), 219-227

In this chapter, we aimed at further characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of the human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the population level. We carried out a meta-analysis of a large dataset of ... [more ▼]

In this chapter, we aimed at further characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of the human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the population level. We carried out a meta-analysis of a large dataset of positron emission tomography (PET) scans acquired during wakefulness, slow wave sleep and REM sleep, and focused especially on the brain areas in which the activity diminishes during REM sleep. Results show that quiescent regions are confined to the inferior and middle frontal cortex and to the inferior parietal lobule. Providing a plausible explanation for some of the features of dream reports, these findings may help in refining the concepts, which try to account for human cognition during REM sleep. In particular, we discuss the significance of these results to explain the alteration in executive processes, episodic memory retrieval and self representation during REM sleep dreaming as well as the incorporation of external stimuli into the dream narrative. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman consumption of Lepidoptera in Africa : an updated chronological list of references (370 quoted!) with their ethnozoological analysis
Malaisse, François ULg; Latham, Paul

in Geo-Eco-Trop : Revue Internationale de Géologie, de Géographie et d'Ecologie Tropicales (2014), 38(2), 339-372

Human consumption of insects or « lepidopterophagy » is becoming increasingly important. In the present paper 370 references dealing with this subject in Africa are quoted. Access to this information is ... [more ▼]

Human consumption of insects or « lepidopterophagy » is becoming increasingly important. In the present paper 370 references dealing with this subject in Africa are quoted. Access to this information is provided both, by chronological and alphabetic order of authors. A systematic list of scientific names of edible Lepidoptera in Africa is also provided. The importance of the information available for various ethnolinguidstic groups is presented. The evolution of issues covered is analyzed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman consumption of Lepidoptera, termites, Orthoptera, and ants in Africa
Malaisse, François ULg

in Paoletti, Maurizio Guido (Ed.) Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs and Snails (2005)

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See detailHuman cortical excitability depends on time awake and circadian phase
Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Ly, Julien; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg et al

Poster (2015, January 27)

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See detailHuman cortical excitability depends on time awake and circadian phase
Ly, Julien ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

Conference (2014, September 17)

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking ... [more ▼]

At any point in time, human performance results from the interaction of two main factors: a circadian signal varying with the time of the day and the sleep need accrued throughout the preceding waking period. But what’s happen at the cortical cerebral level? We used a novel technique coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS/EEG) to assess the influence of time spent awake and circadian phasis on human cortical excitability. Twenty-two healthy young men underwent 8 TMS/EEG sessions during a 28 hour sleep deprivation protocole. We found that cortical excitability depends on both time spent awake and circadian phasis. [less ▲]

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