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See detailMulti-scale analysis of carbon stocks and deforestation monitoring. Case of the Eastern tropical humid forest of Madagascar.
Ratsimba, H; Rajoulison, L G; Rabenilalana, F M et al

in Azevedo, J C; Feliciano, M; Castro, J (Eds.) et al Forest landscapes and Global Change (2010)

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See detailA multi-scale approach to facultative paedomorphosis of European newts (Salamandridae) in the Montenegrin karst: Distribution pattern, environmental variables, and conservation
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Cirovic, Ruza et al

in Biological Conservation (2009), 142(3), 509-517

Facultative paedomorphosis, a process in which newt larvae can opt for reproduction before or after metamorphosis, is geographically heterogeneous. Despite numerous ecological studies and recent evidence ... [more ▼]

Facultative paedomorphosis, a process in which newt larvae can opt for reproduction before or after metamorphosis, is geographically heterogeneous. Despite numerous ecological studies and recent evidence of declines in paedomorphic populations, however, no attempt to model environmental variables that explain the presence of paedomorphs has been made at a multi-scale level. Our aim was to fill this gap in studying three newt species (Lissotriton vulgaris, Mesotriton alpestris, and Triturus macedonicus) of the Montenegrin karst as model species. To this end, we used multivariate analysis on three scales of habitat: the breeding pond, the land use and the climatologic features. Results show that the study area is both an important hotspot for paedomorphosis and where intraspecific diversity is quickly disappearing (20-47% extirpation) because of fish introductions. Other habitat variables (water permanency, PH or the habitat origin) were shown to act on paedomorphosis but not consistently across species, confirming complexity of the evolutionary and ecological processes. This study appeals for more long-term and detailed landscape studies of polyphenisms, a neglected but promising topic, to better understand and protect alternative modes of development. Particularly, measures should be taken to identify hotspots of intraspecific diversity at a global scale and stop fish introductions before we reach a point of no-return. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale aquifer characterization and groundwater flow model parameterization using direct push technologies
Rogiers, Bart; Vienken, T; Batelaan, Okke et al

in Novel Methods for Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring: From Theory to Practice (2013, May)

Groundwater flow and contaminant transport models are used to support decision making regarding waste disposal options, sites contaminated by surface or subsurface sources, or to develop and test cost ... [more ▼]

Groundwater flow and contaminant transport models are used to support decision making regarding waste disposal options, sites contaminated by surface or subsurface sources, or to develop and test cost-effective groundwater remediation schemes. Such models are influenced by different sources of uncertainty, including those due to spatial variability in aquifer and aquitard properties including hydraulic conductivity (K). However, quantifying spatial variability in K remains challenging. Classical drilling techniques for shallow heterogeneous unconsolidated sedimentary deposits involving continuous coring are expensive and time-consuming, especially when the area of interest exceeds several tens of km². Alternative techniques such as direct push technologies use hydraulic rams, supplemented with vehicle weight, or high-frequency hammering, to advance small-diameter tools into the subsurface. These tools are typically used for cost-effective geotechnical characterization of unconsolidated deposits; recent developments also allow for hydraulic characterization. The depth of investigation is up to ~40 m, depending on the tools used (i.e applied load) and sediment properties (friction). Up to now, only a limited number of studies document using this type of data to parameterize regional groundwater flow models. To fill this gap, this study aims at parameterizing a regional groundwater flow model using data from various types of direct push technologies. We discuss the characterization of an area (~60 km²) near the nuclear zone of Mol/Dessel (Belgium), using various direct push technologies. Most of the measurements are concentrated in an area of 200×400 m². The data include 265 cone penetration tests (CPTs), 113 pore pressure dissipation tests (PPDTs), 17 direct push injection logs (DPIL), 6 hydraulic profiling tool (HPT) logs and 19 direct push slug tests (DPST). Resulting K values, either calculated or estimated, and the corresponding spatial variability are compared with that of borehole and outcrop studies. The benefit of using standard CPT data for the parameterization of an aquitard at the study site has previously been shown. The approach is now applied to the aquifer units and incorporates new direct push data for the entire upper ~40 m of the hydrogeological domain. The effect of the 3D heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field on the performance of the groundwater flow model is discussed; the value of the different direct push technologies is equally addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale cardiovascular system model can account for the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship.
Pironet, Antoine ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg; Kosta, Sarah ULg et al

in BioMedical Engineering OnLine (2013), 12(1), 8

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship is often considered as a load-independent property of the heart and, for this reason, is widely used as an index of ventricular ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship is often considered as a load-independent property of the heart and, for this reason, is widely used as an index of ventricular contractility. However, many criticisms have been expressed against this index and the underlying time-varying elastance theory: first, it does not consider the phenomena underlying contraction and second, the end-systolic pressure volume relationship has been experimentally shown to be load-dependent. METHODS: In place of the time-varying elastance theory, a microscopic model of sarcomere contraction is used to infer the pressure generated by the contraction of the left ventricle, considered as a spherical assembling of sarcomere units. The left ventricle model is inserted into a closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. Finally, parameters of the modified cardiovascular system model are identified to reproduce the hemodynamics of a normal dog. RESULTS: Experiments that have proven the limitations of the time-varying elastance theory are reproduced with our model: (1) preload reductions, (2) afterload increases, (3) the same experiments with increased ventricular contractility, (4) isovolumic contractions and (5) flow-clamps. All experiments simulated with the model generate different end-systolic pressure-volume relationships, showing that this relationship is actually load-dependent. Furthermore, we show that the results of our simulations are in good agreement with experiments. CONCLUSIONS: We implemented a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system, in which ventricular contraction is described by a detailed sarcomere model. Using this model, we successfully reproduced a number of experiments that have shown the failing points of the time-varying elastance theory. In particular, the developed multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system can capture the load-dependence of the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale computational homogenization analysis of foams with micro-buckling
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2012, July)

When studying the behavior of foams by multi-scale computational homogenization procedure, the micro-buckling may occur at the cell walls and edges and reduces the effective stiffness of the structures at ... [more ▼]

When studying the behavior of foams by multi-scale computational homogenization procedure, the micro-buckling may occur at the cell walls and edges and reduces the effective stiffness of the structures at macro-scale. This instability can be enhanced by plastic deformation at micro-scale. At sufficiently large value of macro-strain, even if the micro-tangent moduli of micro-material is still elliptic, the homogenized tangent moduli at macro-scale can lose its ellipticity that implies the localization occurs at macro-scale. When localization occurs, the characteristic size of macro- scopic deformation is the same order of the microscopic size. The assumption of material action in standard multi-scale computational homogenization approach where the stress only depends on the strain at this point is no-longer suitable. And the material behavior at given point depends also on the neighborhood of this point. To cover this problem, the second-order multi-scale computational homogenization is suitably used. At macroscopic problem, the high-order stress and the high-order strain are enhanced to the standard formulation by using the Discontinuous-Galerkin formulation while at the micro-scale, the standard continuum formulation is still used. By this procedure, the influence of micro-buckling of foams on structural behaviour is studied. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale computational homogenization for structured shells
Kouznetsova, Varvara; Coenen, Erica; Fioole, Joost et al

Conference (2010)

Substructured and layered thin sheets can be found in a variety of structural, e.g. structured panels, as well as high-tech applications. A typical example is flexible electronics, e.g. flexible displays ... [more ▼]

Substructured and layered thin sheets can be found in a variety of structural, e.g. structured panels, as well as high-tech applications. A typical example is flexible electronics, e.g. flexible displays, where layers of different materials and interconnects are stacked to provide the necessary functionality. The resulting complex three dimensional geometry of the structured thin sheets in this type of applications prohibits the use of classical layer-wise composite shell theory. For these problems, a computational homogenization technique for thin structured sheets is proposed in this work, based on the computational homogenization concepts previously developed for the first- and second-order continua. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale computational scheme for anisotropic hydro-mechanical couplings in saturated heterogeneous porous media
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Massart, T. J.; Sluys, L. J.

in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics of Concrete and Concrete Structures, FraMCoS 2013 (2013)

This contribution discusses a coupled two-scale framework for hydro-mechanical problems in saturated heterogeneous porous geomaterials. The heterogeneous nature of such materials can lead to an anisotropy ... [more ▼]

This contribution discusses a coupled two-scale framework for hydro-mechanical problems in saturated heterogeneous porous geomaterials. The heterogeneous nature of such materials can lead to an anisotropy of the hydro-mechanical couplings and non-linear effects. Based on an assumed model of the mesostructure, the average macroscopic hydro-mechanical behaviour is extracted by means of a computational homogenisation procedure in a monolithic way. The ingredients needed to upscale the hydro-mechanical couplings are outlined. The two-scale simulation results are compared with direct numerical simulation for the consolidation of a particle-matrix porous material. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale detection of failure in planar masonry thin shells using computational homogenisation
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Bouillard, Ph; Massart, T. J.

in Engineering Fracture Mechanics (2009), 76(4), 479-499

This paper presents a computational homogenisation-based technique for localisation detection in planar masonry shells. A computational homogenisation procedure is used for the in-plane and the out-of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a computational homogenisation-based technique for localisation detection in planar masonry shells. A computational homogenisation procedure is used for the in-plane and the out-of-plane behaviour of masonry walls taking the periodicity of the material into account. The quasi-brittle nature of the masonry constituents results in initial and damage-induced (evolving) anisotropy properties with localisation of damage at both the structural and fine scales. Using a closed-form damage model at the mesoscopic scale, it is shown that a structural scale localisation criterion based on the acoustic tensor adapted to shell kinematics allows to detect the structural scale localisation. This detection identifies average preferential cracking orientations consistent with the stacking mode of masonry for both in-plane and out-of-plane failure. This approach is illustrated by examples of bed joint and stair-case failure, and its subsequent integration in multi-scale nested computational schemes is discussed. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale effect of landscape processes and habitat quality on newt abundance: Implications for conservation
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Lehmann, Anthony

in Biological Conservation (2006), 130(4), 495-504

Recent studies in population dynamics suggest that landscape processes and habitat quality act at different scales on population abundances, but very few have modelled their simultaneous effects. However ... [more ▼]

Recent studies in population dynamics suggest that landscape processes and habitat quality act at different scales on population abundances, but very few have modelled their simultaneous effects. However, at a time of large declines in natural populations, it is essential to understand such multivariate components. We tested the hypothesis that natural populations of palmate newts (Triturus helveticus) are affected on three scales: breeding patch (pond), habitat complementation (terrestrial cover), and metapopulation. structure (density of ponds, surrounding populations). We conducted our survey in 130 ponds from southern France (Larzac) and analysed data with generalized additive models (GAM). Two main novel results emerge from these models: (1) the three landscape scales have significant effects on newt abundance, with more newts in deep, vegetated ponds, devoid of fish and surrounded by wooded areas and inhabited ponds; (2) the quality of the surrounding breeding patches is of primary importance in determining the abundance at core sites in a complex way: high abundances are associated positively with high densities of inhabited ponds, but negatively with the number of surrounding ponds. Deforestation, invasive species and abandonment of ponds all have negative impacts on the persistence of palmate newt populations. Future studies should encompass landscapes at different scales and incorporate the habitat quality in surrounding sites to better understand population dynamics and. provide adequate conservation measures. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-Scale Modeling of Crash & Failure of Reinforced Plastics Parts with Digimat to LS-DYNA interface
Adam, Laurent; Depouhon, Alexandre ULg; Assaker, Roger

in Proceedings of the 7th European LS-DYNA Conference (2009)

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See detailMulti-scale modeling of mycosubtilin lipopeptides at the air/water interface: structure and optical second harmonic generation
Loison, Claire; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Benichou, Emmanuel et al

in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics [=PCCP] (2014), 16

Monolayers of the lipopeptide mycosubtilin are studied at the air/water interface. Their structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. All-atom models suggest that the lipopeptide is ... [more ▼]

Monolayers of the lipopeptide mycosubtilin are studied at the air/water interface. Their structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. All-atom models suggest that the lipopeptide is flexible and aggregates at the interface. To achieve simulation times of several microseconds, a coarse-grained (CG) model based on the MARTINI force field was also used. These CG simulations describe the formation of half-micelles at the interface for surface densities up to 1 lipopeptide per nm2. In these aggregates, the tyrosine side chain orientation is found to be constrained: on average, its main axis, as defined along the C–OH bond, aligns along the interface normal and points towards the air side. The origin of the optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from mycosubtilin monolayers at the air/water interface is also investigated. The molecular hyperpolarizability of the lipopeptide is obtained from quantum chemistry calculations. The tyrosine side chain contribution to the hyperpolarizability is found to be dominant. The orientation distribution of tyrosine, associated with a dominant hyperpolarizability component along the C–OH bond of the tyrosine, yields a ratio of the susceptibility elements χ(2)ZZZ/χ(2)ZXX consistent with the experimental measurements recently reported by M. N. Nasir et al. [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 19919]. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-Scale Modelisation of the Optical Second Harmonic Generation of Tyrosine-Containing Iturinic Antimicrobial Lipopeptides
Loison, Claire; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Benichou, Emmanuel et al

Poster (2013)

The optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of Mycosubtilin Langmuir Layers at the air/water interface are modeled. In this tyrosine-containing lipopepeptide, the environment of the tyrosine residue is ... [more ▼]

The optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) of Mycosubtilin Langmuir Layers at the air/water interface are modeled. In this tyrosine-containing lipopepeptide, the environment of the tyrosine residue is critical in defining the SHG response. To propose reasonable the structure of Mycosubtilin aggregates at the air-water interface, molecular dynamics simulations (all-atom and coarse-grained) are performed. Molecular hyperpolarizability of the lipopeptide are obtained by Quantum Chemistry calculations. Finally, the SHG susceptibilities of the interface are calculated using a simple additive model. The molecular dynamics simulations suggest that lipopeptides aggregate at the interface into half-micelles, and that this phenomena is the origin of a constraint on Tyrosine orientation. In particular the C-OH bond of the Tyrosine residue has a preferential orientation along the interface normal, pointing towards the air. This inhomogneneous orientation distribution, associated with a dominant hyperpolarizability component along the C-OH bond of the Tyrosine, yields a characteristic SHG response. Comparison with experimental data gathered in our lab are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale modelling
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Becker, Gauthier; Mulay, Shantanu Shashikant ULg et al

Scientific conference (2013, March 11)

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See detailMulti-scale modelling of failure in heterogeneous periodic thin shells
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Massart, Thierry J.

Conference (2010)

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See detailMulti-scale modelling of heterogeneous shell structures
Massart, T. J.; Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Piezel, B. et al

in Computer Assisted Mechanics and Engineering Sciences [=CAMES] (2011), 18(1-2), 53-71

This paper reviews multi-scale computational homogenisation frameworks for the non-linear behaviour of heterogeneous thin planar shells. Based on a review of some of the currently available methods, a ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews multi-scale computational homogenisation frameworks for the non-linear behaviour of heterogeneous thin planar shells. Based on a review of some of the currently available methods, a computational homogenisation scheme for shells is applied on to representative volume elements for plain weave composites. The effect of flexural loading on the potential failure modes of such materials is analysed, focusing on the reinforcement-matrix delamination mechanism. The attention is next shifted toward failure localisation in masonry unit cells. Subsequently, a recently developed computational FE 2 solution scheme accounting for damage localisation at structural scales based on RVE computations is applied. Copyright © 2011 by Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale modelling of permeability evolution in the excavation damaged zone around tunnels
Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg et al

in PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON COMPUTATIONAL GEOMECHANICS (COMGEO I ) (2011)

A zone with significant irreversible deformations and significant changes in flow and transport properties is expected to be formed in indurated clay around underground excavations. The stress perturbation ... [more ▼]

A zone with significant irreversible deformations and significant changes in flow and transport properties is expected to be formed in indurated clay around underground excavations. The stress perturbation around the excavation could lead to a significant increase of the permeability, related to diffuse and/or localized crack propagation in the material. The main objective of the study is to model these processes at large scale with a micromechanical damage approach, based on the Ponte-Castaneda and Willis approximation (PCW) in the presence of initial stress, in order to assess the crack impacts on the performance of radioactive waste geological repositories. Combined with this model, permeability tensor is described as a function of micromechanical damage that is generated during the excavation. Advantages and drawbacks of this approach are described thanks to the results on Opalinus Clay and of the Selfrac long term dilatometer experiment. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale modelling of sediment transport
Dewals, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2010, January 07)

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See detailMulti-scale modelling of shell failure for periodic quasi-brittle materials
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg

Doctoral thesis (2010)

In a context of restoration of historical masonry structures, it is crucial to properly estimate the residual strength and the potential structural failure modes in order to assess the safety of buildings ... [more ▼]

In a context of restoration of historical masonry structures, it is crucial to properly estimate the residual strength and the potential structural failure modes in order to assess the safety of buildings. Due to its mesostructure and the quasi-brittle nature of its constituents, masonry presents preferential damage orientations, strongly localised failure modes and damage-induced anisotropy, which are complex to incorporate in structural computations. Furthermore, masonry structures are generally subjected to complex loading processes including both in-plane and out- of-plane loads which considerably influence the potential failure mechanisms. As a consequence, both the membrane and the flexural behaviours of masonry walls have to be taken into account for a proper estimation of the structural stability. Macrosopic models used in structural computations are based on phenomenological laws including a set of parameters which characterises the average behaviour of the material. These parameters need to be identified through experimental tests, which can become costly due to the complexity of the behaviour particularly when cracks appear. The existing macroscopic models are consequently restricted to particular assumptions. Other models based on a detailed mesoscopic description are used to estimate the strength of masonry and its behaviour with failure. This is motivated by the fact that the behaviour of each constituent is a priori easier to identify than the global structural response. These mesoscopic models can however rapidly become unaffordable in terms of computational cost for the case of large-scale three-dimensional structures. In order to keep the accuracy of the mesoscopic modelling with a more affordable computa- tional effort for large-scale structures, a multi-scale framework using computational homogeni- sation is developed to extract the macroscopic constitutive material response from computa- tions performed on a sample of the mesostructure, thereby allowing to bridge the gap between macroscopic and mesoscopic representations. Coarse graining methodologies for the failure of quasi-brittle heterogeneous materials have started to emerge for in-plane problems but remain largely unexplored for shell descriptions. The purpose of this study is to propose a new periodic homogenisation-based multi-scale approach for quasi-brittle thin shell failure. For the numerical treatment of damage localisation at the structural scale, an embedded strong discontinuity approach is used to represent the collective behaviour of fine-scale cracks using average cohesive zones including mixed cracking modes and presenting evolving orientation related to fine-scale damage evolutions. A first originality of this research work is the definition and analysis of a criterion based on the homogenisation of a fine-scale modelling to detect localisation in a shell description and determine its evolving orientation. Secondly, an enhanced continuous-discontinuous scale tran- sition incorporating strong embedded discontinuities driven by the damaging mesostructure is proposed for the case of in-plane loaded structures. Finally, this continuous-discontinuous ho- mogenisation scheme is extended to a shell description in order to model the localised behaviour of out-of-plane loaded structures. These multi-scale approaches for failure are applied on typical masonry wall tests and verified against three-dimensional full fine-scale computations in which all the bricks and the joints are discretised. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale modelling of shell failure for periodic quasi-brittle materials
Mercatoris, Benoît ULg; Massart, Thierry J.

in Fifth International Conference on Multiscale Material Modeling (MMM2010) (2010)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)