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See detailHow (not) to perform ecosystem service valuation - Pricing Gorillas in the Mist -
Boeraeve, Fanny ULg; Dendoncker, Nicolas; Jacobs, Sander et al

in Biodiversity and Conservation (2014)

Monetary valuation of ecosystem services (ES) is gaining growing interest in scientific papers, policies and awareness-raising documents for its potential as a communication tool illustrating the societal ... [more ▼]

Monetary valuation of ecosystem services (ES) is gaining growing interest in scientific papers, policies and awareness-raising documents for its potential as a communication tool illustrating the societal importance of biodiversity. However, simultaneously, its limitations are increasingly discussed in the literature. In this paper we argue that monetary valuation of ES should be seen as representing only one component of ES valuations. We provide basic standards to ensure integrated approaches to ES valuation that can effectively contribute to preserving cultural and biological diversity by acknowledging boundaries to resource exploitation and by building on the various interests and socio-cultural values of involved stakeholders. We base our discussion on a recent study that assesses the economic value of the world-famous Virunga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo, home to some of the last mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). We alert against some ES monetary valuation that narrowly frames biodiversity conservation in terms of economic calculus and argue that subjugating conservation efforts to profit logics downplays the importance of intrinsic, symbolic and other non-economic values of biodiversity. We conclude by providing principles and methodological guidelines to enhance ES valuation as a tool to promote awareness rising for biodiversity conservation through the understanding the overall importance of biodiversity for human societies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 113 (26 ULg)
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See detailHow a topic treatment can worsen the situation: A new type of iatrogenic "burn".
REMY, Christophe ULg; LAUNGANI, Alexis; MAGNETTE, André ULg et al

Poster (2011, September 15)

Many studies showed the high frequency of cutaneous intolerances to ketoprofen but in 85 percent of them, these are photoallergies. The Belgian dematologists published an article a few years ago ... [more ▼]

Many studies showed the high frequency of cutaneous intolerances to ketoprofen but in 85 percent of them, these are photoallergies. The Belgian dematologists published an article a few years ago, demonstrating that it is important to avoid prescription of topical ketoprofen during sunny periods. Our experience showed the risks of lesions without exposing to UV radiations. These gels, on free sale, are widely used by the public. In physiotherapy, they are also regularly used by practitioners who rarely know the risk of photoallergies and often ignore the possibility of burn. In France, many questions have already been asked about these gels and they were even the object of a temporary withdrawal. [less ▲]

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See detailHow adaptation strategies of crops could counteract climate change effects? The case of four catchments in Wallonia, Belgium.
Bauwens, Alexandra ULg; Sohier, Catherine ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg

in Geophysical Research Abstracts (2013), 15

A sharp increase in extreme heat and drought stress is projected in Belgium by the end of the 21st century, with the potential to significantly reduce crops’ yields under current agricultural practices ... [more ▼]

A sharp increase in extreme heat and drought stress is projected in Belgium by the end of the 21st century, with the potential to significantly reduce crops’ yields under current agricultural practices. This contribution uses an agro-hydrological model in order to assess the potential effects of climate evolution on crop development, yield, and water balance for the main agricultural productions in the Meuse catchment. Erosion risk is also evaluated. We show that grasslands and maize yield decrease and yield variability increases under climate change scenarios. The leaf area index study permits to put in emphasis the earlier start of the vegetation due to warmer climate. It appears that all the sensitive stages occur earlier in the season and that crops are negatively affected by summer drought stress. The better understanding of crops development under evolving climate allows us to propose some changes in agricultural practices and to assess their effectiveness. We evaluate different strategies of adaptation in agricultural practices in order to reduce the potential negative effects of climate change on grasslands and maize production. Adaptation strategies proposed are advanced sowing and harvesting date, introduction of a cover crop for maize and advance in the cutting dates for grasslands. In the particular case of the Vesdre catchment, shifting the growth period of maize permits to avoid the water-deficit period and allow increased yield. This shift makes it possible to introduce a cover crop that will drastically reduce winter soil erosion. For grassland, the adjustment of the cutting dates favored the first cut and the earlier start of the vegetation. The second cut is less profitable due to summer drought stress. The vulnerability assessments focused on the main rotation encountered in the cultivated areas and in the difference in the cover type of these crops. [less ▲]

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See detailHow and when children master the numerical content conveyed by verbal numbers and number gestures ?
Vossius, Line ULg; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence ULg

Conference (2016, April 21)

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See detailHow and why did Hatshepsut invent the image of her royal power?
Laboury, Dimitri ULg

in Galan, José Manuel; Bryan, Betsy M.; Dorman, Peter F. (Eds.) Creativity and Innovation in the Reign of Hatshepsut (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 331 (5 ULg)
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See detailHow antifoams act: a microgravity study
Yazhgur, Pavel; Langevin, Dominique; Caps, Hervé ULg et al

in npj Microgravity (2015), 1

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See detailHow are consummers' interests taken into account when applying competition law ?
Sibony, Anne-Lise ULg

Conference (2009, October 21)

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See detailHow are feathers digested by raptors?
Leprince, Pierre ULg; Dandrifosse, Guy ULg; Goffinet, Gerhard ULg et al

in Biochemical Systematics & Ecology (1980), 8(2), 211-219

In order to determine the cause of the evident degradation of feathers from ingested prey in pellets regurgitated by raptors, in vitro digestions of whole feather barbs by pellet extracts, pepsin or ... [more ▼]

In order to determine the cause of the evident degradation of feathers from ingested prey in pellets regurgitated by raptors, in vitro digestions of whole feather barbs by pellet extracts, pepsin or trypsin were carried out. The material was analysed by using biochemical and electron microscopic methods. The results show that the changes in the feathers which occur in the stomach of the Falconidae do not arise from digestion of keratin but from hydrolysis of protein acting as a cement matter in the feather. [less ▲]

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See detailHow are trace elements mobilized during the post-weaning fast in northern elephant seals?
Habran, Sarah ULg; Crocker, D; Debier, C et al

in Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (2012), 31(10), 2354-2365

Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups undergo a substantial intertissue reorganization of protein, minerals, and other cellular components during their postweaning development, which might ... [more ▼]

Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups undergo a substantial intertissue reorganization of protein, minerals, and other cellular components during their postweaning development, which might entail the mobilization of associated contaminants. The authors investigated the changes in concentrations of 11 elements (Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn) in a longitudinal study on 22 northern elephant seal pups during the postweaning fast. Slight changes in most element concentrations were observed in blood throughout the fast. Circulating levels of Hg, Se, and Cu appeared less altered during the postweaning fast than during suckling (previously measured). Despite the considerable fat utilization, element concentrations in blubber remained stable throughout the fast (except Fe), which suggests that elements are mobilized from blubber as efficiently as lipids. As indicators of the placental transfer, concentrations in lanugo hair revealed the existence of maternal transfer and accumulation of all assayed trace elements during fetal development. In addition, the new pelage, rapidly produced after weaning, appeared to be an important elimination route for toxic metals like Hg, Cd, and Pb. The high mineral content detected in pup hair suggests that this species would be more exposed to trace elements than other phocids (except Cd and Pb). This statement needs nevertheless further monitoring and toxicological studies to determine better the exposition to trace elements and its potential impact on the northern elephant seal’s health. [less ▲]

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See detailHow are we vulnerable? Opening industrial hazards vulnerability analysis to participation
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel

Conference (2013, June 17)

The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves ... [more ▼]

The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves the evaluation of the probability and the magnitude of the consequences of the undesired events that can transform the hazard into actual damage. Despite the technical premises, the importance of integrating social aspects into the analysis is now recognized by an increasing number or risk analysis models. Another way to deal with potential consequences of hazards is to analyze the vulnerability of the system considered. This paradigm overcomes the shortcomings of risk analysis in situations when the knowledge about the probabilities and the outcomes is incomplete or insufficient On the one hand, studies in the literature show that socio-economic factors are often integrated in a participative way in vulnerability analysis models especially in the natural hazards research field. On the other hand, it seems that such considerations are rarely integrated in the models aiming at evaluating the vulnerability to an industrial hazard. What can we learn from the analysis of models addressing vulnerability to natural hazards in terms of the participatory integration of social factors? What could be the reasons to apply such participation tools in order to assess the vulnerability to industrial hazards? These are the questions we address in this contribution. To do so, we realized a systematic literature review from scientific journal papers on vulnerability analysis published in the last two decades. From this review, three main arguments can be found arguing for the use of participation for vulnerability analysis. Indeed, participation allows (1) context-based assessments, that may (2) foster the development of adaptative capacities (3) both for short and long-term. Based on those arguments, we identifiy possible paths to foster participation for context-based industrial vulnerability analysis. [less ▲]

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See detail“How are you Vulnerable?”: Using Participation for Vulnerability Analysis in Emergency Planning
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel; Fallon, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Risk Research (2014)

Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to imagine. Among the different perspectives, the Science ... [more ▼]

Scientists in many fields of research have developed models, theories and concepts attempting to grasp and manage dangers that are often difficult to imagine. Among the different perspectives, the Science and Technology Studies (STS) Vulnerability Approach seems very promising. Relying on a constructivist paradigm, it is based on an inductive collection and analysis of a wide range of factors, with a particular focus on cultural factors and actual day-to-day practices. In this paper, we present the roots of this approach and we display findings based on three case studies exploring emergency planning in three different contexts (a city near a SEVESO plant, a school near a nuclear plant, and a city confronted to multiple catastrophic scenarios). The cases studies were realized by conducting three Focus Groups with different types of stakeholders (citizens, teachers, firemen, decision makers, etc.). After presenting the results of the case studies, we discuss how stakeholders’ participation can inform such type of vulnerability analysis in the context of emergency planning. We argue that participation fosters a deep understanding of actual safety governance practices which allows innovative results to emerge as well as it initiates a learning process among the participants. It contributes to questioning the relations between decision-makers, experts and citizens. It has the potential of bypassing the positivist and quantitative rationale of safety, and thus, of redefining the vulnerability governance. As a conclusion, we question the role of such STS vulnerability approach within the actual vulnerability governance. [less ▲]

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See detailHow as a transmission system operator (TSO) to respond to the growing public concern on the potential health effects of ELF exposure ?
Du Four, Vincent; Ledent, Maryse ULg; Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 2d International Conference on Extremely Low Frequency Electric and Magnetic fields (2011, March)

Public exposure of extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electric and magnetic fields are a major concern for transmission system operators.Measurements are presented as well as technical solutions to reduce ... [more ▼]

Public exposure of extremely low frequency (50 Hz) electric and magnetic fields are a major concern for transmission system operators.Measurements are presented as well as technical solutions to reduce ELF and public acceptance are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHow asteroseismology can constrain the global parameters of solar-like star models
Ozel, N.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Baglin, A.

in Astrophysics & Space Science (2010), 328

In the previous years, p-mode oscillations (pressure oscillations stochastically excited by convection) have been detected in several solar-like stars thanks to the ground-based spectroscopic and space ... [more ▼]

In the previous years, p-mode oscillations (pressure oscillations stochastically excited by convection) have been detected in several solar-like stars thanks to the ground-based spectroscopic and space spectroscopic and photometric observations. We study the importance of seismic constraints on stellar modeling and the impact of their accuracy on reducing the uncertainties of global stellar parameters (i.e. mass, age, etc.). We use the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method to analyze the sensitivity of stellar models to seismic constraints. In this context, we construct a grid of evolutionary sequences for solar-like stars with varying age and mass. Around each model of this grid, we evaluate the partial derivatives with respect to a large set of free parameters: mass â ³, age Ï , mixing-length parameter α, initial helium abundance Y [SUB]0[/SUB], and initial metallicity Z/ X [SUB]0[/SUB]. Masses between 0.9 and 1.55 M [SUB]ȯ[/SUB] and central hydrogen abundances from Xc=0.7 to 0.05 have been considered in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailHow asteroseismology can help to precisely constrain properties of planet-host stars
Salmon, Sébastien ULg; Montalban Iglesias, Josefa ULg; Lanotte, Audrey ULg et al

Poster (2011, January)

Nowadays more than 500 exoplanets have been discovered, mainly studied by radial velocity and transit measurements. Precise knowledge on their characteristics is crucial to develop theories of planetary ... [more ▼]

Nowadays more than 500 exoplanets have been discovered, mainly studied by radial velocity and transit measurements. Precise knowledge on their characteristics is crucial to develop theories of planetary formation and evolution. In that aim, not only star and planet(s) masses but also the evolutionary stage of systems are needed. From radial velocity measurements one has to assume the inclination and the stellar mass of the system to disentangle the mass of the planet. When transit is observable, one can measure the ratio of planetary and stellar radii. Finally, the degree of evolution of the system is determined by the one of the star. Thus the host star must be well known to obtain a full set of system properties. However, determination of stellar parameters such as the mass, radius and its evolution from classical observables (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) suffers of large uncertainties. This is particularly true for dwarf stars on the Main Sequence. Fortunately we can obtain better constrains with the help of asteroseismology. That latter approach probes the stellar properties through observation of oscillations present in stars. With the launches of high-precision photometry space missions, CoRoT and Kepler, we are now able to detect oscillations in a huge number of stars. In particular Kepler photometry, primarily intended to detect transits of planet, can give accurate stellar parameters of planetary systems as it also affords to make [less ▲]

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See detailHow become waxed and wax became a copula
Petré, Peter ULg

Conference (2007)

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See detailHow Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon
Ngama, Steeve ULg; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(5), 12

In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative ... [more ▼]

In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become “problem animals”. To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 147 (16 ULg)