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See detailLorsque les limites des sciences et les sentiers de chasse s’entrecroisent: Une ethnographie des laboratoires scientifiques amazoniens en partenariat avec les communautés autochtones locales
Escobar Jimenez, Kelly ULg

Doctoral thesis (2012)

Currently, protected areas and protected natural species are in a state of proliferation all over the world. Landscapes, flagship species, peoples in voluntary isolation, ecosystems, and “biological ... [more ▼]

Currently, protected areas and protected natural species are in a state of proliferation all over the world. Landscapes, flagship species, peoples in voluntary isolation, ecosystems, and “biological corridors” are all protected. In order to achieve this, categories of protection at different geographical levels have been mobilized. The processes that allow any one of these categories to become operational within a precise territory are more or less well standardized and have in common, amongst others things, two components that have caught my attention: Firstly, the central role of previous scientific and technical studies, and secondly, the desire to ensure the participation of the populations concerned. How are relations between scientists and the non-scientific public in participatory environmental management? This thesis seeks to answer this question, from the starting point of an analysis of the cognitive dimension of participatory environmental management, i.e. how the production of knowledge affects the modes of existence within protected areas (and consequently their human and nonhuman inhabitants). Building upon the study of daily activities that bring scientists and indigenous peoples into contact in and around the scientific field stations “Yasuní” and “Juri Juri Kawsay” (in the Ecuadorian Amazon), this research describes the relationship between ways of knowing a conflicting object (for example a natural species, a territorial boundary, an isolated people) and the consequences in terms of configuration of that object (in terms of identity, value, and fragility) and its management (administration, use, protection, recovery or abandonment). By mobilizing the approach of Actor-Network theory, this dissertation attempts to outline how mediation between humans and nonhumans, non-scientific and scientific, occurs. It also offers a reflection on how the Agency of an entity (the competence to make make distributed in the humans and nonhumans actors) comes to influence the joint actions. This research can capture the ambiguity, instability, resistance and complexity that still exist in the Amazon, with some unexpected findings along the way, by showing the changes among things and people throughout development projects, land management initiatives, and conservation and science programs. After describing the trajectory of four entities (laboratories, species conservation, territories and subjects), which meet at the Amazonian interfaces where science, conservation and development are in competition, the findings of this dissertation have met two ambitions: to consider the importance of taking into account the complexity and historicity of scientific data and to answer a broader question: What are the relevant factors to take into account when considering the possibilities for joint action between scientists and indigenous populations? [less ▲]

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See detailLos caminos de Santiago. Aller en pèlerinage à Compostelle
George, Philippe ULg; Stiennon, Jacques ULg

in Liège. Autour de l'an mil, la naissance d'une principauté (Xe-XIIe siècle) (2000)

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See detailLos editores españoles y la traducción en la Argentina: desembarco en tierras fértiles
Willson, Patricia ULg

in Pagni, Andrea (Ed.) El exilio republicano español en México y Argentina. Historia cultural, instituciones literarias, medios (2011)

Since 1938, the year in which Losada publishing house was founded in Buenos Aires, publishers of Spanish origin contributed to a diversified and autonomous cultural field where translation played already ... [more ▼]

Since 1938, the year in which Losada publishing house was founded in Buenos Aires, publishers of Spanish origin contributed to a diversified and autonomous cultural field where translation played already a major role. This chapter examines the practices and agents of literary import, the different figures of translator, and the question of so-called «national tongue». [less ▲]

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See detailLos relatos secantes de José Muñoz y Carlos Sampayo / Les Récits sécants de José Muñoz et Carlos Sampayo
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in Vazquez, Laura (Ed.) Actas del Segundo Congreso Internacional Viñetas Serias: narrativas gráficas: lenguajes entre el arte y el mercado (2012, September 26)

The comics of Muñoz and Sampayo are full of strange characters who surprise by their enigmatic appearance but do not seem to play a particular role in the overall framework of the story. This essay ... [more ▼]

The comics of Muñoz and Sampayo are full of strange characters who surprise by their enigmatic appearance but do not seem to play a particular role in the overall framework of the story. This essay attempts to determine their nature, how they are articulated within the web formed by all the panels and to analyze how they make sense within the context of the oeuvre in its entirety. [less ▲]

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See detailLos(t)s in Transitions: How Diverse Families Are Grieving and Struggling to Achieve a New Identity
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Scarciotta, Lidia ULg

in Journal of Family Psychotherapy (2011), 22

Diverse families are constantly confronted with multiple losses. In psychotherapeutic consultation, they often appear as “grieving” systems whose identity is built on a loss. New theories of grief focus ... [more ▼]

Diverse families are constantly confronted with multiple losses. In psychotherapeutic consultation, they often appear as “grieving” systems whose identity is built on a loss. New theories of grief focus on family meaning-making processes. Unresolved grieving entails limited emotion sharing as well as poor family meaning-making. Moreover, some factors inhibit this process while others stimulate it. Using clinical illustration, this article tries to prove the relevance of such concepts. It suggests working to re-create, review, and reconstruct the family ties around its losses or break-ups. However, this work would remain reductive if it would not take account of the benefits and gains that often, within the experience of grief, families do not consider or anticipate. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss in risk-taking: Absence of optimal gain or reduction in one’s own resources?
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2012), 229(2), 443-446

Determining how living beings react to tasks that reflect realistic situations of risk has given rise to a vast literature. However, I argue that the methodologies traditionally used to test humans and ... [more ▼]

Determining how living beings react to tasks that reflect realistic situations of risk has given rise to a vast literature. However, I argue that the methodologies traditionally used to test humans and nonhumans relative to risk often fail to achieve their goal. When risk is modelled in laboratory, potential decision cost (or potential loss) typically denotes an absence of optimal gain. In contrast, when risk occurs in real-life situations, potential loss denotes the reduction in an individual’s limited resources – whether energetic, social, financial, etc. This conceptual difference about the nature of risk may have important implications for the understanding of the parameters that control risk-taking behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of calcyphosin gene expression in mouse and other rodents
Clément, S.; Dumont, J.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg

in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (1997), 232

alcyphosine-for calcium binding and regulated by cyclic AMP through phosphorylation protein-is a target of both the cyclic AMP and the Ca(+2)-phophatidylinositol cascades first isolated from dog thyroid ... [more ▼]

alcyphosine-for calcium binding and regulated by cyclic AMP through phosphorylation protein-is a target of both the cyclic AMP and the Ca(+2)-phophatidylinositol cascades first isolated from dog thyroid, and then from rabbit and human brain. Although the exact function of this 24kD protein is unknown, calcyphosine could be implicated in the cross-signaling between these cascades to coordinate cellular proliferation and differentiation. Here, we report the sequence of a pseudogene which is the murine calcyphosine homologue, and demonstrate that it represents the unique sequence homologous to the dog calcyphosine gene in the murine genome. The lack of expression of this murine pseudogene in brain and thyroid-two major sites of dog calcyphosine expression-was extended to 5 other rodents, and suggest the existence of alternative pathway(s) to fill the function of calcyphosine in rodents [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of hip bone mineral density over time is associated with spine and hip fracture incidence in osteoporotic postmenopausal women.
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Varela, A. R.; Adami, S. et al

in European journal of epidemiology (2009), 24

The objective of the study assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) loss over time and fracture incidence in postmenopausal women. This is a posthoc analysis that includes women from the ... [more ▼]

The objective of the study assess the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) loss over time and fracture incidence in postmenopausal women. This is a posthoc analysis that includes women from the placebo group of two large randomized controlled trials having assessed the efficacy of a new anti-osteoporotic drug. BMD was assessed every 6 months during 3 years at the lumbar spine, the femoral neck and the total proximal femur. Vertebral fractures were assessed using a semiquantitative method. Hip fractures were based on written documentation. All patients received calcium and vitamin D. In the present study that included 1,775 patients (with complete data at baseline and after 3 years), the logistic regression analysis, adjusted for covariates, showed that 3-year change in lumbar BMD was not statistically associated with the new vertebral fractures after 3 years. However, femoral neck and total proximal femur BMD changes was statistically correlated with the incidence of new vertebral fractures (P < 0.001). When considering change in BMD after the first year of follow-up, a decrease in total proximal femur BMD was statistically associated with an increase in the incidence of new vertebral fractures during the last 2 years of follow-up (P = 0.048). The 3-year change in femoral neck and total proximal BMD was statistically correlated with the incidence of hip and fragility fracture after 3 years (all P < 0.001). In this elderly osteoporotic population receiving calcium and vitamin D, a decrease in hip BMD after 1 or 3 year of follow-up, is associated with an increased risk of fracture incidence. However, spine BMD changes do not influence vertebral fracture incidence. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit beta (Atp2) alters mitochondrial and chloroplastic function and morphology in Chlamydomonas.
Lapaille, M.; Thiry, Marc ULg; Perez, E. et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (2010), 1797

Mitochondrial F(1)F(O) ATP synthase (Complex V) catalyses ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate using the proton-motive force generated by the substrate-driven electron transfer chain. In this ... [more ▼]

Mitochondrial F(1)F(O) ATP synthase (Complex V) catalyses ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate using the proton-motive force generated by the substrate-driven electron transfer chain. In this work, we investigated the impact of the loss of activity of the mitochondrial enzyme in a photosynthetic organism. In this purpose, we inactivated by RNA interference the expression of the ATP2 gene, coding for the catalytic subunit beta, in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that in the absence of beta subunit, complex V is not assembled, respiratory rate is decreased by half and ATP synthesis coupled to the respiratory activity is fully impaired. Lack of ATP synthase also affects the morphology of mitochondria which are deprived of cristae. We also show that mutants are obligate phototrophs and that rearrangements of the photosynthetic apparatus occur in the chloroplast as a response to ATP synthase deficiency in mitochondria. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the yet poorly studied bioenergetic interactions between organelles in photosynthetic organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of nucleotide regulation of epithelial chloride transport in the jejunum of P2Y4-null mice
Robaye, B.; Ghanem, E.; Wilkin, F. et al

in Molecular Pharmacology (2003), 63(4), 777-783

The P2Y4 receptor is responsive to UTP in human and to ATP and UTP in rodents. With the aim of identifying its pharmacotherapeutic interest, we generated P2Y4-null mice by a classic gene targeting method ... [more ▼]

The P2Y4 receptor is responsive to UTP in human and to ATP and UTP in rodents. With the aim of identifying its pharmacotherapeutic interest, we generated P2Y4-null mice by a classic gene targeting method. The proportion of genotypes was consistent with X-linked Mendelian transmission. Gene inactivation was checked by the complete disappearance of P2Y4 receptor mRNA from liver, stomach, and intestine. The P2Y4-null mice had a grossly normal behavior, growth, and reproduction. Chloride secretion by the jejunal epithelium was assessed in Ussing chambers by the measurement of the short circuit current in the presence of phlorizin. We show here that the UTP- and ATPinduced chloride secretory responses observed in wild-type mice are abolished in P2Y4-null mice. This is the first clearcut demonstration of a biological role of the P2Y4 receptor [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of one Ha-rasl allele in some human colorectal tumours
Lambert, S. A.; Martial, Joseph ULg; Winkler, Rose ULg

in Leukemia Research (1986), 10

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See detailLoss of plant organogenic totipotency in the course of in vitro neoplastic progression
Gaspar, Thomas ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Bisbis, Badia et al

in In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant (2000), 36(3), 171-181

The aptitude for organogenesis from normal hormone-dependent cultures very commonly decreases as the tissues are serially subcultured. The reasons for the loss of regenerative ability may vary under ... [more ▼]

The aptitude for organogenesis from normal hormone-dependent cultures very commonly decreases as the tissues are serially subcultured. The reasons for the loss of regenerative ability may vary under different circumstances: genetic variation in the cell population, epigenetic changes, disappearance of an organogenesis-promoting substance, etc. The same reasons may be evoked for the progressive and eventually irreversible loss of organogenic totipotency in the course of neoplastic progressions from hormone-independent tumors and hyperhydric teratomas to cancers. As in animal cells, plant cells at the end of a neoplastic progression have probably undergone several independent genetic accidents with cumulative effects. They indeed are characterized by atypical biochemical cycles from which they are apparently unable to escape. The metabolic changes are probably not the primary defects that cause cancer, rather they may allow the cells to survive. How these changes, namely an oxidative stress, affect organogenesis is not known. The literature focuses on somatic mutations and epigenetic changes that cause aberrant regulation of cell cycle genes and their machinery. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of T cell microRNA provides systemic protection against autoimmune pathology in mice
Tian, L.; De Hertogh, G.; Fedeli, M. et al

in Journal of Autoimmunity (2012)

With an increasing number of studies demonstrating alterations in T cell microRNA expression during autoimmune disease, modulation of the T cell microRNA network is considered a potential therapeutic ... [more ▼]

With an increasing number of studies demonstrating alterations in T cell microRNA expression during autoimmune disease, modulation of the T cell microRNA network is considered a potential therapeutic strategy. Due to the complex and often opposing interactions of individual microRNA, prioritization of therapeutic targets first requires dissecting the dominant effects of the T cell microRNA network. Initial results utilizing a unidirectional screen suggested that the tolerogenic functions were dominanat, with spontaneous colitis resulting from T cell-specific excision of Dicer. Here we performed a bidirectional screen for microRNA function by removing Dicer from the T cells of both wildtype mice and Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) receptor-deficient mice. This allowed the impact of microRNA loss on T cell activation, effector T cell differentiation and autoimmune pathology to be systematically assessed. This bidirectional screen revealed a dominant immunogenic functionfor T cell microRNA, with potent suppression of T cell activation, IFNγ production and autoimmune pathology in all targeted organs except the colon, where Dicer-dependent microRNA demonstrated a dominant tolerogenic function. These results reverse the original conclusions of microRNA function in T cells by revealing a systemic pro-autoimmune function. [less ▲]

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See detailThe loss of the chloride channel, ClC-5, delays apical iodide efflux and induces a euthyroid goiter in the mouse thyroid gland.
van den Hove, Marie-France; Croizet-Berger, Karine; JOURET, François ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2006), 147(3), 1287-96

Genetic inactivation of ClC-5, a voltage-gated chloride channel prominently expressed in the kidney, leads to proteinuria because of defective apical endocytosis in proximal tubular cells. Because thyroid ... [more ▼]

Genetic inactivation of ClC-5, a voltage-gated chloride channel prominently expressed in the kidney, leads to proteinuria because of defective apical endocytosis in proximal tubular cells. Because thyroid hormone secretion depends on apical endocytosis of thyroglobulin (Tg), we investigated whether ClC-5 is expressed in the thyroid and affects its function, using Clcn5-deficient knockout (KO) mice. We found that ClC-5 is highly expressed in wild-type mouse thyroid ( approximately 40% of mRNA kidney level). The protein was immunolocalized at the apical pole of thyrocytes. In Percoll gradients, ClC-5 overlapped with plasma membrane and early endosome markers, but best codistributed with the late endosomal marker, Rab7. ClC-5 KO mice were euthyroid (normal T4 and TSH serum levels) but developed a goiter with parallel iodine and Tg accumulation (i.e. normal Tg iodination level). When comparing ClC-5 KO with wild-type mice, thyroid 125I uptake after 1 h was doubled, incorporation into Tg was decreased by approximately 2-fold, so that trichloroacetic acid-soluble 125I increased approximately 4-fold. Enhanced 125I- efflux upon perchlorate and presence of 125I-Tg as autoradiographic rings at follicle periphery demonstrated delayed iodide organification. Endocytic trafficking of 125I-Tg toward lysosomes was not inhibited. Expression of pendrin, an I-/Cl- exchanger involved in apical iodide efflux, was selectively decreased by 60% in KO mice at mRNA and protein levels. Thus, ClC-5 is well expressed in the thyroid but is not critical for apical endocytosis, contrary to the kidney. Instead, the goiter associated with ClC-5 KO results from impaired rate of apical iodide efflux by down-regulation of pendrin expression. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of the VHR dual-specific phosphatase causes cell-cycle arrest and senescence
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Cerignoli, Fabio; Alonso, Andres et al

in Nature Cell Biology (2006), 8(5), 524-178

Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate important processes in eukaryotic cells and have critical functions in many human diseases including diabetes to cancer(1-3). Here, we report that the human Vaccinia ... [more ▼]

Protein tyrosine phosphatases regulate important processes in eukaryotic cells and have critical functions in many human diseases including diabetes to cancer(1-3). Here, we report that the human Vaccinia H1-related (VHR) dual-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase regulates cell-cycle progression and is itself modulated during the cell cycle. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that cells lacking VHR arrest at the G1-S and G2-M transitions of the cell cycle and show the initial signs of senescence, such as flattening, spreading, appearance of autophagosomes, beta-galactosidase staining and decreased telomerase activity. In agreement with this notion, cells lacking VHR were found to upregulate p21(Cip-Waf1), whereas they downregulated the expression of genes for cell-cycle regulators, DNA replication, transcription and mRNA processing. Loss of VHR also caused a several-fold increase in serum-induced activation of its substrates, the mitogen-activated protein ( MAP) kinases Jnk and Erk. VHR-induced cell-cycle arrest was dependent on this hyperactivation of Jnk and Erk, and was reversed by Jnk and Erk inhibition or knock-down. We conclude that VHR is required for cell-cycle progression as it modulates MAP kinase activation in a cell-cycle phase-dependent manner. [less ▲]

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See detailLoss of the Y Chromosome in Bone Marrow Cells: Results on 1907 Consecutive Cases of Leukaemia and Preleukaemia
Herens, Christian ULg; Brasseur, Edmond ULg; Jamar, Michelle ULg et al

in Clinical & Laboratory Haematology (1999), 21(1), 17-20

Loss of the Y chromosome with a resulting 45, X0 karyotype is observed in normal bone marrow cells of elderly males but also in haematological malignancies. Whether Y loss in neoplastic cells is related ... [more ▼]

Loss of the Y chromosome with a resulting 45, X0 karyotype is observed in normal bone marrow cells of elderly males but also in haematological malignancies. Whether Y loss in neoplastic cells is related to the process seen in normal ageing or is part of the carcinogenic process is unknown. The present study concerns the cytogenetic data from 1907 consecutive leukaemic or preleukaemic male patients with special regard to the presence or absence of the Y chromosome. Sixty-five patients (3.4%) had a 45, X-Y clone in their bone marrow (BM) cells. Loss of Y was rare below the age of 50 but increased in older patients, reaching 25% of the men over 80. Sixteen patients (0.08%) had more than 90% X0 cells in their BM. A correlation between Y loss and leukaemia could be established in seven cases, three of which were acute myeloid leukaemia M2 subtype where -Y is known to be a secondary event. In three other cases, -Y was part of a complex karyotype. Only one patient exhibited a 45, X0 karyotype, with no other rearrangement, that could be positively correlated with the neoplastic process. [less ▲]

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