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See detailHow relevant is the wall shear stress to describe the cleanability of a solid surface ?
Detry, Jean; Jensen, B.; Deroanne, Claude et al

Poster (2007, November)

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See detailHow reliable are the models to study recent climate change ? A study of heat/cold waves and radiative fluxes trends over 1900-2010 using the model MAR in Belgium
Wyard, Coraline ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Scholzen, Chloé ULg

Poster (2016, August 29)

This research aims to assess the ability of the regional climate model MAR ("Modèle Atmosphérique Régional") to reconstruct the observed twentieth century climatology of extreme events and solar radiation ... [more ▼]

This research aims to assess the ability of the regional climate model MAR ("Modèle Atmosphérique Régional") to reconstruct the observed twentieth century climatology of extreme events and solar radiation in Belgium, as a necessary condition for reliable future projections. Simulations were performed by forcing MAR with several reanalyses: the ERA40/ERA-Interim, the ERA-20C and the NCEP/NCAR-v1. The results suggests that increasing air temperature would have generated decreasing relative humidity which would have lead to a decrease in cloudiness and an increase in solar downward radiation. This research illustrates the dependency between RCMs and their forcings. The forcing reanalyses can generate divergent trends while contrary to Global Climate Models (GCM), the reanalyses assimilate observations and are supposed to represent the same climate. [less ▲]

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See detailHow robust are district health systems? Coping with crisis and disasters in Rutshuru, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Porignon, Denis ULg; Soron'Gane, E. M.; Lokombe, T. E. et al

in Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH (1998), 3(7), 559-65

BACKGROUND: Since the eighties, the North Kivu Province socio-economic environment has been deteriorating. This province also faced an influx of Rwandan refugees in July 1994. The objective of the paper ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Since the eighties, the North Kivu Province socio-economic environment has been deteriorating. This province also faced an influx of Rwandan refugees in July 1994. The objective of the paper is to show how a rural health district has been able to adjust and maintain its medical activities under unfavourable conditions. METHOD: Performances of the local health system were assessed through the analysis of routine medical data collected in the Rutshuru Health District (RHD) between 1985 and 1995. Specific data collected during the Rwandan refugee crisis measured the workload of RHD due to the refugees. RESULTS: For 11 years, health infrastructures have remained accessible and functional in RHD. The curative utilization and preventive coverage rates increased. Obstetrical activities were intensified from a quantitative as well as from a qualitative point of view. Between July and October 1994, the RHD treated 65000 cases of various pathological conditions in Rwandan refugees settled outside the camps. This corresponds to 9.3% of consultations for Rwandan refugees settled on RHD's territory and represents a 400% increase in the curative workload for the RHD health services. Human and financial resources remained at a very low level, especially when compared with those available in the camps through relief agencies. CONCLUSION: The RHD was severely affected by various stresses but its services managed to provide significant and efficient response to these crises. Health district systems may constitute an effective tool to provide health care under adverse conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Service Managers Can Shape Frontline Employees' Organizational Values to Reduce Person-Role Conflicts
Selzer, Veronika Luisa; Schumann, Jan Hendrik; Büttgen, Marion et al

Conference (2016, May)

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See detailHow shattered flakes were used : Micro-wear analysis of quartz flake fragments
Knutsson, Helena; Knutsson, Kjel; Taipale, Noora ULg et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2015), 2

Prehistoric quartz assemblages have always posed a special problem for archaeologists. Due to its brittle nature, quartz is hard to understand within lithic classification systems that are based on ... [more ▼]

Prehistoric quartz assemblages have always posed a special problem for archaeologists. Due to its brittle nature, quartz is hard to understand within lithic classification systems that are based on formally varied flint assemblages. In this paper we explore ways to deal with this problem by applying two analytical methods, fracture analysis and use-wear analysis. A sample of 544 unmodified quartz flakes and flake fragments from Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in Sweden and Finland was analysed. It can be concluded that both whole and fragmented flakes were used as tools. Larger flakes and flake fragments were preferred as tool blanks and the type of use was correlated to variation in edge qualities rather than the formal characteristics of flakes. The results of this investigation suggest that making behavioural inferences from quartz assemblages with low formal variability requires the assemblages to be approached with a focus on functional types. [less ▲]

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See detailHow should functional imaging of patients with disorders of consciousness contribute to their clinical rehabilitation needs?
Laureys, Steven ULg; Giacino, J. T.; Schiff, N. D. et al

in Current Opinion in Neurology (2006), 19(6), 520-527

Purpose of review We discuss the problems of evidence-based neurorehabilitation in disorders of consciousness, and recent functional neuroimaging data obtained in the vegetative state and minimally ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review We discuss the problems of evidence-based neurorehabilitation in disorders of consciousness, and recent functional neuroimaging data obtained in the vegetative state and minimally conscious state. Recent findings Published data are insufficient to make recommendations for or against any of the neurorehabilitative treatments in vegetative state and minimally conscious state patients. Electrophysiological and functional imaging studies have been shown to be useful in measuring residual brain function in noncommunicative brain-damaged patients. Despite the fact that such studies could in principle allow an objective quantification of the putative cerebral effect of rehabilitative treatment in the vegetative state and minimally conscious state, they have so far not been used in this context. Summary Without controlled studies and careful patient selection criteria it will not be possible to evaluate the potential of therapeutic interventions in disorders of consciousness. There also is a need to elucidate the neurophysiological effects of such treatments. Integration of multimodal neuroimaging techniques should eventually improve our ability to disentangle differences in outcome on the basis of underlying mechanisms and better guide our therapeutic options in the challenging patient populations encountered following severe acute brain damage. [less ▲]

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See detailHow should proxies of Cognitive Reserve be evaluated in a population of healthy older adults?
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Seron, Xavier; Van Wissen, Marie et al

in International Psychogeriatrics (2017), 29(1), 123-136

Background: While some tools have been developed to estimate an individual’s cognitive reserve (CR), no study has assessed the adequacy of the method used for assessing these CR proxy indicators ... [more ▼]

Background: While some tools have been developed to estimate an individual’s cognitive reserve (CR), no study has assessed the adequacy of the method used for assessing these CR proxy indicators. Therefore, we aimed to determine the most appropriate method to estimate CR by comparing two approaches: 1) the common assessment of CR proxies in the literature (e.g., years of education) and 2) the calculation of a comprehensive index based on most significant parameters used in the estimation of CR. Methods: Data on CR proxies: (i.e., education, occupation and leisure activities) were obtained in a sample of 204 older adults. Regression analyses were used to develop the two indices of CR (i.e., ICR-standard and ICR-detailed) and to determine which index best represented the level of one’s CR. Results: The ICR-standard was calculated using a combination of the three most common measures of reserve in the literature: number of schooling years, complexity of the primary occupation and amount of current participation in stimulating activities. The ICR-detailed was calculated using the most significant parameters (established in initial analyses) of CR: highest level of education combined with the number of training courses, last occupation and amount of current participation in social and intellectual activities. The comparison of both indices showed that higher levels of ICR-standard and ICR-detailed were associated with a greater minimization of the effects of age on cognition. However, the ICR-detailed was more strongly associated to this minimization than the ICR-standard, suggesting that the ICR-detailed best reflect one’s CR. Conclusion: This study is the first to show that it is of great importance to question methods measuring CR proxies in order to develop a clinical tool allowing a comprehensive and accurate estimation of CR. [less ▲]

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See detailHow should we proceed when a myocardial infarction is suspected
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1984), 39(6), 393-5

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See detailHow should we read Leonard Cohen?
Mus, Francis ULg

Scientific conference (2015, February 18)

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See detailHow should zoster trials be conducted?
Wood, M. J.; Balfour, Hank; Beutner, Karl et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (1995), 36(6), 1089-1101

In 1994, an international group of interested clinicians and biostatisticians met to discuss the design of clinical trials in herpes tester. They agreed that trials in herpes tester should have ... [more ▼]

In 1994, an international group of interested clinicians and biostatisticians met to discuss the design of clinical trials in herpes tester. They agreed that trials in herpes tester should have prospectively agreed definitions of all outcome measures and plans for data analysis. In immunocompetent individuals, in whom pain is the major outcome measure, trials should only include patients over the age of 50 years, and for those recruited within 72 fi of rash onset, should be designed to demonstrate superiority of any new therapy over existing antivirals. The primary endpoint should be time to cessation of pain for at least 4 weeks and, for the purposes of statistical analysis of its duration, the pain associated with herpes tester ought to be considered as a continuum. All other variables, including the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia and effects upon quality of life should be considered as secondary end-points. Evaluation of treatment effects on primary endpoints should be based upon an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis and subgroup analysis should be used only to support the findings of the ITT analysis. These elements of good study design should be borne in mind in the evaluation of current and future trails of antiviral drugs in herpes zoster. [less ▲]

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See detailHow snow affects air-sea ice CO2 fluxes
Delille, Bruno ULg; Kotovitch, Marie ULg; Van Der Linden, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2014, October)

Sea ice is a significant contributor to the sink of atmospheric CO2 by polar oceans. Physical and biogeochemical sea ice processes affect partial pressure of CO2 within sea ice, that in turn controls the ... [more ▼]

Sea ice is a significant contributor to the sink of atmospheric CO2 by polar oceans. Physical and biogeochemical sea ice processes affect partial pressure of CO2 within sea ice, that in turn controls the way and magnitude of air-sea ice CO2 fluxes. Snow cover appears to affect the magnitude of the fluxes. In order to understand the role of snow, we compared chamber and micrometeorological measurements of air-ice CO2 fluxes over snow covered and uncovered sea ice (land fast and pack ice) in both arctic and antarctic. We observed significant differences between fluxes over uncovered and covered sea ice. In addition chamber and micrometeorological measurement show different patterns that are partially due to snow cover. By gathering these observations, we observed at least three effects of snow on air-ice CO2 fluxes. Snow appears to (i) act as transient CO2 reservoir (ii) affect thermal properties of the ice surface (iii) control gas transfer depending on snow structure (superimposed ice, slush). [less ▲]

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See detailHow snow affects air-sea ice CO2 fluxes ?
Delille, Bruno ULg; Kotovitch, Marie ULg; Van Der Linden, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2015, March)

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See detailHow Stable are the Major Performance Measures?
Bodson, Laurent ULg; Coën, Alain ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Journal of Performance Measurement (2008), (Fall), 21-30

In this paper, the authors compare three usual performance measures of actively managed portfolios: Jensen’s Alpha, the Information Ratio (IR), and the newly proposed Generalized Treynor Ratio (GTR ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the authors compare three usual performance measures of actively managed portfolios: Jensen’s Alpha, the Information Ratio (IR), and the newly proposed Generalized Treynor Ratio (GTR) introduced by Hübner (2005). They focus on model specification, sensitivity, and persistence for a large sample of mutual funds from January 1996 to December 2006. Their results reveal that fund classification made with the GTR displays a higher stability while the IR exhibits a greater capacity to reveal persistence in performance. The value of alpha is clearly contingent on model specifications and thus needs to be considered with greater caution to perform ranking of portfolio managers. [less ▲]

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See detailHow T2-weighted signal intensity of GH-secreting adenomas correlates wit response to primary somatostatin analogue therapy in acromegaly
Potorac, Iulia ULg; PETROSSIANS, Patrick ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Abstract book - 25th meeting of the Belgian Endocrine Society (2015, October)

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See detailHow tDCS can help patients with disorders of consciousness?
Thibaut, Aurore ULg

Conference (2014, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 ULg)
See detailHow teacher teach : analysis of verbal interaction in the classroom
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in Classroom Interaction Newsletter (1971), décembre

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (6 ULg)
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See detailHow teachers teach : analysis of verbal interaction in the classroom
de Landsheere, Gilbert ULg

in Classroom Interaction Newsletter (1971), 7(1), 40-56

In this paper, the system of interaction analysis developed in the Department of Educational Research of the University of Liege is first presented. Then, five research projects completed by the author or ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the system of interaction analysis developed in the Department of Educational Research of the University of Liege is first presented. Then, five research projects completed by the author or under his auspices are abstracted. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (4 ULg)