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See detailMeasuring the Degree of Market Power in the Export Demand for Nigerian Cocoa: An Analysis of Dutch Market
Nwachukwu, I.N.; Onyenweaku, C. E.; Nwaru, J. C. et al

in Journal of Social and Development Sciences (2011), 2(3), 94-103

The study examined the degree of market power in the export demand for Nigerian Cocoa with focus on the Dutch Market. The study covered the periods of 1961–2007 and data comprised published national ... [more ▼]

The study examined the degree of market power in the export demand for Nigerian Cocoa with focus on the Dutch Market. The study covered the periods of 1961–2007 and data comprised published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable sources. Two Stage Least Squares (2 SLS) approach was used in the estimation after instrumenting for simultaneity and establishing stationarity alongside cointegration relationship. Findings, on the demand side, showed that the demand for cocoa increases as income of Netherlands (importing country) increases. Total production of the non–participating countries traced out a positive relationship with demand for cocoa by the importing country while the coefficient of price of Coffee (substitute crop) possessed a negative sign. On the supply relation side, the demand for the export crop has a negative sign, indicating decreasing marginal output with respect to cost while the proxy for ocean freight rate with its negative sign, imply increasing export cost. The result further showed that there is relative competitiveness in the Dutch market on the strength of a market power coefficient -0.712 with a Lerner index of 0.122. Based on the findings, the study calls for government intervention in the agricultural export subsector with the aim to revitalize the country’s agricultural export capacity and enhance her market power via increased market shares. These interventions could be in the form of input/production subsidies, targeted export promotion programs, farm settlement, expanded export processing zones to mention but a few. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the effect of amantadine in chronic anoxic minimally conscious state.
Schnakers, Caroline ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Vandewalle, Gilles ULg et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2008), 79(2), 225-7

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See detailMeasuring the equivalence of item difficulty in the various versions of an international test
Grisay, Aletta; Monseur, Christian ULg

in Studies in Educational Evaluation (2007), 33(1), 69-86

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See detailMeasuring the extent of linkage disequilibrium in commercial pig populations
Harmegnies, N.; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; DAVIN, Fabienne ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2006), 37(3), 225-231

To evaluate the extent of linkage disequilibrium in domestic pigs, we genotyped 33 and 44 unrelated individuals from two commercial populations for 29 and five microsatellite markers located on ... [more ▼]

To evaluate the extent of linkage disequilibrium in domestic pigs, we genotyped 33 and 44 unrelated individuals from two commercial populations for 29 and five microsatellite markers located on chromosomes 15 and 2 respectively. A high proportion of marker pairs up to 40 cM apart exhibited significant linkage disequilibrium in both populations. Pair-wise r(2) values averaged between 0.15 and 0.50 (depending on chromosome and population) for markers < 1 cM apart and declined to values of 0.05 for more distant syntenic markers. Our results suggest that both populations underwent a bottleneck approximately 20 generations ago, which reduced the effective population size from thousands to < 200 animals. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the flowing properties of powders and grains
Lumay, Geoffroy ULg; Boschini, Frédéric ULg; traina, Karl et al

in Powder Technology (2012), 224

A granular material is a complex system which exhibits non-trivial transitions between the static, the quasi-static and the dynamical states. Indeed, an assembly of grains can behave like a solid or a ... [more ▼]

A granular material is a complex system which exhibits non-trivial transitions between the static, the quasi-static and the dynamical states. Indeed, an assembly of grains can behave like a solid or a fluid according to the applied stress. In between solid and fluid granular states, very slow dynamics are observed. When a complete macroscopic characterization of a powder is needed, all these granular states have to be precisely analyzed. In this paper, we show how three measurement techniques can be used to measure the physical properties of a powder. The measurements are based on classical tests modified to meet the recent fundamental researches on granular materials. The static properties of the powder are analyzed through the shape of a heap. The quasi-static behavior is studied with the analysis of the compaction dynamics. Finally, the dynamical regime is monitored through the flow in a rotating drum. In order to illustrate how these measurements can be used in practical cases, analyses are performed with three types of granular materials: silicon carbide abrasives, flours and rice. These selected materials allow to show the influence of the different parameters (grain size, grain size distribution, grain shape) on the macroscopic properties of the assembly. Moreover, these studies show the pertinence of the parameters obtained with the proposed techniques for the rheological characterization of powders and grains. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the general phytosanitary situation: development of a plant health barometer
Wilmart, Olivier; Van Huffel, X.; Diricks, H. et al

Poster (2014)

Objective: measuring and monitoring the yearly evolution of the general plant health (phytosanitary situation) of plants and plant products in Belgium in an objective manner, and communicating about it in ... [more ▼]

Objective: measuring and monitoring the yearly evolution of the general plant health (phytosanitary situation) of plants and plant products in Belgium in an objective manner, and communicating about it in a comprehensive way. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the importance of competition: a new formulation of the problem
Damgaard, Christian; Fayolle, Adeline ULg

in Journal of Ecology (2010), (98), 1-6

1. Currently, there is a debate among plant ecologists on the concepts of the intensity of competition and the importance of competition, which is central to many issues of modern plant population ecology ... [more ▼]

1. Currently, there is a debate among plant ecologists on the concepts of the intensity of competition and the importance of competition, which is central to many issues of modern plant population ecology and plant community ecology. 2. It is problematic that the current measures of intensity and importance of competition, typically, are reported as dimensionless indices because they hide the fact that both indices are functions of plant density and the level of the environmental gradient. 3. Here, a new formulation of the concepts is suggested, which explicitly highlights the functional dependencies on plant density and the level of the environmental gradient. The new measures are a generalization of the previous indices and correspond to the previous indices in the case of a simple experimental design. 4. The suggested measures of the intensity and importance of competition are exemplified using data from a response surface competition experiment between Agrostis capillaris and Festuca ovina along a herbicide gradient, where the expected clear effect of plant density was demonstrated. 5. Synthesis. As the suggested measures of the intensity and importance of competition explicitly highlight the functional dependencies on plant density and the level of the environmental gradient, we think that they will help to ensure a closer connection between experimental plant ecology and the attempts to model plant populations and communities. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Influence of the kth Largest Variable on Functions over the Unit Hypercube
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence 7th International Conference, MDAI 2010 (2010)

By considering a least squares approximation of a given square integrable function f: [0,1]^n\to R by a shifted L-statistic function (a shifted linear combination of order statistics), we define an index ... [more ▼]

By considering a least squares approximation of a given square integrable function f: [0,1]^n\to R by a shifted L-statistic function (a shifted linear combination of order statistics), we define an index which measures the global influence of the k-th largest variable on f. We show that this influence index has appealing properties and we interpret it as an average value of the difference quotient of f in the direction of the k-th largest variable or, under certain natural conditions on f, as an average value of the derivative of f in the direction of the k-th largest variable. We also discuss a few applications of this index in statistics and aggregation theory. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the interactions among variables of functions over the unit hypercube
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Mathematical Analysis & Applications (2011), 380

By considering a least squares approximation of a given square integrable function f: [0,1]^n\to\R by a multilinear polynomial of a specified degree, we define an index which measures the overall ... [more ▼]

By considering a least squares approximation of a given square integrable function f: [0,1]^n\to\R by a multilinear polynomial of a specified degree, we define an index which measures the overall interaction among variables of f. This definition extends the concept of Banzhaf interaction index introduced in cooperative game theory. Our approach is partly inspired from multilinear regression analysis, where interactions among the independent variables are taken into consideration. We show that this interaction index has appealing properties which naturally generalize several properties of the Banzhaf interaction index. In particular, we interpret this index as an expected value of the difference quotients of f or, under certain natural conditions on f, as an expected value of the derivatives of f. Finally, we discuss a few applications of the interaction index in aggregation function theory. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Interactions among Variables of Functions over the Unit hypercube
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence 7th International Conference, MDAI 2010 (2010)

By considering a least squares approximation of a given square integrable function f:[0,1]^n to R by a multilinear polynomial of a specified degree, we define an index which measures the overall ... [more ▼]

By considering a least squares approximation of a given square integrable function f:[0,1]^n to R by a multilinear polynomial of a specified degree, we define an index which measures the overall interaction among variables of f. This definition extends the concept of Banzhaf interaction index introduced in cooperative game theory. Our approach is partly inspired from multilinear regression analysis, where interactions among the independent variables are taken into consideration. We show that this interaction index has appealing properties which naturally generalize the properties of the Banzhaf interaction index. In particular, we interpret this index as an expected value of the difference quotients of f or, under certain natural conditions on f, as an expected value of the derivatives of f. These interpretations show a strong analogy between the introduced interaction index and the overall importance index defined by Grabisch and Labreuche. Finally, we discuss a few applications of the interaction index. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the phase of the scattering amplitude with vortex beams
Ivanov, Igor ULg

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2012), 85(7), 07600110

We show that colliding vortex beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the plane wave scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle ... [more ▼]

We show that colliding vortex beams instead of (approximate) plane waves can lead to a direct measurement of how the overall phase of the plane wave scattering amplitude changes with the scattering angle. Since vortex beams are coherent superpositions of plane waves with different momenta, their scattering amplitude receives contributions from plane wave amplitudes with distinct kinematics. These contributions interfere, leading to the measurement of their phase difference. Although interference exists for any generic wave packet collision, we show that using vortex beams dramatically enhances sensitivity to the phase in comparison with nonvortex beams. Since the overall phase is inaccessible in a plane wave collision, this measurement would be of great importance for a number of topics in hadronic physics, for example, meson production in the resonance region, physics of nucleon resonances, and small angle elastic hadron scattering. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Social Economy in the Framework of the National Accounts
Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Defourny, Jacques; Nyssens, Marthe; Develtere, Patrick (Eds.) et al The worldwide making of the social economy. Innovations and changes (2009)

Sybille Mertens examines a new major development in the recognition of the social economy (nonprofit organisations, cooperatives, mutuals, social enterprises. She describes the efforts of numerous ... [more ▼]

Sybille Mertens examines a new major development in the recognition of the social economy (nonprofit organisations, cooperatives, mutuals, social enterprises. She describes the efforts of numerous research teams around the world to improve the statistical knowledge and economic measurement of this sector, with aspecific focus on the development of satellite accounts. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Technical Efficiency of Airports in Latin America
Perelman, Sergio ULg; Serebrisky, Tomas

in Utilities Policy (2012), 22

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See detailMeasuring the thermophysical properties of materials at high temperature - Application to the additive manufacturing of alloy Ti-6Al-4V and of stainless steel 316L
Mertens, Anne ULg; Paydas, Hakan ULg; Reginster, Sylvie ULg et al

Conference (2013, November 07)

In view of optimising the microstructures of metallic materials and obtaining the desired properties, the accurate characterisation of the thermophysical behaviour of these materials has long been ... [more ▼]

In view of optimising the microstructures of metallic materials and obtaining the desired properties, the accurate characterisation of the thermophysical behaviour of these materials has long been considered of paramount importance e.g. by allowing for the in-situ study of phase transformations, by providing data for numerical simulations and, essentially, by contributing to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms at play during processing. In the present work, the thermophysical behaviour of Ti-alloy Ti-6Al-4V and of stainless steel 316L has been characterised in details, in order to reach a better understanding of the phenomena controlling the microstructures and mechanical properties of parts made by additive manufacturing techniques that appear nowadays very promising in view of the economic production of near-net-shape, complex and (almost) fully dense parts from metallic materials. In particular, the thermal conductivity of Ti-alloy Ti-6Al-4V and of stainless steel 316L at high temperature has been determined by combining dilatometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and laser flash diffusivimetry based on Laplace’s equation : k(T)=α(T)ρ(T)Cp(T) where k(T) is the thermal conductivity (W/m*K) α(T) is the thermal diffusivity (mm2/s) ρ(T) is the specific mass (g/cm3) Cp(T) is the specific heat capacity (J/g*K). Since Ti-alloy Ti-6Al-4V and stainless steel 316L exhibit quite different physical behaviours, their careful comparison is shown to shed more light into the role of phenomena such as epitaxial growth, out-of-equilibrium phase transformations and/or internal stresses in the additive manufacturing of metallic materials. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the Usability and Effectiveness of CAAD Tools and Applications
Attia, Shady ULg; Andersen, Marilyne

in Proceeding of the Education and research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe Conference (2013, September)

Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) decisions and judgments have been at the heart of architectural design practice. Despite the increasing popularity of computer aided design applications ... [more ▼]

Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) decisions and judgments have been at the heart of architectural design practice. Despite the increasing popularity of computer aided design applications, measuring the decision making of designers empirically remains elusive. Past research claiming usefulness of the CAD has relied largely on anecdotal or case studies that are vulnerable to bias. The study reviews results of prior investigations. The relatively few laboratory experiments report hardly any empirical results regarding the measurement of CAD decision making. The study provides an overview of the literature of existing measurement methods that have been used in psychology and neuroscience to assess individual variations in design making, and highlight these different measurement methods’ strengths and weaknesses. We conclude with a comparative evaluation of the different measures and provide suggestions regarding their constructive use in building realistic theories of designer’s decision making measurement. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Time Delays in Gravitational Lenses
Eulaers, Eva ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg; Sohy, Sandrine ULg et al

Poster (2008, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)