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See detailMorphology of the buccal apparatus and related structures in four Carapidae
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Chardon, Michel ULg; Poulicek, Mathieu ULg et al

in Australian Journal of Zoology (1998), 46(3), 391-404

The aims of this study were (1) to compare the morphology of the buccal apparatus, the suspensorium and the opercle in four species of Carapidae (Carapus acus, Encheliophis boraborensis, Encheliophis ... [more ▼]

The aims of this study were (1) to compare the morphology of the buccal apparatus, the suspensorium and the opercle in four species of Carapidae (Carapus acus, Encheliophis boraborensis, Encheliophis homei and Encheliophis gracilis) and (2) to investigate the relationships between their cranial anatomy, their carnivorous diet, and their well known ability to enter holothurians. The complex and strong dentition and the wide hyomandibular with thickenings that seem to suit the constraints of the adductor mandibulae muscles partly inserted on the neurocranium are signs of a carnivorous diet. C. acus, E. boraborensis and E. homei have extremely strong buccal pieces and can protrude their upper jaws. However, in E. gracilis, the jaws are more slender, and the insertions of the A 1 along the entire length of the maxillary associated with the lack of mobility between the maxillary and the premaxillary prevent buccal protrusion. These differences could be related to the diet: C. acus, E. boraborensis and E. homei can feed on fishes and crustaceans, whereas E. gracilis feeds only on holothurian tissue. The cephalic morphology of the four species is not incompatible with entering the host. However, the neutralisation of the suboperculum spine by ‘cartilaginous’ tissue could be considered to be a particular adaptation to this behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the digital sheath in horses
Strzalkowski, A; Espinosa, J; Jacqmot, O et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2010, August), 39(4), 288

Introduction: The digital sheath is located in the palmar (plantar) face of the distal limb. It consists of a synovium, divided into intimate and vascularised supportive layers, and ligaments that ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The digital sheath is located in the palmar (plantar) face of the distal limb. It consists of a synovium, divided into intimate and vascularised supportive layers, and ligaments that strengthen the tendon sheath in its palmar (plantar) face. The synovium surrounds the digital flexor tendons during their passage within the sheath. The synovium fluid, produced by the filtering of the blood and by the intima cells, allows lubrification within the sheath. Lameness, originating from digital sheath pathology is not rare, and it is important, for any equine practitioner, to know its normal morphology. The aim of this study is to precise the morphology of the digital sheath, particularly its synovium because the literature is not unanimous. Methods: The digitals tips of 7 "sound" horses were collected. Samples were taken within the 3 annular ligaments (Proximal, Digital Proximal, Digital Distal). The digital flexor tendons were sampled with the visceral sheath of the synovial membrane at the level of the proximal sesamoïd bones and just proximal to the medium scutum. All these samples were embedded in tissue-tek and freezed for cryosectioning. The proximal and distal recessus of the synovial membrane were also sampled, fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were stained with haematoxylin/eosin. One sample of the synovial membrane was taken for electronic microscopy and embedded in? Results: Annular ligaments are composed of dense connective tissue but are transversal strengthening of the fascia rather than true ligaments. The digital flexor tendons showed the typical organisation of the collagen network. Type III fibrocytes were observed within the deep digital flexor tendon. The synovial membrane showed two layers: an intima (with visceral and parietal sheath) with fibroblast-like cells and macrophagic cells, and a sub-intima composed of fibrous tissue that was sometime so thickened that it was difficult to cut! The recessus contained large synovial fringe with adipose tissue. Conclusion: This study permitted to precise the morphology of the digital sheath in horse which may help to better understand the pathological changes. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the Io footprint
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg

Poster (2007, April 15)

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See detailThe morphology of the north Jovian ultraviolet aurora observed with the Hubble Space Telescope
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Dols, Vincent; Prange, Renee et al

in Planetary and Space Science (1994), 42

A series of six images covering a complete rotation of the north polar region of Jupiter were obtained in February 1993 with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These images ... [more ▼]

A series of six images covering a complete rotation of the north polar region of Jupiter were obtained in February 1993 with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These images provide the first global picture of the morphology of the Jovian ultraviolet aurora observed from Earth orbit. The camera passband was centered near 153 nm, a region dominated by the H2 Lyman bands and continuum. The successive exposures, taken approximately 90 min apart, are used to construct a polar view of the auroral zone. It is found that the auroral emissions do not exactly follow the footprint of a constant L-shell although the size of the oval and its location agree best with the footprints of the approximately equal to 30 R[SUB]J[/SUB] field line in the GSFC O6 model of the Jovian magnetic field. The displacement between the observed auroral zone and the theoretical oval may indicate a possible distortion of the Jovian magnetic field lines near the surface. A comparison with two images at the same wavelength obtained 8 months earlier shows that the main morphological features are persistent, in spite of changes in the detailed emission distribution. Small scale features with characteristic sizes of approximately 1000 km are observed along the auroral oval. The change of morphology observed as a function of the System 3 longitude appears as a persistent characteristic of the morphology of the north polar aurora. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the stifle menisci in dogs: preliminary study
De Busscher, Virginie; Letesson, Julien; Busoni, Valeria ULg et al

in Slovenian Veterinary Research (2007), 44

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See detailMorphology of the suspensory ligament (interosseous muscle III) of the horse
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Espinosa, Jennifer; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2010)

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL. The significance of “abnormal” findings is however not sufficiently known. Until now, few studies described the relationship between the ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting and staining the SL and to improve knowledge about the normal morphology of the SL. Methods: In this study, the SL of eight <sound> horses were collected. The body of the SL was divided in 3 thirds and sampling was realised within each third and between the thirds. The samples were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek for cryosections. The sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin or Masson's trichrome. For 3 SL, ultrasounds were performed before sampling. The digital tip was maintained in physiological position owing to a press. Results: Most of the paraffin sections were shredded because of the hardness of the tissue. Cryosection revealed a better preservation of tissues. Only some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared on a few sections. Muscles fibers surrounded by adipose tissue containing blood vessels were present mainly in the proximal and medium third of the SL whereas they were not found in the distal third. The remaining structure look like a tendon and was composed of collagen fibers, stained in green with the Masson's trichrome coloration. Conclusions: This study permitted to develop cutting and staining techniques for the SL and helped to map the adipose, muscular and tendinous parts within the SL. It lays down the bases of subsequent studies that will concern ultrasonographically examined digital tips of sound and pathological horses of different breeds and ages. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the suspensory ligament (interosseous muscle III) of the horse
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Espinosa, Jennifer; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2011)

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The injuries of the suspensory ligament (SL) are important causes of lameness and financial losses in the equine industry. Ultrasound examination permitted to visualize some parts of the SL. The significance of “abnormal” findings is however not sufficiently known. Until now, few studies described the relationship between the ultrasonographic appearance and the exact morphology in histological sections. The aim of this study is to develop good techniques for cutting and staining the SL and to improve knowledge about the normal morphology of the SL. Methods: In this study, the SL of eight <sound> horses were collected. The body of the SL was divided in 3 thirds and sampling was realised within each third and between the thirds. The samples were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek for cryosections. The sections were stained with hematoxylin/eosin or Masson's trichrome. For 3 SL, ultrasounds were performed before sampling. The digital tip was maintained in physiological position owing to a press. Results: Most of the paraffin sections were shredded because of the hardness of the tissue. Cryosection revealed a better preservation of tissues. Only some freezing artifacts (holes) appeared on a few sections. Muscles fibers surrounded by adipose tissue containing blood vessels were present mainly in the proximal and medium third of the SL whereas they were not found in the distal third. The remaining structure look like a tendon and was composed of collagen fibers, stained in green with the Masson's trichrome coloration. Conclusions: This study permitted to develop cutting and staining techniques for the SL and helped to map the adipose, muscular and tendinous parts within the SL. It lays down the bases of subsequent studies that will concern ultrasonographically examined digital tips of sound and pathological horses of different breeds and ages. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the ultraviolet Io footprint emission and its control by Io's location
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Saglam, Adem ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2006), 111(A4),

[1] A total of 74 images of the ultraviolet footprint of the Io flux tube (IFT) on Jupiter's upper atmosphere made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope have ... [more ▼]

[1] A total of 74 images of the ultraviolet footprint of the Io flux tube (IFT) on Jupiter's upper atmosphere made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope have been analyzed to characterize their location, morphology, and brightness distribution. The observations cover a wide range of central meridian Jovian longitudes and Io orbital positions and include north and south footprint emissions. Comparing the location of the IFT with that expected from the VIP4 model of the Jovian magnetic field, we find that the lead angle is generally not significantly different from zero in the System III longitude sector 125 degrees - 195 degrees. Instead, the lead angles reach about 8 degrees in the 50 degrees sector, coinciding with a region of possible magnetic anomaly. We observe that the brightness of the main footprint shows intrinsic intensity changes that appear to be controlled by the system III longitude of Io and its position above or below the center of the torus. The size of the primary spot magnetically maps into a region varying from 1 to over 10 Io diameters in Io's orbital plane. Multiple footprints are observed with varying brightness relative to the mean spot. The number of spots is found to increase as Io gets closer to the torus outer edge facing the spots. The separation between the first and second spots is typically 1 degrees-3 degrees of longitude and increases when Io is displaced from the torus center in the direction of the IFT signature. These features confirm that Alfven waves play an important role and generate energization of precipitated electrons. However, the observed variation of the FUV spot structure with Io's position appears inconsistent with models where reflections of Alfven wings occur between the torus boundary and Jupiter's ionosphere. Instead, the multiple spots apparently correspond to electron precipitation generated by Alfven waves reflected inside the plasma torus. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology of the Venus ultraviolet night airglow
Stewart, A. I. F.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Rusch, D. W. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1980), 85

Images of the nightside of Venus in the (0,1)delta band of nitric oxide have been obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer (OUVS). The emission, which is produced by radiative ... [more ▼]

Images of the nightside of Venus in the (0,1)delta band of nitric oxide have been obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer (OUVS). The emission, which is produced by radiative association of N and O, shows a bright spot reaching 5 kR and located at 2 a.m. local solar time just south of the equator. The emitting layer is at 111 + or - 7-km altitude. A one dimensional vertical transport model shows that the hemispheric average brightness of 0.8 kR is consistent with the orbiter neutral mass spectrometer (ONMS) measurements of N and O near 167 km, and that the altitude of the emitting layer is consistent with the eddy mixing model proposed to explain the dayside helium profile measured by the bus neutral mass spectrometer. In the model, N reaches a peak of 7 x 10 to the 8th per cu cm at 114 km, and O reaches a peak of 2.6 x 10 to the 11th per cu cm at 106 km. There is a fair degree of consistency between the ONMS, OUVS, and other airglow measurements, except as regards the local time dependence. [less ▲]

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See detailThe morphology of the X-ray emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's aurorae
Elsner, R. F.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M. et al

Conference (2007, June 25)

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See detailMorphology, cytogenetics, and survival in myelodysplasia with del(20q) or ider(20q): a multicenter study.
Mullier, Francois; Daliphard, Sylvie; Garand, Richard et al

in Annals of Hematology (2012), 91(2), 203-13

Isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 20 with interstitial loss of material [ider(20q)] is a rare cytogenetic abnormality reported in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with neither specific ... [more ▼]

Isochromosome of the long arm of chromosome 20 with interstitial loss of material [ider(20q)] is a rare cytogenetic abnormality reported in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), with neither specific morphological pattern nor clear prognostic significance. The aim of this retrospective multicentric study is to compare the peripheral blood and bone marrow morphology of MDS patients with ider(20q) (n = 13) and del(20q) (n = 21) and controls (n = 47) in order to investigate whether the ider(20q) harbors specific morphological features. The secondary objective is to compare the outcome of patients from both groups. This study performed on the largest cohort of MDS patients with ider(20q) is the first that identifies specific morphological features (hypogranulated and vacuolized neutrophils and neutrophil erythrophagocytosis) allowing the identification of this cytogenetic abnormality with high sensitivity (70%) and specificity (85.7%). Suspected ider(20q) by morphology should therefore support targeted FISH tests in case of non informative karyotype. This combined approach will allow a better estimation of the prevalence of this underdiagnozed entity. The overall survival and progression-free survival did not statistically differ in both groups. However, hypogranulated and vacuolized neutrophils were significantly associated with survival. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology, development and evolution of the weberian apparatus in catfishes
Chardon, Michel ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg

in Kapoor, B. G.; Arratia, G.; Chardon, Michel (Eds.) et al Catfishes (2003)

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See detailMorphology, displacement and slip rates along the North Antolian Fault (Turkey)
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Armijo, R.; Meyer, B. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2002), 107(10.1029/2001JB000393),

Geological and geomorphological offsets at different scales are used to constrain the localization of deformation, total displacement, and slip rates over various timescales along the central and eastern ... [more ▼]

Geological and geomorphological offsets at different scales are used to constrain the localization of deformation, total displacement, and slip rates over various timescales along the central and eastern North Anatolian Fault (NAF) in Turkey. The NAF total displacement is reevaluated using large rivers valleys (80 ± 15 km) and structural markers (Pontide Suture, 85 ± 25 km; Tosya-Vezirko ̈pru ̈ basins, 80 ± 10 km). These suggest a Neogene slip rate of 6.5 mm/yr over 13 Myr. The river network morphology shows offsets at a range of scales (20 m to 14 km) across the main fault trace and is also used to estimate the degree to which deformation is localized. At a smaller scale the morphology associated with small rivers is offset by 200 m along the NAF. The age of these features can be correlated with the Holocene deglaciation and a slip rate of 18 ± 3.5 mm/yr is determined. This is consistent with a rate of 18 ± 5 mm/yr deduced independently from the 14C dating of stream terrace offsets. Over the short term, GPS data gives a similar rate of 22 ± 3 mm/yr. All our results tend to show that most of the deformation between the Anatolian and Eurasian lithospheric plates has been accommodated along, or very close to, the active trace of the NAF. The difference between the Neogene and the Holocene slip rate may be due to the recent establishment of the current plate geometry after the creation of the NAF. INDEX TERMS: 8107 Tectonophysics: Continental neotectonics; 8158 Tectonophysics: Plate motions—present and recent (3040); 7230 Seismology: Seismicity and seismotectonics; KEYWORDS: North Anatolian Fault, slip rate, total offset, strain localization [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology, growth and modelling of bone tissue
Toppets, Vinciane ULg; Pastoret, V.; De Behr, V. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 1-13

Bone is an essential part of the squeletton. Besides its mechanic properties, bone has an important role in metabolism regulation because it acts as a reservoir for the storage of minerals essential to ... [more ▼]

Bone is an essential part of the squeletton. Besides its mechanic properties, bone has an important role in metabolism regulation because it acts as a reservoir for the storage of minerals essential to provide homeostasy. This article describes bone morphology and different ways of classification of this tissue. It gives the composition of organic and mineral extracellular bone matrix, underlines the dynamic character of bone tissue, details the cellular morphology and the metabolism of the elements acting on the synthesis/resorption mechanisms : osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteocyts and osteoclasts. It relates the histogenesis of bone tissue and develops the different types of ossification: intramembranous, periostic, endochondral and osteonal remodeling. The last part of this article describe some dietetary and hormonal influences on bone tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphology. Mapping the genesis of the Flying Dragon
Ek, Camille ULg

in Masschelein, J.; Zhang, Shouyue (Eds.) Teng Long Dong, the longest cave of China (1990)

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See detailMorphometric age estimate of the last phase of accelerated uplift in the Kazdag area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey)
Demoulin, Alain ULg; Altin, T. Bayer; Beckers, Arnaud ULg

in Tectonophysics (2013), 608

While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the ... [more ▼]

While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the cause of this uplift phase is also debated, being associated either to back-arc extension in the rear of the Hellenic subduction zone, to transpression along the northern edge of the west-moving Anatolian microplate, or to extension driven by gravitational collapse. Here, we perform a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. While the dependence of profile concavity on basin size confirms that the landscape of the peninsula is still in a transient state, the spatial distribution of profile steepness values characterized by higher values for streams flowing down from the Kazdag massif shows that the latter undergoes higher uplift rates than the rest of the peninsula. We obtain a SR value of 0.324 ± 0.035 that, according to the relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.5–1.3 Ma and a most probable value of 0.8 Ma for the time of the last tectonic perturbation in the region. In agreement with the analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, this suggests that a pulse of uplift occurred at that time and, corroborated by sparse published observations in the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions, that the peninsula was uplifted as a whole from that time. This uplift pulse might have been caused by transient compressive conditions in the Anatolian plate when the Eratosthenes seamount came to subduct beneath the Cyprus arc around the early-to-mid Pleistocene transition (Schattner, 2010). [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the body and the branches of the normal third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament) in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

in Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2013)

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the ... [more ▼]

The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the body and the branches of right thoracic and pelvic limbs TIOM in sound horses to determine whether there are differences in CT, MT and AT between age, sex, limbs and levels. Right limbs from 11 sound horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the TIOM were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis programme to calculate percentage of each tissue within the TIOM. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the TIOM. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the TIOM of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analyses of the normal suspensory ligament in Standardbreds
Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Piret, Joëlle ULg et al

Poster (2013, July)

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in ... [more ▼]

The suspensory ligament (SL) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the SL in sound horses. Right limbs from 11 horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the SL were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek®. Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin–phloxine–saffron and Hematoxylin–eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues allowing the use of an image analysis programme. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the SL. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the SL of sound horses. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphometric analysis of proposed evolutionary lineages of Early Devonian land plant spores
Breuer, P.; Stricanne, L.; Steemans, Philippe ULg

in Geological Magazine (2005), 142(3), 241-253

Early Devonian miospore assemblages from 'La Gileppe' (Eastern Belgium) include five varieties of trilete spore belonging to the genus Emphanisporites. These five varieties show a continuous variation of ... [more ▼]

Early Devonian miospore assemblages from 'La Gileppe' (Eastern Belgium) include five varieties of trilete spore belonging to the genus Emphanisporites. These five varieties show a continuous variation of their morphological characteristics. The variation in morphological characteristics can be related to the evolution of morphological features and allows us to define the Emphanisporites micromatus Morphon. A statistical evaluation of this population highlights the interdependence of almost all morphological parameters. This study proves the increase in size of ornamental and structural parameters over several million years. The biometric changes and the progressive replacement of older morphotypes by younger ones indicate that a temporal link exists between these different varieties. Two phylogenetic hypotheses for the E. micromatus Morphon are proposed. This morphological evolution is so far observed only on the Eastern Old Red Sandstone Continent and defines a palaeophytogeographic sinuosus-zavallatus Province. [less ▲]

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