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Peer Reviewed
See detailMechanisms of ATM regulation by TGF-beta
Paupert, Jenny ULg; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen

Poster (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMechanisms of ATM regulation by TGF-beta
Paupert, Jenny ULg; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen

Poster (2008)

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See detailMechanisms of breathing and gas exchanges in healthy cattle: effect of somatic growth
Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (1987), 95(2), 5

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Peer Reviewed
See detailMechanisms of cancer-related anemia and rationale for erythropoietin treatment
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Cancer Biotherapy (1997), 1

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See detailMechanisms of cell death in the injured auditory system: Otoprotective strategies
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Audiology & Neuro-otology (2002), 7(3, May-Jun), 165-170

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells and neurons. In this paper, we review some components of the apoptotic pathways leading to the death of hair cells and auditory induced by growth factor withdrawal or cisplatin intoxication: (1) reactive oxygen species and free radicals are formed as by-products of several metabolic pathways and these molecules can themselves cause cell damage by reacting with cellular proteins; (2) activation of caspases, and (3) activation of calpain. These mechanisms have several different points at which inhibitors could be targeted to protect cells from programmed cell death, including the prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and the activation of caspases and calpains. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of cell entry by human papillomaviruses: an overview.
Horvath, Caroline Aj; Boulet, Gaelle Av; Renoux, Virginie ULg et al

in Virology Journal (2010), 7

ABSTRACT: As the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must deliver their genetic material into the nucleus of the target cell. The viral capsid has evolved to ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: As the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) must deliver their genetic material into the nucleus of the target cell. The viral capsid has evolved to fulfil various roles that are critical to establish viral infection. The particle interacts with the cell surface via interaction of the major capsid protein, L1, with heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests the involvement of a secondary receptor and a possible role for the minor capsid protein, L2, in cell surface interactions.The entry of HPV in vitro is initiated by binding to a cell surface receptor in contrast to the in vivo situation where the basement membrane has recently been identified as the primary site of virus binding. Binding of HPV triggers conformational changes, which affect both capsid proteins L1 and L2, and such changes are a prerequisite for interaction with the elusive uptake receptor. Most HPV types that have been examined, appear to enter the cell via a clathrin-dependent endocytic mechanism, although many data are inconclusive and inconsistent. Furthermore, the productive entry of HPV is a process that occurs slowly and asynchronously and it is characterised by an unusually extended residence on the cell surface.Despite the significant advances and the emergence of a general picture of the infectious HPV entry pathway, many details remain to be clarified. The impressive technological progress in HPV virion analysis achieved over the past decade, in addition to the improvements in general methodologies for studying viral infections, provide reasons to be optimistic about further advancement of this field.This mini review is intended to provide a concise overview of the literature in HPV virion/host cell interactions and the consequences for endocytosis. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of cell migration in the adult brain: modelling subventricular neurogenesis.
Van Schepdael, An ULg; Ashbourn, J. M. A.; Beard, R. et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2013)

Neurogenesis has been the subject of active research in recent years. Although the majority of neurons form during the embryonic period, neurogenesis continues in restricted regions of the mammalian brain ... [more ▼]

Neurogenesis has been the subject of active research in recent years. Although the majority of neurons form during the embryonic period, neurogenesis continues in restricted regions of the mammalian brain well into adulthood. In rodent brains, neuronal migration is present in the rostral migratory stream (RMS), connecting the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb (OB). The migration in the RMS is characterised by a lack of dispersion of neuroblasts into the surrounding tissues and a highly directed motion towards the OB. This study uses a simple mathematical model to investigate several theories of migration of neuroblasts through the RMS proposed in the literature, including chemo-attraction, chemorepulsion, general inhibition and the presence of a migration-inducing protein. Apart from the general inhibition model, all the models were able to provide results in good qualitative correspondence with the experimental observations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mechanisms of chronic ischemic mitral regurgitation
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2007), 83(5), 1919-20

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See detailMechanisms of cohort suppression and population fluctuation in tiger salamanders
Whiteman, Howard; Wissinger, Scott; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

Conference (2006)

The mechanisms underlying population fluctuation have been well studied in mammals and insects but less research has focused on amphibians. Yet, the current global decline of amphibians equires that we ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms underlying population fluctuation have been well studied in mammals and insects but less research has focused on amphibians. Yet, the current global decline of amphibians equires that we understand these mechanisms, and be able to distinguish between anthropogenically induced declines and natural population fluctuations. We have followed a marked population of the Arizona tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum, for over 16 years during which time the population has completed two “boom and bust” cycles, generated by a dominant cohort that appears to suppress larval recruitment until it senesces. We tested two hypotheses for this suppression, cannibalism and resource depression, using a series of meso- and microcosm experiments. We found significant lethal and sublethal (behavior, diet, growth rates) effects of cannibalism by large larvae and paedomorphic adults on hatchling and 1st-year larvae, suggesting that both cannibalism and the threat of cannibalism are important in cohort suppression. Resource depression experiments revealed that paedomorphic adults did not affect larval survival, diet, or growth, despite reduced prey densities, because paedomorphs mainly reduced large bodied prey, whereas hatchlings fed primarily on smaller benthic and zooplanktonic invertebrates. Future experiments will determine how hatchlings are impacted by boom cohorts that are more similar in size and diet. Our results lend insight into the mechanisms underlying fluctuations in this population, and suggest that a better understanding of natural population fluctuations will aid amphibian conservation efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in healthy humans.
Tappy, L.; Randin, D.; Vollenweider, P. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1994), 79(4), 1063-9

Insulin resistance may result from decreased muscle blood flow, impaired cellular glucose transport, or intracellular deficits of glucose metabolism. The mechanisms responsible for dexamethasone-induced ... [more ▼]

Insulin resistance may result from decreased muscle blood flow, impaired cellular glucose transport, or intracellular deficits of glucose metabolism. The mechanisms responsible for dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance were investigated in healthy human subjects. During a 2-h hyperinsulinemic clamp, dexamethasone decreased glucose uptake, oxidation, and nonoxidative glucose disposal during the first hour. During the second hour, glucose uptake was normalized by means of hyperglycemia; glucose oxidation, however, remained suppressed by dexamethasone. Dexamethasone also abolished the insulin-mediated increase in calf blood flow. When acipimox was administered during the clamps to correct glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of glucose oxidation, dexamethasone decreased whole body glucose uptake and nonoxidative glucose disposal in the same proportion as when no acipimox was administered. However, glucose oxidation and insulin-mediated calf blood flow were normalized after acipimox. During the second hour, exogenous glucose infusion was matched to that used in the control clamp and normalized whole body glucose uptake. However, hyperglycemia developed, indicating insulin resistance. It is concluded that dexamethasone 1) decreases glucose oxidation independently of glucose transport; this inhibition is reversed by acipimox; and 2) decreases whole body glucose uptake independently of increased lipolysis, decreased glucose oxidation, or an altered muscle blood flow. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of ectopic bone formation by human osteoprogenitor cells on CaP biomaterial carriers.
Chai, Y. C.; Roberts, S. J.; Desmet, E. et al

in Biomaterials (2012)

Stem cell-based strategies for bone regeneration, which use calcium phosphate (CaP)-based biomaterials in combination with developmentally relevant progenitor populations, have significant potential for ... [more ▼]

Stem cell-based strategies for bone regeneration, which use calcium phosphate (CaP)-based biomaterials in combination with developmentally relevant progenitor populations, have significant potential for clinical repair of skeletal defects. However, the exact mechanism of action and the stem cell-host-material interactions are still poorly understood. We studied if pre-conditioning of human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs) in vitro could enhance, in combination with a CaP-based biomaterial carrier, ectopic bone formation in vivo. By culturing hPDCs in a biomimetic calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (P(i)) enriched culture conditions, we observed an enhanced cell proliferation, decreased expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and upregulation of osteogenic genes including osterix, Runx2, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and BMP-2. However, the in vitro pre-conditioning protocols were non-predictive for in vivo ectopic bone formation. Surprisingly, culturing in the presence of Ca(2+) and P(i) supplements resulted in partial or complete abrogation of in vivo ectopic bone formation. Through histological, immunohistochemical and microfocus X-ray computed tomography (muCT) analysis of the explants, we found that in situ proliferation, collagen matrix deposition and the mediation of osteoclastic activity by hPDCs are associated to their ectopic bone forming capacity. These data were validated by the multivariate analysis and partial least square regression modelling confirming the non-predictability of in vitro parameters on in vivo ectopic bone formation. Our series of experiments provided further insights on the stem cell-host-material interactions that govern in vivo ectopic bone induction driven by hPDCs on CaP-based biomaterials. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Hand Motor Recovery After Stroke: An Electrophysiologic Study of Central Motor Pathways
Bastings, Eric; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Giovanni et al

in Journal of Neurologic Rehabilitation (1997), 11(2), 97-108

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See detailMechanisms of HTLV-1 persistence and transformation.
Boxus, Mathieu ULg; Willems, Luc ULg

in British Journal of Cancer (2009), 101(9), 1497-501

Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to persist and replicate in the presence of a strong immune response. In ... [more ▼]

Adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) is caused by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to persist and replicate in the presence of a strong immune response. In this review, we summarise these mechanisms and their contribution to T-cell transformation and ATL development. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of inflammation in equine airways
Lekeux, Pierre ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Proceedings : 3er Congreso Iberoamericano de Veterinarios Especializados en Equinos, Montevideo (2001)

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See detailMechanisms of Interaction of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals with Glutamate-Evoked Secretion of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
Rasier, Gregory; Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; Gerard, Arlette ULg et al

in Toxicological Sciences (2008), 102(1), 33-41

In previous studies, we detected a dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) derivative in the serum of children with sexual precocity after migration from developing countries. Recently, we reported that DDT ... [more ▼]

In previous studies, we detected a dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) derivative in the serum of children with sexual precocity after migration from developing countries. Recently, we reported that DDT stimulated pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and sexual maturation in the female rat. The aim of this study was to delineate the mechanisms of interaction of endocrine-disrupting chemicals including DDT with GnRH secretion evoked by glutamate in vitro. Using hypothalamic explants obtained from 15-day-old female rats, estradiol (E2) and DDT caused a concentration-related increase in glutamate-evoked GnRH release while p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene and methoxychlor had no effect. The effective DDT concentrations in vitro were consistent with the serum concentrations measured in vivo 5 days after exposure of immature rats to 10 mg/kg/day of o,p'-DDT. Bisphenol A induced some stimulatory effect, whereas no change was observed with 4-nonylphenol. The o,p'-DDT effects in vitro were prevented partially by a selective antagonist of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors. A complete prevention of o,p'-DDT effects was caused by an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist as well as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist and inhibitors of protein kinases A and C and mitogen-activated kinases. While an intermittent incubation with E2 caused no change in amplification of the glutamate-evoked GnRH release for 4 h, continuous incubation with E2 or o,p'-DDT caused an increase of this amplification after 3.5 h of incubation. In summary, DDT amplifies the glutamate-evoked GnRH secretion in vitro through rapid and slow effects involving ER, AHR, and AMPA receptor mediation. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of larval cohort suppression and population fluctuation in tiger salamanders.
Whiteman, Howard; Wissinger, Scott; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

Conference (2006)

The mechanisms underlying population fluctuation have been well studied in mammals and insects but less research has focused on amphibians. Yet, the current global decline of amphibians requires that we ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms underlying population fluctuation have been well studied in mammals and insects but less research has focused on amphibians. Yet, the current global decline of amphibians requires that we understand these mechanisms, and be able to distinguish between anthropogenically induced declines and natural population fluctuations. We have followed a population of the Arizona tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum, over 16 years and through two cycles of population fluctuation, which is typified by the production of “boom” cohorts followed by suppression of larval recruitment by paedomorphic adults in this cohort. We tested two hypotheses for this suppression, cannibalism and resource depression, using a series of meso- and microcosm experiments. We found significant direct (mortality) and indirect (behavior, diet, growth rates) effects of cannibalism by larger larvae and paedomorphic adults on hatchling and 1st-year larvae, suggesting that both cannibalism and the threat of cannibalism play a large role in suppression of larval cohorts. In contrast, paedomorphic adults showed no substantial effects on larval survival, diet, or growth via resource depression, in part because paedomorphic adults reduced availability of large benthic invertebrates, while hatchlings fed primarily on smaller benthos and zooplankton. However, current experiments suggest that hatchlings can be impacted by cohorts of larvae that are more similar in size and diet. Our results lend insight into the mechanisms underlying fluctuations in this population, and suggest that a better understanding of natural population fluctuations will aid amphibian conservation efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of leukemogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in human.
Gillet, Nicolas ULg; Florins, Arnaud-Francois ULg; Boxus, Mathieu ULg et al

in Retrovirology (2007), 4(1), 18

In 1871, the observation of yellowish nodules in the enlarged spleen of a cow was considered to be the first reported case of bovine leukemia. The etiological agent of this lymphoproliferative disease ... [more ▼]

In 1871, the observation of yellowish nodules in the enlarged spleen of a cow was considered to be the first reported case of bovine leukemia. The etiological agent of this lymphoproliferative disease, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), belongs to the deltaretrovirus genus which also includes the related human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). This review summarizes current knowledge of this viral system, which is important as a model for leukemogenesis. Recently, the BLV model has also cast light onto novel prospects for therapies of HTLV induced diseases, for which no satisfactory treatment exists so far. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Persistent Nf-Kappa B Activity in the Bronchi of an Animal Model of Asthma
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Delhalle, Sylvie; Bonizzi, Giuseppina et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 165(10), 5822-5830

In most cells trans-activating NF-kappaB induces many inflammatory proteins as well as its own inhibitor, IkappaB-alpha, thus assuring a transient response upon stimulation. However, NF-kappaB-dependent ... [more ▼]

In most cells trans-activating NF-kappaB induces many inflammatory proteins as well as its own inhibitor, IkappaB-alpha, thus assuring a transient response upon stimulation. However, NF-kappaB-dependent inflammatory gene expression is persistent in asthmatic bronchi, even after allergen eviction. In the present report we used bronchial brushing samples (BBSs) from heaves-affected horses (a spontaneous model of asthma) to elucidate the mechanisms by which NF-kappaB activity is maintained in asthmatic airways. NF-kappaB activity was high in granulocytic and nongranulocytic BBS cells. However, NF-kappaB activity highly correlated to granulocyte percentage and was only abrogated after granulocytic death in cultured BBSs. Before granulocytic death, NF-kappaB activity was suppressed by simultaneous addition of neutralizing anti-IL-1beta and anti-TNF-alpha Abs to the medium of cultured BBSs. Surprisingly, IkappaB-beta, whose expression is not regulated by NF-kappaB, unlike IkappaB-alpha, was the most prominent NF-kappaB inhibitor found in BBSs. The amounts of IkappaB-beta were low in BBSs obtained from diseased horses, but drastically increased after addition of the neutralizing anti-IL-1beta and anti-TNF-alpha Abs. These results indicate that sustained NF-kappaB activation in asthmatic bronchi is driven by granulocytes and is mediated by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. Moreover, an imbalance between high levels of IL-1beta- and TNF-alpha-mediated IkappaB-beta degradation and low levels of IkappaB-beta synthesis is likely to be the mechanism preventing NF-kappaB deactivation in asthmatic airways before granulocytic death. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of photocatalysis in TiO2 thin films for air purification
Poelman, Dirk; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg

Report (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (0 ULg)