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See detailHow to specify the environmental footprint of electricity? A methodological approach
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Conference (2016, May 09)

When assessing the environmental footprint of a product or an industrial process, ma-jor impacts in climate change and resources depletion are usually linked to direct or indi-rect energy consumptions ... [more ▼]

When assessing the environmental footprint of a product or an industrial process, ma-jor impacts in climate change and resources depletion are usually linked to direct or indi-rect energy consumptions. Focusing on electricity generation, largely dispersed results can appear for the concerned impact categories depending on the energy mix taken into account. An accurate knowledge of the mix is of major importance for the prediction of the environmental footprint of electricity. As this mix changes from one country to another and through time, regular update is needed to obtain an accurate value of impact for the studied product. Another criteria to also take into account is the specific technology used to generate electricity depending on the primary energy (gas, coal, uranium, sun, wind, etc.). This study aims to generate a simplified tool, containing sufficient data to assess, within a range of 10 % uncertainty, the value of the environmental footprint of electricity, based on a limited amount of accessible parameters. The global life cycle of electricity generation is taken into account, from the resources extraction to the end-of-life. This is essential to be able to compare, on a same basis, the renewable and classical resources for electricity generation. The functional unit of this study for numerical applications is 1 MWhe. To achieve our goal, the following methodological approach has been pursued. First, the energy mix for electricity generation has been collected trough years for different countries. Then a deeper study of specific technologies relative to each kind of primary energy consumption has been performed. Meta-analyses relative to LCA results have been studied to highlight the main important criteria of these technologies. Then, the amount of needed data for the environmental assessment of these technologies has been reduced to the main important ones. The step further is about the use of these data to obtain an available tool to predict the environmental footprint of electricity depending mainly on the energy mix and used technologies. The environmental impact of 1 MWhe can then be easily calculated using this tool in several categories as climate change, acidification, ozone layer depletion, etc. using the ILCD method. Concerning the resources depletion assessment, all available methodolo-gies have been studied with a specific focus on the CEENE method using an exergetic assessment of resources. This method allows the highlighting of the use of energy and all types of resources (fossil, renewable like wind, sun or land). This perspective can also be used to discriminate several resources for the electricity production. A comparison of the results obtained using resources impact methods has then been performed and some challenges concerning the use of existing impact pathways have been highlighted as well as some perspectives to tackle them. This research has been supported by the Public Service of Wallonia – Department of Energy and Sustainable Building within the framework of the ECEB project [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Statistically Show the Absence of an Effect
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Psychologica Belgica (2011), 51(2), 109-127

In experimental studies, the lack of statistical significance is often interpreted as the absence of an effect. Unfortunately, such a conclusion is often a serious misinterpretation. Indeed, non ... [more ▼]

In experimental studies, the lack of statistical significance is often interpreted as the absence of an effect. Unfortunately, such a conclusion is often a serious misinterpretation. Indeed, non-significant results are just as often the consequence of an insufficient statistical power. In order to conclude beyond reasonable doubt that there is no meaningful effect at the population level, it is necessary to use proper statistical techniques. The present article reviews three different approaches that can be used to show the absence of a meaningful effect, namely the statistical power test, the equivalence test, and the confidence interval approach. These three techniques are presented with easy to understand examples and equations are given for the case of the two-sample t-test, the paired-sample t-test, the linear regression coefficient and the correlation coefficient. Despite the popularity of the power test, we recommend using preferably the equivalence test or the confidence interval. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to substantiate eradication of bovine brucellosis when aspecific serological reactions occur in the course of brucellosis testing.
Godfroid, Jacques; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Wellemans, Vincent et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 90(1-4), 461-77

Collaborative work was financed by the EU to develop and assess new diagnostic tools that can differentiate between bovine brucellosis and bovine infections due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 either in ... [more ▼]

Collaborative work was financed by the EU to develop and assess new diagnostic tools that can differentiate between bovine brucellosis and bovine infections due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 either in conjunction with, or as an alternative to, the classical serological, bacteriological or allergic skin tests. Sixteen heifers were experimentally infected with Brucella abortus biovar 1 (five heifers), Brucella suis biovar 2 (two heifers), Y. enterocolitica O:9 (six heifers) and Y. enterocolitica O:3 (three heifers). Four heifers, naturally infected with Y. enterocolitica O:9 that presented aspecific brucellosis serological reactions were also included in the experiment. A self-limited infection was induced in cattle by B. suis biovar 2. All the brucellosis serological tests used, i.e. the slow agglutination test (SAW), the Rose Bengal test (RB), the complement fixation test (CFT), indirect and competitive ELISA's, lacked specificity when used to analyze sera from Y. enterocolitica O:9 infected animals. A Yersinia outer membrane proteins (YOPs)-ELISA was also used and although the test is able to detect a Yersinia group infection, it provided no evidence of whether or not there is a possible brucellosis infection when dual infections are present. The brucellergen IFN-gamma test showed a lack of specificity also. The only test that was proven to be specific is the brucellergen skin test. All brucellosis serological tests, except the indirect ELISA, were limited in their ability to detect B. abortus persistently infected animals. Based on these experimental studies, a strategy was implemented as part of the year 2001 Belgian Brucellosis Eradication Program to substantiate the eradication of bovine brucellosis. Epidemiological inquiries have identified risk factors associated with aspecific serological reactions, possible transmission and infection of cattle by B. suis biovar 2 from infected wild boars; and both legal and administrative measures taken by the veterinary services. No cases of bovine brucellosis have been confirmed in Belgium since March 2000. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to support the transition of existing urban neighbourhoods?
Ruelle, Christine ULg

Conference given outside the academic context (2013)

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See detailHow to survey your hippos night and day? Follow them in bed with drones!
Linchant, Julie ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

Scientific conference (2014, October 20)

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See detailHow to tackle the avalanche of chronic kidney disease in sub-Saharan Africa: the situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo as an example
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Sumaili, Kiswaya Ernest; Cohen, Eric P.

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2007), 22(2), 332-335

In developing countries chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing problem. In most of sub-Saharan Africa, the vast majority of patients with CKD die because of lack of treatment. Renal replacement therapy ... [more ▼]

In developing countries chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing problem. In most of sub-Saharan Africa, the vast majority of patients with CKD die because of lack of treatment. Renal replacement therapy is expensive, which makes it unaffordable to the residents of low-income regions. A solution to this problem may lie in preventive interventions. This editorial will focus on the reasons and some ways to reach such objectives. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to train reflection-in-action?
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2016)

This invited column on http://www.improvewithmetacognition.com introduces the notion of «reflection amplifier» in relationship with the notion of “reflection-in-action”.

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See detailHow to treat hypertension in blacks: review of the evidence
Kola, Luc; Sumaili, Ernest; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2009), 64(6), 466-476

Abstract : Presentation, response to therapy, and clinical outcome differ according to race for patients with hypertension. Black patients have a higher prevalence and earlier onset of hypertension than ... [more ▼]

Abstract : Presentation, response to therapy, and clinical outcome differ according to race for patients with hypertension. Black patients have a higher prevalence and earlier onset of hypertension than other ethnic groups, with poorer prognosis than white patients. Blacks are more likely to be salt-sensitive, and to have a low plasma renin activity than are whites. They are at much greater risk of developing cardiovascular and renal complications. Despite many advances in the understanding and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, black patients continue to have increased morbidity and mortality from the end-organ complications of hypertension. The explanations for these observations remain incompletely understood, but genetic differences, added to socio-economic and environmental factors, have been proposed to explain this disparity. The first therapeutic approach is to decrease salt and increase potassium intakes. Diuretics (thiazides and potassium-sparing agents) and calcium channel blockers constitute the first antihypertensive drug choices. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, the angiotensin II receptor blockers and beta-blockers appear to be less effective in blacks with regard to uncomplicated hypertension, especially in older people, but addition of a small dose of diuretic improves their efficacy. These combinations are preferred among patients whith chronic kidney disease or heart failure. The goal for blood pressure target is the same in blacks as it is in whites, being a blood pressure of less than 140/90 mmHg in uncomplicated hypertension and less than 130/80 mmHg in patients with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to update spatial data - some general considerations
Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Lund, H. Gyde; Landis, Eric; Atterbury, Toby (Eds.) Stand inventory technologies (1993)

In forest management there is an increasing demand of geographic information updating and a need for the creation or revision of computerized stand map production. Due to a large number of available ... [more ▼]

In forest management there is an increasing demand of geographic information updating and a need for the creation or revision of computerized stand map production. Due to a large number of available alternatives, starting from needs and objectives is always regarded as fruitful. This paper outlines some geographic information system (GIS) opportunities taking into account the main mapping resources and the corresponding data handling. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to use comics in the ESL classroom?
Dony, Christophe ULg

in Journal de BabeLg (2009), 27

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See detailHow to use Diigo for allowing the students from large classes to become active ?
Colaux, Catherine ULg

in 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 4-5 March, 2013. (2013, March 04)

Teaching in the early bachelor’s degrees at the university often comes down to classical ex cathedra courses for which the students take a passive role leading progressively to the lost of their ... [more ▼]

Teaching in the early bachelor’s degrees at the university often comes down to classical ex cathedra courses for which the students take a passive role leading progressively to the lost of their motivation which may result in school failure. In this work, we demonstrate that the use of a collaborative social bookmarking, such as Diigo, can help for preserving and promoting the student motivation within large classes. Diigo is a free online tool used in a bachelor class of Bio Engineering (270 students) at the Gembloux Agro Bio Tech Faculty (University of Liege, Belgium) in order to allow students to work actively in small groups of 6 students. During this activity, which is supervised by a tutor who is also a teacher, the students prepare themselves the subject of the course. The impacts of this learning activity are clear: the motivation is substantially increased and the teacher can assist each group in its research through the Network rather than merely transmit his knowledge to a large audience without close interactions with the students. bookmarking, such as Diigo, can help for preserving and promoting the student motivation within large classes. Diigo is a free online tool used in a bachelor class of Bio Engineering (270 students) at the Gembloux Agro Bio Tech Faculty (University of Liege, Belgium) in order to allow students to work actively in small groups of 6 students. During this activity, which is supervised by a tutor who is also a teacher, the students prepare themselves the subject of the course. The impacts of this learning activity are clear: the motivation is substantially increased and the teacher can assist each group in its research through the Network rather than merely transmit his knowledge to a large audience without close interactions with the students. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to use existing power lines to evacuate twice as much wind power ?
Nguyen, Huu-Minh ULg; lambin, jean-jacques; Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg

Poster (2011, March)

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See detailHow to use existing power lines to evacuate twice as much wind power ?
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference (2010, August)

smart sensors to develop dynamic line rating

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 ULg)
See detailHow to use serology in Sexually Transmitted Infections
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg; LIBOIS, Agnes

Conference (2016, December 02)

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See detailHow to use zirconia in implant prosthodontics ?
MAINJOT, Amélie ULg

Conference (2016, April 15)

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See detailHow tracer tests simulations strongly constrain flow and solute transport models in fractured chalk aquifers
Goderniaux, Pascal ULg; Daoudi, Moubarak; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2012, May)

Flow and solute transport in the saturated zone of a micro-fissured and fractured chalk aquifer (Geer basin, Belgium) has been studied by more than 35 tracer tests in 11 sites. The tracer tests campaign ... [more ▼]

Flow and solute transport in the saturated zone of a micro-fissured and fractured chalk aquifer (Geer basin, Belgium) has been studied by more than 35 tracer tests in 11 sites. The tracer tests campaign was preceded by a morphostructural study associated to a geophysical survey including electrical resistivity and refraction seismic measurements. Results provided information on the main expected fracturation axis where a series of injection and monitoring wells were drilled. In each of the 11 sites, multi-tracer tests have been performed in groundwater convergent flow conditions to pumping wells or draining galleries (used for drinking water production). The analysis of the detailed quantitative breakthrough curves allowed identifying various transport behaviours, from rapid advective to dominant dispersive processes with immobile water effects. Groundwater flow and solute transport in such a fractured chalk can be simulated using different conceptual approaches. Using HYDROGEOSPHERE (Therrien and Sudicky, 1996), a comparison is made between two ways for representing the fracture zones: (1) high contrasted hydraulic conductivity zones with a classical REV approach and (2) the explicit representation of discrete fractures interacting with a porous medium. Promising results are found using the discrete approach for representing the fractures. In this last case, an aperture of the order of the millimetre is enough for creating, where it is needed, a fast advective peak combined with a long highly dispersive component due to the chalk matrix. The discrete fracture approach prevents the modeller from introducing unrealistic parameters values in the fracture zones as it is generally the case in the classical REV-based method where the fractured zones are simply represented by elongated REV. However, it is shown that the availability of field data, as multi-tracers test results, creates very high constraints to be taken into account in the calibration processes (i.e calibration on the measured groundwater flow and transport conditions). The detailed calibration on the different breakthrough curves is not an easy task and automatic calibration is not easy to organize. Results are particularly illustrative to show that a detailed parameterization and calibration of such a local situation remain difficult. Perspectives will be discussed about the potential use of automatic calibration tools as UCODE_2005 or PEST for solving such local situation models and the needed further steps for ‘upscaling’ local situation models at the scale of the whole aquifer or groundwater body. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (15 ULg)