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See detailLe medicament du mois. Etoricoxib (Arcoxia)
Leclercq, P.; Malaise, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(5), 345-349

Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) is a novel non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that selectively inhibits the inducible form of cyclo-oxygenase (COX), COX-2. Etoricoxib has a higher COX-1/COX-2 selectivity ... [more ▼]

Etoricoxib (Arcoxia) is a novel non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that selectively inhibits the inducible form of cyclo-oxygenase (COX), COX-2. Etoricoxib has a higher COX-1/COX-2 selectivity ratio than the other COX-2-selective NSAIDs as rofecoxib, valdecoxib or celecoxib. Tablets of 60, 90 and 120 mg are available. The recommended dosage of etoricoxib is 60 mg/day for osteoarthritis, 90 mg/day for rheumatoid arthritis and 120 mg/day for acute gouty arthritis. Etoricoxib's efficacy has been widely studied in comparative studies, showing the same efficacy as non-COX-2 selective NSAID, with fewer gastro-intestinal adverse effects. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Everolimus (RAD001/Afinitor) dans le traitement du cancer du rein métastatique.
Gennigens, Christine ULg; Sautois, Brieuc ULg; Jerusalem, Guy ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(4), 212-6

Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all malignant tumours. Until a few years ago, immunotherapy (interferon and/or interleukin-2) was the only approved option in the metastatic setting. Better ... [more ▼]

Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 3% of all malignant tumours. Until a few years ago, immunotherapy (interferon and/or interleukin-2) was the only approved option in the metastatic setting. Better knowledge of renal cell cancer biology drew attention on the fundamental role of angiogenesis. Several strategies targeting angiogenesis have been developed including VEGF ("Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor") and VEGFR inhibitors. They are now the usual treatment in first line. Until recently, no standard treatment was available after failure under or after these inhibitors. Everolimus (Afinitor), a mTOR ("mammalian Target Of Rapamycin") inhibitor, has just been validated and reimbursed in this setting. In this paper, we will review the mechanism of action and the clinical results of everolimus. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Exenatide (Byetta). Incretinomimetique indique dans le traitement du diabete de type 2 apres echec et en complement des antidiabetiques oraux.
Scheen, André ULg; Van Gaal, L. F.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(3), 158-65

Exenatide (Byetta) is a synthetic derivative of exendin-4 and an agonist of receptors of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It is resistant to the rapid inactivation by dipeptidylpeptidase-4 and acts as an ... [more ▼]

Exenatide (Byetta) is a synthetic derivative of exendin-4 and an agonist of receptors of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). It is resistant to the rapid inactivation by dipeptidylpeptidase-4 and acts as an incretin mimetic. It stimulates insulin secretion by the B cell in a glucose-dependent manner whereas it inhibits glucagon secretion. Exenatide improves mainly postprandial glucose concentrations and lowers glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) levels, without being directly responsible for hypoglycaemia or requiring mandatory home blood glucose monitoring. Furthermore, it slows down gastric emptying and promotes sustained body weight reduction, even in absence of frequently reported nausea following treatment initiation. Exenatide is recommended and reimbursed in Belgium for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in combination with metformin and a sulfonylurea, in patients not adequately controlled with maximal tolerated doses of these oral glucose-lowering agents. Exenatide is presented as pre-filled pens for subcutaneous injection. The recommended initial dose is 5 microg before morning and evening meals, to be up titrated to 10 microg twice daily. Exenatide may represent a valuable alternative to insulin therapy, especially in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes and not ready to perform home blood glucose monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Exforge HCT: premiere association fixe d'un antagoniste calcique (besylate d'amlodipine), d'un inhibiteur des recepteurs de l'angiotensine II (valsartan) et d'un diuretique (hydrochlorothiazide).
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2010), 65(7-8), 471-5

Because of the multifactorial nature of hypertension, most patients require combination therapy to achieve blood pressure control. Very often the antihypertensive regimen includes a renin-angiotensin ... [more ▼]

Because of the multifactorial nature of hypertension, most patients require combination therapy to achieve blood pressure control. Very often the antihypertensive regimen includes a renin-angiotensin system blocker, a calcium channel blocker, and a diuretic. Currently, several associations combining two antihypertensive agents with complementary mechanisms of action are available. These combination therapies are more efficient to control blood pressure through synergistic and additive effects, can reach target blood pressure more quickly, are likely to attenuate the side effects of each molecule, and could improve patient adherence. Exforge HCT is the first fixed-dose combination of three antihypertensive drugs including amlodipine besylate, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in a single pill. The association of these three drugs improves, with an equal tolerance, blood pressure control compared to dual therapies (valsartan/HCTZ, amlodipine/valsartan, or HCTZ/amlodipine). This triple therapy attenuates the diuretic-induced hypokalemia. The benefits of triple therapy over dual therapy are observed regardless of age, sex, race, ethnicity, or baseline mean sitting systolic blood pressure. Exforge HCT is currently indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension, as replacement therapy for adult patients whose blood pressure is adequately controlled by the combination of amlodipine, valsartan and HCTZ. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Ezetimibe (Ezetrol).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(4), 246-50

Ezetimibe (Ezetrol), recently launched in Belgium by Merck Sharp& Dohme and Schering Plough, is presented as 10 mg tablets. It belongs to a new class of lipid-lowering agents that selectively inhibit the ... [more ▼]

Ezetimibe (Ezetrol), recently launched in Belgium by Merck Sharp& Dohme and Schering Plough, is presented as 10 mg tablets. It belongs to a new class of lipid-lowering agents that selectively inhibit the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and phytosterols. Its mechanism of action results in a synergistic cholesterol-lowering effect together with a statin that inhibits cholesterol synthesis by the liver. Ezetimibe, at a daily dose of 10 mg, is indicated, in combination with a statin, as adjuvant treatment to diet in patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia (homozygote or heterozygote familial form and non-familial polygenic form) not well controlled with a statin alone. In case of statin contra-indication or intolerance, ezetimibe can be used in monotherapy. Its tolerance profile is excellent. Statin-ezetimibe combination allows to significantly reduce total and LDL cholesterol levels and increases the percentage of hypercholesterolaemic patients who will reach the target levels recommended in the international guidelines against atherosclerosis. However, such a combination should still prove its efficacy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in large prospective clinical trials. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Femoston Low (0,5 mg d'estradiol plus 2,5 mg de dydrogesterone) comme traitement hormonal de substitution a la menopause.
SCHEEN, André ULg; Gaspard, Ulysse ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2011), 66(4), 209-14

Femoston Low is a hormone replacement therapy that combines low dosages of steroids, i.e. 0.5 mg of estradiol and 2.5 mg of dydrogesterone. This oral preparation should be taken continuously to treat ... [more ▼]

Femoston Low is a hormone replacement therapy that combines low dosages of steroids, i.e. 0.5 mg of estradiol and 2.5 mg of dydrogesterone. This oral preparation should be taken continuously to treat climacteric symptoms in menopausal women. Femoston Low is in agreement with the recent recommendations for menopausal hormone replacement therapy, which give the preference to low dosage therapy whenever possible. The goals are to potentially minimize the risk of breast cancer, the danger of venous or arterial thrombosis and the glucose and lipid metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the preparation should efficaciously oppose to endometrial hyperplasia and yield a high degree of amenorrhea. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Gliclazide a liberation modifiee (Uni Diamicron).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 641-5

Gliclazide modified release that has been recently launched by Servier (Uni Diamicron 30 mg) is a new formulation of gliclazide to be given once daily. The original hydrophilic matrix improves the ... [more ▼]

Gliclazide modified release that has been recently launched by Servier (Uni Diamicron 30 mg) is a new formulation of gliclazide to be given once daily. The original hydrophilic matrix improves the biodisponsibility of gliclazide and allows a progressive release of the drug that better parallels the 24-hour glycaemic profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Such characteristics may explain the rather low risk of hypoglycaemic episodes and the morning administration should contribute to improve patient's compliance. As the common formulation of gliclazide, the modified release formulation is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in adult subjects, when diet, exercise and weight loss are insufficient to restore an adequate metabolic control. It may be used alone or in combination with metformin, glitazones, acarbose or insulin, with the same general principles of use as for the classical formulation of gliclazide. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Glucovance dans le diabete de type 2, une association fixe metformine-glibenclamide pour faciliter le traitement d'une maladie bipolaire.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(6), 448-52

Glucovance, recently launched by Merck-Lipha (Glucovance 500 mg/2.5 mg and Glucovance 500 mg/5 mg), is a fixed combined therapy of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 2.5 or 5 mg) and a biguanide (metformin ... [more ▼]

Glucovance, recently launched by Merck-Lipha (Glucovance 500 mg/2.5 mg and Glucovance 500 mg/5 mg), is a fixed combined therapy of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 2.5 or 5 mg) and a biguanide (metformin 500 mg), indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adult patients. The only current official indication in Belgium is the substitution of a dual therapy with metformin and glibenclamide in patients with a stable and adequate metabolic control. The fixed combination aims at simplifying patient's treatment in order to improve compliance despite polymedication. In addition, it allows targeting synergistically the two main abnormalities of type 2 diabetes, i.e. the insulin secretory defect and the insulin resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Insuline glargine (Lantus).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(2), 110-4

Insulin glargine (Lantus) is a human insulin analogue produced by recombinant DNA technology and recently launched by Aventis. Modification of the human insulin molecule at position A21 and at the C ... [more ▼]

Insulin glargine (Lantus) is a human insulin analogue produced by recombinant DNA technology and recently launched by Aventis. Modification of the human insulin molecule at position A21 and at the C-terminus of the B-chain results in the formation of a stable compound that is soluble at pH 4.0, but forms amorphous microprecipitates in subcutaneous tissue (pH > 7,4) from which small amounts of insulin glargine are gradually released. The plasma concentration versus time profile of insulin glargine is therefore relatively constant over 24 hours as compared to conventional human insulins, especially NPH. This allows once-daily injection as basal insulin therapy, at any moment of the clock time (but if possible at the same time from day to day). Reproducibility of plasma insulin levels is also improved with insulin glargine as compared to human NPH insulin. Insulin glargine administration should be combined to rapid insulin injections, before each meal in order to control postprandial hyperglycaemia, or with oral antidiabetic agents in type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic properties of insulin glargine allow an easier titration of basal insulin dose, which should facilitate adequate blood glucose control while decreasing the risk of hypoglycaemia, especially during night time. Insulin glargine use is safe with no increased antigenicity, immunogenicity or mitogenicity reactions as compared to human insulin. Optimal use of this new insulin analogue should be integrated in a global management of the diabetic patient as well as in a new culture of insulin therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Ivabradine (Procoralan).
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(4), 220-4

Ivabradine (Procoralan), a new If inhibitor which acts specifically and in a dose-dependent manner on the pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node, is a pure heart rate lowering agent. It slows the ... [more ▼]

Ivabradine (Procoralan), a new If inhibitor which acts specifically and in a dose-dependent manner on the pacemaker activity of the sinoatrial node, is a pure heart rate lowering agent. It slows the diastolic depolarization slope of sinoatrial node cells and reduces heart rate at rest and during exercise. It has shown anti-ischaemic and anti-anginal activity at recommended doses of 5 and 7.5 mg bid in patients with stable angina. Ivabradine is as effective as atenolol and amlodipine to prevent or attenuate exercise-induced ischaemia in these patients. It is well tolerated, with transient visual symptoms being the main drug-related adverse event. These symptoms may be linked to the presence in the retina of ion channels similar to cardiac If channels and did not adversely affect the tolerability of the drug for most patients. In Belgium, ivabradine is currently reimbursed in patients with stable angina and normal sinus rhythm who do not tolerate beta-blockers and non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists or in whom these treatments are contra-indicated. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. L'aliskiren (Rasilez), inhibiteur direct de la renine.
Scheen, André ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(9), 564-9

Aliskiren (Rasilez) is the first oral renin inhibitor. Its present indication is essential hypertension, as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (diuretic, calcium antagonist ... [more ▼]

Aliskiren (Rasilez) is the first oral renin inhibitor. Its present indication is essential hypertension, as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents (diuretic, calcium antagonist, ...). It may also be associated with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (or an AT1 angiotensin receptor antagonist) in order to benefit of a dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The usual daily dose is 150 mg, to be increased up to 300 mg if necessary. New clinical trials are ongoing to validate this novel therapeutic approach in other indications such as congestive heart failure and diabetic nephropathy. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. L'association budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH)
Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 741-4

The combination of budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH) in the same dry powder inhaler (turbohaler) results in a drug that possesses powerful bronchial anti-inflammatory ... [more ▼]

The combination of budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH) in the same dry powder inhaler (turbohaler) results in a drug that possesses powerful bronchial anti-inflammatory, bronchoprotective and bronchodilating activities. Symbicort TH is registered as a maintenance treatment for asthma from the age of 12 years. This drug is indicated in the treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma as well as in asthma which remains mild persistent despite the regular use of low doses of inhaled corticoids alone. Symbicort TH rapidly improves asthma control by reducing symptoms, relief medication consumption and by improving lung function. Importantly, when taken regularly over a prolonged period, the drug reduces the number of mild and severe exacerbations. The dose of Symbicort TH is adjustable according to the disease severity and generally fluctuates between 2 x 1/24 h and 4 x 2/24 h. Symbicort TH is a simple and a efficient treatment likely to improve the compliance of asthmatics to their treatment in real life. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. L'association calcipotriol-dipropionate de bétamethasone (dovobet).
Henry, Frédérique ULg; Flagothier, Caroline ULg; Delvoye, Pierre et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(11), 893-5

The topical treatment of psoriasis benefits from the alternate use of dermocorticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogues. A new galenic formulation allows to combine them in a single application. Dovobet (LEO ... [more ▼]

The topical treatment of psoriasis benefits from the alternate use of dermocorticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogues. A new galenic formulation allows to combine them in a single application. Dovobet (LEO Pharma) ointment is the association of calcipotriol 50 microg/g with betamethasone dipoprionate 0.5 mg/g. This formulation boosts the therapeutic activity of calcipotriol. It also decreases the irritative inflammatory reaction due to calcipotriol without increasing the atrophogenic risk of the dermocorticoid. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. L'étanercept (Enbrel) pour le traitement du psoriasis en plaques modéré a sévère.
Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2006), 61(3), 201-5

Etanercept (Enbrel) is a soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor drug. By this mechanism, it inhibits the effects of TNF-alpha involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Enbrel is approved for the ... [more ▼]

Etanercept (Enbrel) is a soluble tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor drug. By this mechanism, it inhibits the effects of TNF-alpha involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Enbrel is approved for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis, and also for psoriatic arthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. L'insuline detemir (Levemir)
Scheen, André ULg; Radermecker, Régis ULg; Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2005), 60(10), 814-9

Insulin detemir (Levemir) is a soluble long acting human insulin analogue acylated with a 14-carbon fatty acid. The fatty acid modification allows insulin detemir to reversibly bind to albumin, thereby ... [more ▼]

Insulin detemir (Levemir) is a soluble long acting human insulin analogue acylated with a 14-carbon fatty acid. The fatty acid modification allows insulin detemir to reversibly bind to albumin, thereby providing slow absorption and a prolonged metabolic effect (up to 24 hours) with low variability. Indeed, in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin detemir has a more predictable, protracted and consistent effect, with less intrapatient variability in glycaemic control (particularly fasting plasma glucose levels), compared with NPH (Neutral Protamine Hagedorn) insulin. Insulin detemir, is at least as effective as NPH insulin in maintaining overall glycaemic control, with a lower risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. It also provides the additional benefit of less body weight gain as compared to other basal insulins. Levemir, presented in cartridges for the pen device NovoPen 3 and administered preferably at bedtime (if necessary morning and evening), is a promising new option for basal insulin therapy in diabetic patients, especially those on a basal-bolus scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. L'insuline
Radermecker, Régis ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2008), 63(11), 688-692

L’insuline asparte biphasique NovoMix® 50 est une nouvelle insuline prémixée comprenant 50 % de l’analogue ultra-rapide asparte et 50 % d’insuline asparte protaminée cristallisée. Cette insuline offre ... [more ▼]

L’insuline asparte biphasique NovoMix® 50 est une nouvelle insuline prémixée comprenant 50 % de l’analogue ultra-rapide asparte et 50 % d’insuline asparte protaminée cristallisée. Cette insuline offre, par rapport à l’insuline NovoMix® 30, un meilleur contrôle de l’hyperglycémie post-prandiale grâce à une plus forte proportion d’insuline ultra-rapide. Une autre préparation, appelée NovoMix® 70, complète la gamme de NovoNordisk et sera bientôt commercialisée en Belgique. Ces insulines prémixées peuvent être utilisées en une seule (rarement), en deux (classiquement) ou en trois (de plus en plus fréquemment, à savoir avant les 3 repas principaux) injections sous-cutanées par jour. Elles sont utilisées dans le traitement du diabète de type 2, éventuellement en association avec la metformine. Ces insulines sont présentées sous forme de cartouches Penfill de 3 ml pour stylo NovoPen®. La mise à disposition du corps médical de préparations insuliniques prémixées contenant des proportions variables d’un analogue de l’insuline à action ultra-rapide et d’insuline intermédiaire offre une plus grande flexibilité et permet de sélectionner, en fonction du moment de la journée, les préparations insuliniques qui permettent d’assurer la meilleure couverture prandiale et basale, tout en limitant le risque hypoglycémique. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. La rosiglitazone (Avandia).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(4), 236-9

Rosiglitazone (Avandia, Glaxo-SmithKline) belongs to a new family of oral hypoglycaemic agents, thiazolidinediones or glitazones. These molecules act as selective agonists of nuclear receptors (PPAR gamma ... [more ▼]

Rosiglitazone (Avandia, Glaxo-SmithKline) belongs to a new family of oral hypoglycaemic agents, thiazolidinediones or glitazones. These molecules act as selective agonists of nuclear receptors (PPAR gamma) and improve insulin sensitivity. In Belgium as in all European countries, rosiglitazone is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, only in combination with another antidiabetic oral agent, in patients insufficiently controlled with metformin or a sulphonylurea at a maximal tolerated dose. In these patients, rosiglitazone, at a daily dose of 4 mg (sometimes 8 mg/day with metformin), reduces fasting glycaemia by 2-3 mmol/l and glycated haemoglobin level by about 1%. It exerts also favourable effects on some risk factors related to insulin resistance syndrome, which may contribute to improve cardiovascular prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes. Hepatic safety of rosiglitazone seems to be good, although it is still recommended to check liver enzymes regularly. As all glitazones, rosiglitazone moderately promotes weight gain. It can also induce some fluid retention which may reveal or aggravate heart failure in at risk patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Le lixisenatide (Lyxumia): nouvel agoniste des recepteurs du glucagon-like peptide-1 a action preferentiellement post-prandiale.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue medicale de Liege (2014), 69(2), 102-9

Lixisenatide (Lyxumia) is a new agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors that is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in one single subcutaneous daily injection of 20 microg. It ... [more ▼]

Lixisenatide (Lyxumia) is a new agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors that is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in one single subcutaneous daily injection of 20 microg. It exerts an incretin effect by stimulating insulin secretion after a meal while inhibiting glucagon secretion, both in a glucose-dependent manner, which limits the risk of hypoglycaemia. In addition, it slows down gastric emptying after a meal, which contributes to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia, especially after breakfast. Lixisenatide is currently reimbursed in Belgium after failure of a dual therapy with metformin and a sulfonylurea but also in combination with a basal insulin (with or without oral antidiabetic drugs). The latter interesting combination should tackle fasting glycaemia with basal insulin (after appropriate dose titration) and postprandial hyperglycaemia with the GLP-1 receptor agonist in a complementary manner. The consequence is a further improvement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) varying between 0.3 and 0.9% in various studies comparing lixisenatide versus placebo. As other compounds of the class, lixisenatide induces a small weight reduction, which contrasts with the weight gain commonly observed with other antidiabetic medications (including insulin). Further studies should demonstrate the effects of lixisenatide on vascular complications and overall prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. Le tacrolimus topique (Protopic).
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard, Claudine ULg; Paquet, Philippe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(8), 552-5

Tacrolimus is a potent inhibitor of immune mechanisms. It belongs to the macrolactam group. It inhibits the release of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. It proves to be efficacious after topical application in ... [more ▼]

Tacrolimus is a potent inhibitor of immune mechanisms. It belongs to the macrolactam group. It inhibits the release of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. It proves to be efficacious after topical application in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. In this indication, tacrolimus challenges topical corticosteroids. Irritation risks are present. The local immuno-depression can boost disseminated infections including herpes. The risk to promote photocarcinogenesis on the long term, and that bound to chronic resorption remain theoretical concerns that have not been assessed so far. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Le tiotropium (SPIRIVA)
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2004), 59(9), 530-3

SPIRIVA (tiotropium) is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilatator, inhaled once a day, which produces relaxation of airway smooth muscle through antagonism of acetylcholine at M3-muscarinic receptors ... [more ▼]

SPIRIVA (tiotropium) is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilatator, inhaled once a day, which produces relaxation of airway smooth muscle through antagonism of acetylcholine at M3-muscarinic receptors. Its duration of action is at least 24h with once daily administration of tiotropium. Several studies have shown its efficacy and its good tolerance in the treatment of patients who are suffering from moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SPIRIVA improves spirometric measurements and quality of life, and reduces dyspnea and exacerbation rate in COPD patients. [less ▲]

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