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See detailA Hand Immersion Test under Laboratory-Controlled Usage Conditions: The Need for Sensitive and Controlled Assessment Methods
Paye, Marc ULiege; Gomes, G.; Zerweck, C. R. et al

in Contact Dermatitis (1999), 40(3), 133-8

Exaggerated test conditions were frequently used to investigate the cutaneous tolerance of detergent products in the past. As the sensitivity of newly designed biometric methods is steadily improving, the ... [more ▼]

Exaggerated test conditions were frequently used to investigate the cutaneous tolerance of detergent products in the past. As the sensitivity of newly designed biometric methods is steadily improving, the trend towards more realistic test conditions should be encouraged. A hand immersion test under laboratory-controlled usage conditions is presently described, fulfilling such principles. Panelists soaked their hands in 2 different hand dishwashing liquids, 2x daily for 10 min each (with successive in-solution/out-of-solution cycles) for 4 consecutive days. Products were at usual dilution for dishwashing liquids and were randomized between the dominant and non-dominant hands of panelists. Visual scoring of erythema and dryness developing on the whole hands (scoring scales including interdigital areas and joints) during the week did not allow discrimination between the 2 products. However the dominant hands were significantly more susceptible to alterations than the non-dominant hands, regardless of product attribution. In contrast, skin electrical measurements (Corneometer CM800 and Skicon 200) on the dorsum of the hands (muscle mass between thumb and index) and squamometry analysis of tape stripping (harvested from the same site) yielded significant differences between the 2 products. In conclusion, a hand immersion test under realistic conditions has been described, which discriminates between products when sensitive assessment methods are used to explore skin sites partially protected from daily-life skin aggressions. [less ▲]

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See detailHand position on the bunch and source-sink ratio influence the banana fruit susceptibility to crown rot disease
Lassois, Ludivine ULiege; Bastiaanse, H.; Chillet, M. et al

in Annals of Applied Biology (2010), 156

The postharvest development of crown rot of bananas depends notably on the fruit susceptibility to this disease at harvest. It has been shown that fruit susceptibility to crown rot is variable and it was ... [more ▼]

The postharvest development of crown rot of bananas depends notably on the fruit susceptibility to this disease at harvest. It has been shown that fruit susceptibility to crown rot is variable and it was suggested that this depends on environmental preharvest factors. However, little is known about the preharvest factors influencing this susceptibility. The aim of this work was to evaluate the extent to which fruit filling characteristics during growth and the fruit development stage influence the banana susceptibility to crown rot. This involved evaluating the influence of (a) the fruit position at different levels of the banana bunch (hands) and (b) changing the source–sink ratio (So–Si ratio), on the fruit susceptibility to crown rot. The fruit susceptibility was determined by measuring the internal necrotic surface (INS) after artificial inoculation of Colletotrichum musae. A linear correlation (r = −0.95) was found between the hand position on the bunch and the INS. The So–Si ratio was found to influence the pomological characteristics of the fruits and their susceptibility to crown rot. Fruits of bunches from which six hands were removed (two hands remaining on the bunch) proved to be significantly less susceptible to crown rot (INS = 138.3 mm2) than those from bunches with eight hands (INS = 237.9 mm2). The banana susceptibility to crown rot is thus likely to be influenced by the fruit development stage and filling characteristics. The present results highlight the importance of standardising hand sampling on a bunch when testing fruit susceptibility to crown rot. They also show that hand removal in the field has advantages in the context of integrated pest management, making it possible to reduce fruit susceptibility to crown rot while increasing fruit size. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (7 ULiège)
See detailHandboek Licentieovereenkomsten
Vanbrabant, Bernard ULiege; Van Couter, Yves

Book published by Larcier (2008)

Het Handboek Licentieovereenkomsten schetst op een bevattelijke wijze het Belgisch juridisch kader dat gemeenschappelijk is aan de overeenkomsten tot gebruik van intellectuele eigendomsrechten. Waar ... [more ▼]

Het Handboek Licentieovereenkomsten schetst op een bevattelijke wijze het Belgisch juridisch kader dat gemeenschappelijk is aan de overeenkomsten tot gebruik van intellectuele eigendomsrechten. Waar aangewezen wordt de aandacht gevestigd op de specificiek regelgeving die, afhankelijk van het betrokken type van intellectuele eigendom, van toepassing is op een licentieovereenkomst. In het Eerste Deel van het Handboek komen de burgerrechtelijke aspecten aan bod: na de definiëring en de bespreking van de verschillende types licentieovereenkomsten, wordt in het bijzonder aandacht besteed aan het sluiten, de uitlegging, de uitvoering, de overdracht en de uitdoving van de licentieovereenkomst. In het tweede Deel komt de verhouding tussen de exploitatie van de intellectuele eigendom (de licentieovereenkomst) en het mededingingsrecht aan bod. Na enkele inleidende overwegingen volgt de toetsing van de licentieovereenkomst aan de artikelen 81 en 82 EG. Daar een goed functioneren van de Interne Markt één van de objectieven van het mededingingsrecht is, wordt tenslotte de verhouding tussen de licentieovereenkomst en die Interne Markt, het vrij verkeer van goederen binnen de Europese Economische Ruimte, behandeld. [less ▲]

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See detailHandbook of Environmental Migration
McLeman, Robert; Gemenne, François ULiege

Book published by Routledge (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 163 (11 ULiège)
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See detailHandbook of Research on Entrepreneurship. What We Know and What We Need to Know
Aliaga Isla, Rocio ULiege

in International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research (2015)

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See detailHandheld modern computer brings new features to portable X-ray fluorescence coating thickness measurement device
Carapelle, Alain ULiege; Defise, Jean-Marc ULiege; Strivay, David ULiege et al

in Computer Physics Communications (2011), 182(6), 1304-1306

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (11 ULiège)
See detailHandicap et aménagements raisonnables: importation et usages d'une catégorie juridique en France et en Belgique
Lejeune, Aude ULiege; Hubin, Joël; Ringelheim, Julie et al

Report (2017)

La notion d’aménagement raisonnable désigne toute tentative, dans une société, de s’accommoder ou de s’ajuster aux besoins d’un individu qui découlent de son appartenance à une minorité, dans le respect ... [more ▼]

La notion d’aménagement raisonnable désigne toute tentative, dans une société, de s’accommoder ou de s’ajuster aux besoins d’un individu qui découlent de son appartenance à une minorité, dans le respect de l’égalité de traitement entre tous les êtres humains et des libertés fondamentales. A travers cette recherche, centrée sur les aménagements à destination des travailleurs en situation de handicap, nous proposons d’interroger l’émergence de cette catégorie en droit, ainsi que les usages qui en sont faits par les acteurs sociaux dans le domaine du travail. Deux dimensions sont centrales dans ce projet. D’une part, l’examen des législations en vigueur, de la jurisprudence et de la doctrine donnent à voir les conditions d’importation de cette catégorie juridique en Belgique et en France et son articulation avec d’autres législations qui encadrent les relations de travail (obligation de reclassement, bien-être au travail, etc.). D’autre part, l’analyse des pratiques et des représentations des acteurs du monde du travail met en lumière la façon dont cette catégorie juridique est mobilisée, contournée ou évitée. Notre enquête porte sur trois groupes de professionnels qui interviennent auprès des travailleurs, les syndicats, avocats et agents des organismes publics de lutte contre les discriminations, ainsi que sur les parties prenantes, à savoir les employeurs et les travailleurs. La comparaison de la France et de la Belgique met en évidence l’influence des différentes configurations de relations professionnelles, que nous définissons comme un ensemble de règles et de pratiques qui structurent les rapports entre les salariés, les employeurs et l’Etat et qui sont spécifiques à chaque contexte national. Plus généralement, cette recherche montre les effets produits par l’introduction de cette obligation d’aménagement raisonnable. Les acteurs du monde du travail se réfèrent peu aux législations en matière d’aménagement raisonnable et ne perçoivent pas ces normes comme des contraintes fortes. Néanmoins, notre étude montre que le droit produit des effets diffus, parfois inattendus : les employeurs, les travailleurs et les professionnels qui défendent leurs droits se saisissent des cadres juridiques existants, les intègrent dans leurs discours et parfois dans leurs pratiques, lui donnent sens, et contribuent ainsi à remodeler les contours des normes juridiques. [less ▲]

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See detailHandicap et citoyenneté une approche interdisciplinaire
Fontaine, Sébastien ULiege; Cobbaut, J.-Ph; Routier, C. et al

in La revue nouvelle (2016), 3(2016),

De manière générale, le concept de citoyenneté a considérablement évolué. En ce qui concerne le handicap, le passage d’un modèle médical à un modèle social et ensuite à un point de vue psychosocial et ... [more ▼]

De manière générale, le concept de citoyenneté a considérablement évolué. En ce qui concerne le handicap, le passage d’un modèle médical à un modèle social et ensuite à un point de vue psychosocial et pluridisciplinaire a transformé les modalités d’intervention. Les personnes en situation de handicap de bénéficiaires-usagers sont devenues des bénéficiaires-experts, socialement incluses plutôt qu’insérées. Une justice sociale réellement inclusive ne peut s’instaurer qu’à travers des processus d’apprentissages de l’ensemble des personnes concernées, usagers, professionnels, chercheurs, experts, politiques. [less ▲]

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See detailHandicap Mental et opinion publique : Méthodologies (spécifiques ou non) pour une prise en compte de l'opinion des personnes en situation de handicap.
Fontaine, Sébastien ULiege

Poster (2010)

Dans le contexte actuel, où l’enquête d’opinion est considérée comme un instrument de mesure de la volonté populaire, on peut se poser la question du droit de chaque citoyen à ne pas être exclu d’office ... [more ▼]

Dans le contexte actuel, où l’enquête d’opinion est considérée comme un instrument de mesure de la volonté populaire, on peut se poser la question du droit de chaque citoyen à ne pas être exclu d’office des enquêtes d’opinion. Ce poster présentera d’une part, les aspects éthiques d’une exclusion supplémentaire dont souffrent les personnes handicapées : leur « non-représentation » dans les statistiques d’opinion. Je proposerai d’autre part un relevé des outils existant pour accéder à l’opinion des personnes handicapées. Enfin, je proposerai des pistes d’élaboration de méthodes pour intégrer ces outils dans les enquêtes généralistes et ainsi faire cohabiter personnes handicapées et personnes valides dans les mêmes bases de données. [less ▲]

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See detailLe handicap qui fait chavirer la tête et celui qui fait chavirer le souffle d'une famille
Battisti, Oreste ULiege

Conference (1996, September 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULiège)
See detailLes handicapés, parlons-en!.....
Giot, Bernadette ULiege; Mainguet, Christine ULiege; Krol, P. et al

Book (1987)

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See detailHandicapped or different ? Symposium conclusions
De Landsheere, Gilbert ULiege

in Information Bulletin (1974, April), 1

This summary paper of the Educational Research Symposium on the "Socio-Culturally Handicapped" details the major themes of the conference, and lists recommendations for further involvement for the Council ... [more ▼]

This summary paper of the Educational Research Symposium on the "Socio-Culturally Handicapped" details the major themes of the conference, and lists recommendations for further involvement for the Council of Europe in this area. (EH) [less ▲]

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See detailHandicaps, attitudes et représentations sociales. Une enquête quantitative comparative auprès de la population francophone de Belgique.
Fontaine, Sébastien ULiege

Conference (2012)

Cette communication présentera les résultats d’une enquête quantitative sur les représentations sociales des handicaps menée en Belgique Francophone en 2010. Selon Moscovici, Il existe un lien fort entre ... [more ▼]

Cette communication présentera les résultats d’une enquête quantitative sur les représentations sociales des handicaps menée en Belgique Francophone en 2010. Selon Moscovici, Il existe un lien fort entre représentations sociales et attitudes. Les représentations sociales préparent à l’action et guident les comportements. Les comportements et les attitudes peuvent, à leurs tours, déforcer ou renforcer les représentations. Notre recherche a permis d’approcher les représentations sociales des handicaps en sondant les attitudes, les comportements et les opinions en Belgique francophone. Trois dimensions ont été suivies : les sentiments et attitudes envers le handicap en étudiant la peur, la compassion et le sentiment d’inconfort ; la place personne handicapée en utilisant des cercles concentriques autours du répondant et enfin la citoyenneté et les droits des personnes en situation de handicap. L’originalité de cette recherche réside dans l’analyse comparative entre des opinions et des attitudes envers différents types de handicap. Nous avons mis au point un procédé permettant de comparer les attitudes envers trois handicaps types: le handicap moteur, le handicap mental léger et le handicap sensoriel, afin de tester les différences de représentations envers ces objets dans le but de faire émerger les représentations sociales envers des handicaps précisés. [less ▲]

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See detailHandling complex risks issues in the domain of environment and health - SCOPE
Torfs, Rudi; Zwetkoff, Catherine ULiege; Fallon, Catherine ULiege et al

Report (2011)

This research report has its origin in the notion that classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Risk assessment was developed as a ... [more ▼]

This research report has its origin in the notion that classical risk assessment paradigms no longer suffice to deal with complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks. Risk assessment was developed as a scientific tool to tackle uncertain consequences of human activities by organizing, evaluating, integrating and presenting scientific information to inform decision-making. Over the years, this type of risk assessment has proved effective in protecting public health and the environment from major environmental hazards with high relative risks. In the modern „risk society‟ classical risk assessment fails to handle complex risks characterized by radical uncertainty and a plurality of legitimate perspectives and values. Public authorities have to deal with issues/risks were facts are uncertain and values are contested. To answer to the increased demands of policymakers and the public for guidance on risk management new processes for the governance of these risks need to be developed. Weberian bureaucratic structures and forms of cooperation are working in a logic of specialisation of work, where distribution of information and knowledge, structures of decisions and allocation of responsibilities are organised ab initio in a stable organisational frame. Such a structure is not capable of resisting to the emergence of new risks which are often not identified as such at start and require a more integrative form of assessment, integrating inter-disciplinary collaboration on a specific policy problem that is complex, uncertain, perhaps unlimited in temporal and spatial scale, and interlinked with other phenomena. If the frame of reflexivity (Beck, 2003) is adopted, we thus have to recognise that a global mastering of these risks is not possible. What is now requested is the settlement of conditions for another type of open debate. Experiments in new forms of public participation in the management of technological developments (like e.g. citizen panels on long-term storage of nuclear waste1, or on cars and health2) already inspired the public administrators in their search for new procedural forms of decision making in areas of uncertainty. For a certain category of risks inclusion of the public, next to industrial stakeholders, organised environmental interest groups and governmental agencies and administrations is warranted, to integrate different opinions and values and to develop adequate policies. Network governance should be developed, where stakeholders are invited to speak up and where power structures are reconsidered and flattened. Here the authorities are recommended to exercise their capacities not as a centre of knowledge and top-down decision, but as a facilitator for communication and collaboration within networking structures, mobilising numerous experts and stakeholders, including the population itself (Gilbert, 2002), to develop new options which are socially acceptable and technically efficient (Fallon et al., 2008a & b). This requires a different mindset where the plurality of frames and fluidity of boundaries; the need for contextualisation; the construction of unstable temporary networks, the plurality of rationalities and the inherent uncertainties, social and technical (Callon, 1986) of the issues considered. As uncertainties are recognised, scientists are not anymore expected to close the controversy but rather to contribute to the technical quality of the process. The public decision-making process (DMP) should be designed to organise the conditions for an optimal tradeoff between scientific soundness and social acceptability of decisions, in a context where the precautionary principle is relevant. The key issue, framing or “structuring the research questions”, is a method for deciding how to manage scientific uncertainty. From literature review and past studies, we posit that a better quality DMP could be achieved by using tools for an integrated and comparative risk assessment and management. These approaches rely on interdisciplinary risk assessment – relevant soft and hard sciences are engaged together into the knowledge production process rather than mobilized side by side. Concretely, it involves designing the steps or sequences of the process and selecting/developing/adapting risk assessment and management tools. More specific, within the environment and health arena there is limited experience with these new concepts of integrated assessments (Briggs, 2008). Therefore case studies on various environment and health issues were performed to evaluate current integrated risk assessment practices, multi-level precautionary approaches and communication of complex risks. Different tools as Delphi, scenario workshop, etc. were used to analyse the issues at stake. The development of an integrated approach in risk assessment requires cooperation across policy domains and hierarchical structures. In the field of air pollution a science-policy workshop confirmed that in the domain of air quality policy, public servants communicate well with researchers from scientific institutions. The protagonists in Flemish air quality policy have a common scientific background and are technical experts. This observation puts into question a common discourse postulating that there is a „communication problem' or 'gap' between 'researchers' and 'policymakers'. This discourse as a description of a state of affairs does not suit empirical reality, and needs to be reformulated in more precise terms. If there is a communication gap, it is not to be situated between public administration („policymakers‟) and researchers („scientists‟), who share the same overall concerns, but between public administrations and ministerial cabinets. The analysis of risks related to electromagnetic fields (EMF), showed how the precautionary principle is reinterpreted differently at each different political level (European, Belgian, Wallonia, Regional) in order to better integrate the local institutional and political environment. In most cases, when this principle is put at the foreground, its use is mainly symbolic and incantatory. When implementing policies it does not seem to respond to some precautionary approach, but rather to the institutional dynamics which characterise each political level. We observed the reinforcement of the European role in the field of health & environment: in attempts to underline institutional cooperation at the federal level in Belgium and to reinforce the authority of the regional government on the Walloon territory. From this case study it is learnt that the new deliberative spaces to be developed should not be embedded in the dominant institutional structures. A structure such as promoted in the wake of "Technology assessment" (Delvenne, 2011) is capable of conciliating production of knowledge and uncertainties (the science pole) with the plurality of social perceptions (the civic pole) and the specific dynamics of the relevant polity (the political pole). New deliberative spaces should be capable of developing the basis for integrated and comparative approach for emerging issues with due attention to its political and institutional dimensions, while maintaining enough distance with the dominant frames and logics. Recently the Flemish administration on Environment, Nature & Energy proposed a note (framework) to deal with uncertain risks. The proposed framework will be tested in a pilot study for potential risks related to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation, and can later be extended to other risks. In a case study on Bisphenol-A (BPA), multi-level political communication was analysed. Political decisions were taken without socio-technical debate (Callon, 1986). The BPA issue was not very high on the social or political agenda in Belgium. There was no crisis, no strong pressure form NGO's. The question was managed first by the European authorities (EFSA & European Commission). The Belgian institutions were waiting for the European position. As the political decision did not encounter a strong contestation from the industry, this was an easy step for the political authorities, in Belgium and at the European level, to symbolically address the issue while avoiding considering the real uncertainties. When the decision was taken to ban the use of BPA in polycarbonate baby bottles, it was a political decision taken with the support of the scientific bodies (Superior Health Council) but without being embedded in any social debate (what about risks related to the chemicals which may substitute BPA?). It meant that the whole of uncertainties on the extent of risks related to the multiple exposures to different endocrine disruptors could not be put at the foreground in a public socio-technical debate. These case studies on the interplay with science, policy and stakeholders, on the framing of an environmental health policy problem, and on the management of complex risks (air pollution, EMF, BPA) contribute to recommendations on their governance. The question then becomes: is it possible to organize a precautionary decision making process to deal with different legitimate frames and the necessary trade-offs when considering policy alternatives? Concretely it is advised to pay attention to the role of a focal point in the process, potentially taken up by public administrations, to the co-production, availability and organisation of knowledge and information, and to the progress of the process. Above all it is important to set up a platform for issue framing and problem definition to highlight key factors that need to be assessed: - Examine the policy and stakeholder learning network related to a specific issue, with special attention to policy domains that are affected by or are affecting the environmental and health issue at stake. Specify who has interests in the issue and who should be involved. An efficient stakeholder network analysis is important for the further progress of the DMP. define who is allowed to take part in the process across different policy areas - Examine the information database before setting up a more integrative approach, both from a scientific (including uncertainties) and technical (alternatives, CBA analysis) point of view and from the side of concerned stakeholders. Policy makers acquire information from different inputs from science, stakeholder organisations, socio-economic actors and the public at large, as well as from administrations and staff members, and are conscious of the structural and constitutional constraints. It is clear that a balanced process of information gathering that is transparent, contributes to better decision making. - Initiate and manage the process: find out who will carry the process, set up a series of interactions between administrations, between administrations and cabinets, between administrations and research, between administrations, research and the public. Usable and meaningful available information on the issue should be communicated clearly to all stakeholders. It is innovative to look at how stakeholders increase their knowledge through different inputs and through communication, information and interaction. - Iterate where needed: information gained in one dialogue should be fed back into other fora. An equilibrium between acceptability – tolerability – uncertainty should be established. - Move forward / conclude. In the total policy cycle the conclusion or decision may be revised, when (1) monitoring of implementation and following evaluation is considered as negative; (2) new knowledge / experience / issues have to take into account. - Ensure an efficient and socially appropriate allocation of the resources and an adequate management of residual risks. Last but not least, in a precautionary approach it is also required, to contribute to the public trust in the decision making process and to construct social acceptance of the final decision. Generally, a precautionary decision making process should be considered as a double-pronged learning dynamics: on one side, the authorities are required to better take into account the multiple frames which abound in our pluralist societies when organising the conditions of political trade-offs for the governance of risks. On the other side, the citizens should have the possibility to, not only understand, but also adopt the decision and its consequences and to conform to its implementation. It is important to develop specific communication processes to successfully implement these two faces of a precautionary approach in the governance of risks, while ensuring this dual learning process. New procedures are currently developed which could support the communication dynamics for promoting multiple frames and comparing openly different alternatives (e.g. open process workshop; atelier scenarios; Delphi). [less ▲]

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See detailHandling Emerging Issues on the Science/Policy Interface
Hendrickx, Kim ULiege

Scientific conference (2011, April 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (7 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailHandling infinite temporal data
Kabanza, Froduald; Stevenne, Jean-Marc; Wolper, Pierre ULiege

in Journal of Computer & System Sciences (1995), 51(1), 3--17

In this paper, we present a powerful framework for describing, storing, and reasoning about infinite temporal information. This framework is an extension of classical relational databases. It represents ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present a powerful framework for describing, storing, and reasoning about infinite temporal information. This framework is an extension of classical relational databases. It represents infinite temporal information by generalized tuples defined by linear repeating points and constraints on these points. We characterize the expressiveness of these generalized relations in terms of predicates definable in Presburger arithmetic. Next, we prove that relations formed from generalized tuples are closed under the operations of relational algebra and provide complexity results for the evaluation of first-order queries. [less ▲]

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See detailHandling Intra-Household Correlations in Modeling Travel: A Comparison of Hierarchical (Random Effect) Models and Marginal (GEE) Models
Cools, Mario ULiege; Moons, Elke

in Proceedings of the 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (2016)

In this paper, the necessity for treating intra-household correlation is investigated by analyzing two travel behavior indices, i.e. travel time and travel distance, for three important travel motives ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the necessity for treating intra-household correlation is investigated by analyzing two travel behavior indices, i.e. travel time and travel distance, for three important travel motives (commuting, shopping, and leisure). Data stemming from the 2010 Belgian National Household Travel Survey are used in the analysis. Two model approaches that accommodate for intra-household correlation are compared, namely the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and GEE model approach. Both model approaches show that high levels of intra-household correlation are present, and therefore the use of models that take into account intra-household correlation, is strongly recommend. Results indicate that this requirement is the most urgent for non-commuting trips. Moreover, the results show that GLMM and GEE yield comparable estimates in the case of normally distributed data. Furthermore, evidence was provided that the more the estimates of the intra-household correlation provided by the two approaches differ, the less the homogeneity of the parameters is assured. In this regard, if one has to choose between the GLMM and GEE methodology, especially the negative consequences of choosing an inappropriate covariance model in the case of a GLMM model favor the selection of the GEE methodology. Further research is needed to compare the two approaches in the context of non-normally distributed travel behavior data. [less ▲]

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See detailHandling Intrahousehold Correlations in Modeling Travel: Comparison of Hierarchical Models and Marginal Models
Cools, Mario ULiege; Moons, Elke

in Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (2016), 2565

In this study, the necessity for treating intrahousehold correlation was investigated by analyzing two travel behavior indexes, travel time and travel distance, for three important travel motivations ... [more ▼]

In this study, the necessity for treating intrahousehold correlation was investigated by analyzing two travel behavior indexes, travel time and travel distance, for three important travel motivations (commuting, shopping, and leisure). Data stemming from the 2010 Belgian National Household Travel Survey were used in the analysis. Two model approaches that accommodated intrahousehold correlation were compared, namely, the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and the generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. Both model approaches showed that high levels of intrahousehold correlation were present, and therefore the use of models that took into account intrahousehold correlation was strongly recommended. Results indicated that this requirement was the most urgent for noncommuting trips. Moreover, the results showed that the GLMM and the GEE model yielded comparable estimates in the case of normally distributed data. Furthermore, evidence was provided that the more the estimates of the intrahousehold correlation provided by the two approaches differed, the less the homogeneity of the parameters was ensured. In this regard, if one has to choose between the GLMM and the GEE model, the negative consequences of choosing an inappropriate covariance model in the case of GLMM especially favor the selection of the GEE model. Further research is needed to compare the two approaches in the context of nonnormally distributed travel behavior data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULiège)
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See detailHandling Liveness Properties in (ω-)Regular Model Checking
Bouajjani, Ahmed; Legay, Axel; Wolper, Pierre ULiege

in Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science (2005, December 28), 138(3), 101-115

Since the topic emerged several years ago, work on regular model checking has mostly been devoted to the verification of state reachability and safety properties. Though it was known that liveness ... [more ▼]

Since the topic emerged several years ago, work on regular model checking has mostly been devoted to the verification of state reachability and safety properties. Though it was known that liveness properties could also be checked within this framework, little has been done about working out the corresponding details, and experimentally evaluating the approach. This paper addresses these issues in the context of regular model checking based on the encoding of states by finite or infinite words. It works out the exact constructions to be used in both cases, and solves the problem resulting from the fact that infinite computations of unbounded configurations might never contain the same configuration twice, thus making cycle detection problematic. Several experiments showing the applicability of the approach were successfully conducted. [less ▲]

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See detailHandling of the 3D Behaviour of the Unsaturated Layer using a Vertical 1D Model for the Richards Equation along with Diffusive Horizontal Fluxes
Paulus, Raphaël ULiege; Archambeau, Pierre ULiege; Erpicum, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Chanson, Hubert (Ed.) Balance and Uncertainty: Water in a Changing World (2011)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (12 ULiège)