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See detailManageMilk - Création d'outils de management innovatifs et pratiques en vue d'améliorer la durabilité de la production laitière et de la qualité des produits laitiers: présentation du projet.
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Stoll, Jean et al

in 16ième Carrefour des Prodcutions animales: La filière laitière bovine européenne est-elle durable? (2011, March 02)

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See detailLa managérialisation de la fonction de chef de corps dans la magistrature belge : un état des lieux sociologique
Ficet, Joël ULg

in Schoenaers, Frédéric (Ed.) Regards croisés sur le nouveau management judiciaire (2008)

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See detailManagers en quête de sens: l'identité organisationnelle comme boussole?
Rondeaux, Giseline ULg; Pichault, François ULg

in Revue internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (2012), XVIII(46), 47-76

In a situation of crisis or deep organizational disruption, organizational identity often appears as a critical dimension (Albert et Whetten, 1985 ; Alvesson et Empson, 2008 ; Dutton et al, 1994). It ... [more ▼]

In a situation of crisis or deep organizational disruption, organizational identity often appears as a critical dimension (Albert et Whetten, 1985 ; Alvesson et Empson, 2008 ; Dutton et al, 1994). It cannot be considered as monolithic: each stage of the evolution of the organization is marked by several interactions (different identity logics predominate each other at times). Even if within an organizational identity, a particular identity logic seems to prevail, other identity logics are nevertheless present, or appear in informal mode. Organizational identity is thus conceived as hybrid : on the one hand, the dominant identity logic, on the other hand, alternative identity logics consisting in different perceptions of the organization’s central, enduring and distinctive features, its values and running principles. <br />Because of their formal authority and their access to resources, managers play an important role in organizational identification processes. They can first create meaning around a deliberate change (sensegiving). Such an approach emphasizes the role of organizational leaders (carriers of the dominant identity logic) in a cognitive process where they aim at providing to the members of the organization a coherent narrative in order to build a legitimate collective sense of self. As for the sensemaking-oriented approach (Weick, 1995), it adopts a different perspective: the shared understandings of the members about what the organization is, result of cognitive processes carried out by members of the organization when they are questioning the central, enduring and distinctive features of their organization. <br />We draw from the second perspective. Through a case study conducted in 2010 within a large company facing critical change, we propose to empirically illustrate the meaning given by members of the organization to different constitutive dimensions of organizational identity. We focus especially on team managers, at the crossroads of all tensions in terms of identity and meaning at work. <br />This case study illustrates in particular the disorientation of team managers, torn between a dominant organizational identity exploded from the top of the organization, and a radically changing organizational context, which they are struggling to make sense and to give sense for their team. It results in identity profiles marked by hybridity and transition. <br />When such a situation is noticed, what managerial actions can be undertaken? Our aim in this article is to highlight the value of a polyphonic approach of change management (Pichault, 2009), and offer some thoughts on the development of a sensemaking articulated to the diversity of identities within the organization as well as the integration of this identity diversity concerns in the management practices. [less ▲]

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See detailManagers en quête de sens: l'identité organisationnelle comme boussole?
Rondeaux, Giseline ULg; Pichault, François ULg

Conference (2011, October)

Les multiples évolutions auxquels est soumise toute organisation contraignent celle-ci à se transformer sans cesse. Ces changements, de fréquence et d’amplitude variées, peuvent entraîner une modification ... [more ▼]

Les multiples évolutions auxquels est soumise toute organisation contraignent celle-ci à se transformer sans cesse. Ces changements, de fréquence et d’amplitude variées, peuvent entraîner une modification de divers aspects de l’organisation : ses modes d’organisation, sa politique de GRH, ses stratégies, sa manière de concevoir et de remplir ses missions, ses structures, ses valeurs, ses systèmes et réseaux, ses référents, etc. En situation de crise ou de bouleversement profond, la question de l’identité organisationnelle apparaît au-devant de la scène (Albert et Whetten, 1985, Alvesson et Empson, 2008, Dutton et al, 1994). Celle-ci ne peut être considérée comme une dimension monolithique : chaque stade de l’évolution d’une organisation est en effet marqué par différentes interactions (différentes logiques identitaires dont certaines prédominent d’autres à certains moments). Ainsi, même si au sein d’une identité organisationnelle, une logique identitaire particulière semble prévaloir, d’autres logiques identitaires sont néanmoins présentes, ou apparaissent, en mode officieux. L’identité organisationnelle se conçoit donc comme hybride, composée de deux dimensions étroitement reliées et inscrites dans le contexte spécifique de chaque organisation : d’une part la logique identitaire dominante, qui est institutionnalisée et enactée (au sens de réalisée, mise en œuvre), notamment décelable dans le discours managérial et la vision stratégique affichée par l’organisation ; d’autre part, d’autres logiques identitaires présentes dans l’organisation, perceptions des acteurs constituées de points de vue alternatifs (sur ce qui est stable, central et distinctif dans l’organisation), de différentes visions de l’organisation (ses valeurs, ses principes de fonctionnement), d’autres manières de comprendre et de définir ce « qui sommes-nous, en tant qu’organisation ? ». Ainsi, la logique identitaire dominante s’apparente à une série d’affirmations institutionnelles (Ravasi et Schultz, 2006 : 435) qui représente le cadre identitaire collectif dans lequel les membres de l’organisation développent leurs propres perceptions de l’identité organisationnelle. Les managers, en raison de leur autorité formelle et de leur accès aux ressources, jouent en effet un rôle particulièrement important dans le façonnage des processus d’identification organisationnelle (Brickson, 2000 ; Scott et Lane, 2000). Les tentatives d’induction de l’identification des membres de l’organisation à celle-ci prennent souvent la forme de stratégies basées sur la communication de la part du management (Cheney, 1983). Si le désir des membres de l’organisation est fondé sur la recherche de signification, la communication de l’organisation peut en effet constituer un excellent moyen de fournir cette signification (Chreim, 2001). Ainsi, la communication peut contribuer au développement d’un ensemble commun de compréhensions relatives à l’organisation et à la relation des membres à celle-ci. Larson et Pepper (2003) mettent cependant un bémol à la portée de l’action managériale : les employés ne sont pas des récepteurs passifs des efforts de l’entreprise pour façonner leur identification mais ils participent activement à la (re)construction de leurs identités dans la mesure où ils évaluent la compatibilité et la compétition entre les cibles et sources identitaires pertinentes (Scott, 1997). La littérature en stratégie des organisations (Dunford et Jones, 2000; Gioia et Thomas, 1996; Hill et Levenhagen, 1995) se concentre sur la manière dont les managers créent du sens autour d’un changement délibéré et le négocient avec les membres de l’organisation, opération que ces travaux désignent sous le terme de sensegiving . Alors qu’une telle approche mettra l’accent sur le rôle des leaders organisationnels (porteurs de la logique identitaire dominante) dans un processus cognitif où il s’agit pour ces derniers de prodiguer aux membres de l’organisation un récit cohérent et légitime visant à construire un sens du soi collectif (Albert et Whetten, 1985; Whetten, 2006), l’approche orientée vers le sensemaking (au sens de Weick, 1995 ) adopte pour sa part un autre point de vue : les compréhensions partagées des membres à propos de ce qu’est l’organisation sont le résultat de processus cognitifs menés par les membres de l’organisation lorsque ceux-ci s’interrogent sur les caractéristiques centrales et distinctives de leur organisation ; compréhensions partagées qui sont périodiquement renégociées entre les membres de l’organisation, à la lumière des environnements changeants (Gioia, Schultz et Corley, 2000). Nous proposons ainsi, dans le cadre de cet article, de nous inspirer de cette deuxième perspective. Au travers d’une étude de cas menée en 2010 au sein d’une grande entreprise de télécommunications en mutation, nous proposons d’illustrer empiriquement la signification donnée par les membres de l’organisation à différentes dimensions constitutives de l’identité organisationnelle, multiple et complexe: valeurs, buts de l’organisation, sens de la mission, principes fondamentaux, attentes de rôles, légitimité de l’action managériale etc. La confrontation de la logique identitaire dans laquelle s’inscrivent les membres de cette organisation et de leur perception du contexte conduit soit à une situation de congruence (par analogie avec les travaux de Rogers, 1951), dans laquelle la perception du contexte apparaît en continuité avec la logique identitaire dont on se réclame, soit à une situation de dissonance (Festinger, 1965), référant à une rupture entre la logique identitaire que les individus adoptent et leur perception du contexte. Ces positionnements adoptés par les membres de l’organisation sont désignés sous les termes de « profil identitaire » , produit du croisement des logiques identitaires en présence et de la perception du contexte (congruente ou dissonante) des membres de l’organisation. Nous montrerons au travers de nos données comment s’expriment ces différents positionnements dans l’entreprise étudiée, qui présente une particularité intéressante : une identité organisationnelle dominante à la fois éclatée en différentes versions, et marquée par une prédominance de positionnements en dissonance. Outre les effets dommageables qu’entraîne la dissonance tant sur le plan individuel qu’organisationnel (en termes de turnover, de satisfaction, d’implication au travail, de coopération, ou encore d’acceptation du changement, voir notamment Foreman et Whetten, 2002 ; Ashforth et Mael, 1989 ; Dutton et al., 1994 ; Reger et al., 1994), la présence de celle-ci au plus haut niveau de l’organisation se révèle d’autant plus problématique que, en vertu de leur position, les acteurs en position stratégique jouent un rôle de sensegivers, sens qu’ils semblent eux-mêmes peiner à trouver. On peut dès lors présumer que cette pénombre de sens se propage dans l’ensemble de l’organisation, en l’absence de signaux clairs relatifs à l’orientation de l’entreprise. La littérature tant académique (Brown et Starkey, 2000 ; Gronstedt et Thorson ; 1996 ; Scott et Lane, 2000) que managériale (Ackerman, 2000 ; Collins et Porras ; 1996) s’accorde à dire que l’un des principaux fondements du leadership est de proposer une identité organisationnelle unifiée que les membres de l’organisation peuvent comprendre et suivre. En conséquence, il va sans dire qu’une identité organisationnelle dominante se présentant à la fois comme éclatée et marquée par la dissonance, peut entraîner d’importantes difficultés au sein de l’organisation (problèmes de communication, d’implication organisationnelle, difficultés dans la prise de décision, désidentification) (Albert et Whetten, 1985; Jehn et al., 1997, 1999 ; Foreman et Whetten, 2002). Les travaux de Jehn et al. (1999), en particulier, établissent que les désaccords identitaires entre leaders sont susceptibles d’entraîner des conséquences organisationnelles négatives. L’étude de cas que nous proposons vient confirmer cette tendance, et illustre en particulier le déboussolement des managers d’équipe, tiraillés entre des injonctions paradoxales et une identité organisationnelle dominante éclatée en provenance du sommet de l’organisation, et la confrontation permanente à un contexte organisationnel en profonde mutation, en perte de sens, sens qu’ils ont du mal à construire avec et pour les équipes dont ils ont la charge. Il en résulte pour leur part des positionnements identitaires marqués par l’hybridité et la transition. Lorsqu'une situation de cette nature est constatée, quelles actions managériales peuvent être entreprises? Notre visée, dans cet article, est de mettre en évidence l’intérêt d’une approche polyphonique de la gestion du changement (Pichault, 2009), et de proposer quelques pistes de réflexion sur le développement d’un sensemaking articulé sur la diversité identitaire au sein de l’organisation et sur l’intégration de ce souci de la diversité identitaire dans les pratiques de GRH de l’entreprise. La diversité des profils identitaires amène aussi à réfléchir à des actions managériales différenciées, suivant l’idée qu’il n’existe pas un seul modèle de réduction de la dissonance, et que les leviers à mobiliser pour favoriser la congruence sur le plan identitaire et la création de sens dans un contexte de changement varieront d’un profil à l’autre. Nous conclurons ainsi sur une réflexion sur les outils de communication généralement mobilisés avec plus ou moins de pertinence dans le cadre de processus de changements, et sur le rôle du manager d’équipe comme sensemaker. Il s’agira ainsi de parvenir à concilier, dans la mesure du possible, les différentes logiques identitaires en présence, notamment en s’appuyant sur les convergences qu’il y a entre elles afin de donner un sens à ce contexte en évolution, et de refléter celui-ci dans les pratiques effectives de l’entreprise. [less ▲]

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See detailManagers’ competences in social enterprises: what specificities?
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

Conference (2011, July 04)

In any enterprise, the manager keeps a determining and real leeway which is susceptible to stimulate, give directions to the organization (Pichault, 2009), and is determining in the capability to innovate ... [more ▼]

In any enterprise, the manager keeps a determining and real leeway which is susceptible to stimulate, give directions to the organization (Pichault, 2009), and is determining in the capability to innovate (King, 1990; Osborne, 1998; Schin & McClomb, 1998). That leadership style needs therefore to be adapted to the specific internal context of the organization (Schmid, 2006). The paper examines what are the specific competencies of the manager in social enterprises, by constructing a competencies model, the emblematic tool of the competence-based management, relevant to social enterprises (Collin & Grasser, 2007; Retour & Rapiaux, 2006; Oiry & Sulzer, 2002). Our hypothesis is standing that certain competencies mobilized by managers in social enterprises are specific, regarding to the particular internal and external context of social enterprises, etc. First of all, we propose a theoretical competencies model for the managers in social enterprises, based on a review of the literature and the conduction of 12 semi-structured interviews of experts and managers. Then, we propose a competencies model for the manager in social enterprises. Finally, group interviews with some managers of social enterprises are conducted in various European countries as this research takes place in a European research on long-life learnings. [less ▲]

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See detailManagers’ competences in social enterprises: which specificities?
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg

in Social Enterprise Journal (2013), 9(2), 164-183

The management of an organization and the context within which this organization evolves are recognized as two important aspects of any organization. Few studies have been conducted however on the ... [more ▼]

The management of an organization and the context within which this organization evolves are recognized as two important aspects of any organization. Few studies have been conducted however on the management function within the specific context of social enterprises, organizations that mix social goals and economic imperatives (Darbus & Lazuech, 2010). This paper examines the specific competences of management in social enterprises, by constructing a competence model, the emblematic tool of competence-based management, relevant to the management of social enterprises (Colin & Grasser, 2007; Oiry & Sulzer, 2002; Retour & Rapiaux, 2006). Our hypothesis is that certain competences required of managers in social enterprises are specific, regarding the particular internal and external context of social enterprises, the governance model, etc. The methodology used is based on four main steps: a review of the literature and the conducting of exploratory interviews, the construction of a first draft of the competence model, the conducting of group interviews with managers of social enterprises in six European countries as this research takes place within the framework of a European research project on lifelong learning , and the final adaptation and validation of the competence model. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging acute myopathies
Votion, Dominique ULg

in In proceedings: 51th British Equine Veterinary Association (BEVA) Congress (2013, September)

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See detailManaging change in public administration: an identity approach
Rondeaux, Giseline ULg

Conference (2008, May)

Within the issue of the modernization of public administration, our initial focus is to question the existence of links between a reform within an administration and its organizational identities. Such ... [more ▼]

Within the issue of the modernization of public administration, our initial focus is to question the existence of links between a reform within an administration and its organizational identities. Such changes doubtless entail a transform of many aspects of public administration, such as organisational methods, HRM policy, the approach to planning and fulfilling its tasks, structures, terms of reference etc. This transformation involves the upgrading of operational methods and different skills and values, and results in the disruption of the organisational identity and the professional identities of members of the organisation (Fu et al., 1999; Abrams & Hogg, 1987). From empirical data collected within a Belgian Ministry, we assume that the introduction of a New Public Management reform leads to a hybridization of identity logics within public administration, but in other respects, the reform process can eventually be influenced by the identity logics. Using a longitudinal qualitative analysis, we distinguish 7 identity profiles, characterised by their reference to an identity logic (public service, public managerialism or pragmatism) and their perception of the context (congruence or dissonance). Through our case study, our hypothesis of organizational identities and reform process co-structuring appears to be valid, as shown by the hybridization of identity logics within the Ministry. Our results allow us to assume a modification of identity points of reference following a reform, as well as a reinterpretation of this reform through the identity filter. Our longitudinal approach reveals the identity dynamics, by identifying notably the shift processes from one position to another, and leads us to propose a model of contextualized identity dynamics. We are also able to show which factors produce (or are likely to produce) identity shifts, and the frame of mind of each identity profile towards change (1) as it is experienced and (2) in a projective way. These results draw attention to a number of points which provide the basis of further work on their possible application in management. The factors influencing the shift from one identity profile to another are closely linked with the concept of motivation; many studies have demonstrated the linked between different forms of identification and the attitudes or behaviour of the members of an organisation. Several studies have in fact shown the effects of compatible identity (or identification), on the construction of organisational involvement showing how identification impacts on significant attitudes and behaviours in members of an organisation, such as turnover, satisfaction, involvement, cooperation, acceptance of change or internalisation (Foreman & Whetten, 2002; Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Dutton et al., 1994; Reger et al.,1994). Moreover, the diversity of identity profiles and the ways in which they change suggest that differentiated managerial approaches are required, following the idea that there is no single way of reducing dissonance and that the ways of tackling identity issues in a context of change vary from one profile to another. Finally, the interpretative approach proposed by our analytic model could serve as the basis for developing management tools for framing and accompany change processes within an organisation. REFERENCES Abrams, D.; Hogg, M.A. (1987) «Language, attitudes, frame of reference and social identity: a Scottish dimension» Journal of Language and Social Psychology, vol.6, n°3-4, pp.201-213. Ashforth, B.E.; Mael, F. (1989), "Social identity theory and the organization", Academy of Management Review, vol. 14, pp.10-39. Dutton, J.E.; Dukerich, J.M.; Harquail, C.V. (1994) "Organizational Image and Member Identification", Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.39, pp.517-554. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging climatic risks for enhanced food security : key information capabilities
Balaghi, Riad; Badjeck, M.-C.; Djaby, Bakary ULg et al

in Procedia Environmental Sciences (2010), 1

Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main ... [more ▼]

Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational agroclimatology, for an efficient use of natural resources and a better management of climatic risks. Many countries, including the developing world, now benefit from well-trained staff in the use of climate data, physical and biological information and knowledge to reduce negative climate impacts. A significant volume of data and knowledge about climate–agriculture relationships is now available and used by students, scientists, technicians, agronomists, decision-makers and farmers alike, particularly in the areas of climate characterization, land suitability and agroecological zoning, seasonal climate forecasts, drought early warning systems and operational crop forecasting systems. Climate variability has been extensively modelled, capturing important features of the climate through applied statistical procedures, agroclimatic indices derived from raw climatic data and from remote sensing. Predictions of climate at seasonal to interannual timescales are helping decision-makers in the agricultural sector to deal more effectively with the effects of climate variability. Land suitability and agroclimatic zoning have been used in many countries for agricultural planning, thanks to the availability of new and comprehensive methodologies; developments in climate, soil and remote sensing data collection and analysis; and improved applications in geographic information systems (GIS). Drought early warning systems are available worldwide at both national and international levels. These systems are helping decisionmakers and farmers to take appropriate decisions to adapt to short-term climatic risks. Also, operational crop forecasting systems are now becoming available at the regional and national levels. In some developed countries, several efficient and well tested tools are now available for optimizing on-farm decisions based on the combination of crop simulation models and seasonal forecasts. However, in developing countries few tools have been developed to efficiently manage crops at the farm level to cope with climate variability and climate risks. Climate change impacts on agriculture and food security have been assessed in international studies using specific and efficient methodologies and tools. Adaptation to climate change and variability can also be facilitated through effective planning and implementation of strategies at the political level. The role of technological progress, risk transfer mechanisms and financial instruments and their easy accessibility to rural people are critical elements of climate risk management. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging CSR in Complex Environments : Stakeholder Theory in Action
Xhauflair, Virginie ULg; Zune, Marc

in Allouche, José (Ed.) Corporate Social Responsibility : Performances and Stakeholders (2006)

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See detailManaging forest resources to secure wood energy supply for urban centers: the case of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Dubiez, Emilien; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Peltier, Régis et al

in Nature et Faune (2012), 26(2), 52-56

The management of wood energy has become a major concern for the international community and is the focus of debates in Central Africa. The Makala Project, funded by the EU, fits within this context with ... [more ▼]

The management of wood energy has become a major concern for the international community and is the focus of debates in Central Africa. The Makala Project, funded by the EU, fits within this context with the objective of securing the supply of wood energy to urban centers. Over the past three years, various forest resources management techniques have been designed and an assessment of the wood energy sector has been conducted in Kinshasa. Various technical itineraries have been proposed for the management of areas dedicated to thesupply of wood energy at various levels, from the farming plot to the village land, and from the individual approach to the collective approach. This article provides a snapshot of the activities developed by the Makala Project to improve the management of periurban forest ecosystems and to secure the supply in wood energy. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging Hybridity: (Inter-)Organizational Strategies in the Fair Trade Field
Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2011, July 07)

This paper aims to examine the concrete strategies through which organizations may reach compromises between conflicting logics. To reach this goal, this paper tries to capture some of the interactions ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to examine the concrete strategies through which organizations may reach compromises between conflicting logics. To reach this goal, this paper tries to capture some of the interactions between the organizational, inter-organizational and field levels in terms of management and diffusion of plural logics, using the case of social enterprises in the Fair Trade field. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging Migration for the Benefit of Europe
Martiniello, Marco ULg

Scientific conference (2003, May 15)

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See detailManaging Pests : consumers and commitments: The case of apple and pear growers in Belgium's Lower Meuse Region
Collet, Eric; Mormont, Marc ULg

in Environment & Planning A (2003), 35(3), 413-427

The authors analyse the construction of a seed fruit market. The conventional market had led to the 'anonymousness' of the fruit and to disconnected temporalities. The process needs new types of ... [more ▼]

The authors analyse the construction of a seed fruit market. The conventional market had led to the 'anonymousness' of the fruit and to disconnected temporalities. The process needs new types of coordination and components within the common information channels and actors' network. It also needs the construction of a new contract between producers and consumers, that the conventional market is unable to allow. Producers are experimenting with direct contact with the final consumer to find ways of allowing it. The fruit is replaced in the subject's experience of the final consumer and in the grower's story. The grower's story deals with managing pests, consumers, and commitments through a harmless action: eating a pear or an apple. [less ▲]

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See detailMANAGING PUBLIC ORDER DURING
Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg; Vincent, Jeffrey; Easton, Marleen et al

Conference (2012, September)

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See detailManaging Research at the University
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Scientific conference (2011, September 28)

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See detailManaging the osteoporotic patient today
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in BONE (2007), 40(5, Suppl. 1), 12-18

as reduced pain and disability. The unique mechanism of action of strontium ranelate corrects bone turnover so that it is rebalanced in favor of bone formation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in ... [more ▼]

as reduced pain and disability. The unique mechanism of action of strontium ranelate corrects bone turnover so that it is rebalanced in favor of bone formation. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in postmenopausal osteoporosis show it to be effective in reducing vertebral and hip fracture risks. Treatment efficacy has been documented across a wide range of patient profiles and appears to be independent of all the major determinants of fracture risk, including the severity of the disease at baseline, the number of prevalent fractures, and the age of the patient. This antifracture efficacy translates into clinical benefits, including a reduction in the rate of height loss and an increase in the number of patients free of back pain. Strontium ranelate is also one of the few anti osteoporotic drugs with data to demonstrate an improvement in quality of life indices. The rates of compliance with treatment were over 80% in phase 3 studies, reflecting the tolerability and safety profile and the ease of administration of this agent. Strontium ranelate thus offers significant clinical benefits in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and ease of administration in the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis fractures. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging understory light to maintain a mixture of species with different shade tolerance
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et al

in Forest Ecology & Management (2014)

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