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See detailLarge-scale pattern of genetic differentiation within African rainforest trees: insights on the roles of ecological gradients and past climate changes on the evolution of Erythrophleum spp (Fabaceae)
Duminil, Jérôme; Brown, Richard P.; Ewédjè, Eben-Ezer BK. et al

in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2013), 13

Background: The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as ... [more ▼]

Background: The evolutionary events that have shaped biodiversity patterns in the African rainforests are still poorly documented. Past forest fragmentation and ecological gradients have been advocated as important drivers of genetic differentiation but their respective roles remain unclear. Using nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) and chloroplast non-coding sequences (pDNA), we characterised the spatial genetic structure of Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) forest trees in West and Central Africa (Guinea Region, GR). This widespread genus displays a wide ecological amplitude and taxonomists recognize two forest tree species, E. ivorense and E. suaveolens, which are difficult to distinguish in the field and often confused. Results: Bayesian-clustering applied on nSSRs of a blind sample of 648 specimens identified three major gene pools showing no or very limited introgression. They present parapatric distributions correlated to rainfall gradients and forest types. One gene pool is restricted to coastal evergreen forests and corresponds to E. ivorense; a second one is found in gallery forests from the dry forest zone of West Africa and North-West Cameroon and corresponds to West-African E. suaveolens; the third gene pool occurs in semi-evergreen forests and corresponds to Central African E. suaveolens. These gene pools have mostly unique pDNA haplotypes but they do not form reciprocally monophyletic clades. Nevertheless, pDNA molecular dating indicates that the divergence between E. ivorense and Central African E. suaveolens predates the Pleistocene. Further Bayesian-clustering applied within each major gene pool identified diffuse genetic discontinuities (minor gene pools displaying substantial introgression) at a latitude between 0 and 2°N in Central Africa for both species, and at a longitude between 5° and 8°E for E. ivorense. Moreover, we detected evidence of past population declines which are consistent with historical habitat fragmentation induced by Pleistocene climate changes. Conclusions: Overall, deep genetic differentiation (major gene pools) follows ecological gradients that may be at the origin of speciation, while diffuse differentiation (minor gene pools) are tentatively interpreted as the signature of past forest fragmentation induced by past climate changes. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-Scale Phenotypic Analysis Reveals Identical Contributions To Cell Functions Of Known And Unknown Yeast Genes
Bianchi, Mm.; Ngo, S.; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg et al

in Yeast (2001), 18(15),

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See detailLarge-scale polarization alignments of quasars in the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys
Pelgrims, Vincent ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

Poster (2015, May)

We analyse the large sample of polarization measurements of the flat-spectrum radio sources of the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys compiled by Jackson et al. (2007). We tested the uniformity of the ... [more ▼]

We analyse the large sample of polarization measurements of the flat-spectrum radio sources of the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys compiled by Jackson et al. (2007). We tested the uniformity of the polarization position angles for a wide range of angular (2D) and comoving (3D) separations and studied the several subsamples, dividing the main sample of 4155 sources regarding their object type (QSO, galaxies, radio sources,...). We found regions of the sky of about 20 degree radius in which quasars (only) have correlated polarization position angles. Those regions coincide with the regions of alignment at optical wavelength pinpointed in 1998 by Hutsemékers. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-Scale Proteomics of the Cassava Storage Root and Identification of a Target Gene to Reduce Postharvest Deterioration.
Vanderschuren, Hervé ULg; Nyaboga, Evans; Poon, Jacquelyne S. et al

in The Plant cell (2014), 26(5), 1913-1924

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We ... [more ▼]

Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is the most important root crop in the tropics, but rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) of the root is a major constraint to commercial cassava production. We established a reliable method for image-based PPD symptom quantification and used label-free quantitative proteomics to generate an extensive cassava root and PPD proteome. Over 2600 unique proteins were identified in the cassava root, and nearly 300 proteins showed significant abundance regulation during PPD. We identified protein abundance modulation in pathways associated with oxidative stress, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis (including scopoletin), the glutathione cycle, fatty acid alpha-oxidation, folate transformation, and the sulfate reduction II pathway. Increasing protein abundances and enzymatic activities of glutathione-associated enzymes, including glutathione reductases, glutaredoxins, and glutathione S-transferases, indicated a key role for ascorbate/glutathione cycles. Based on combined proteomics data, enzymatic activities, and lipid peroxidation assays, we identified glutathione peroxidase as a candidate for reducing PPD. Transgenic cassava overexpressing a cytosolic glutathione peroxidase in storage roots showed delayed PPD and reduced lipid peroxidation as well as decreased H2O2 accumulation. Quantitative proteomics data from ethene and phenylpropanoid pathways indicate additional gene candidates to further delay PPD. Cassava root proteomics data are available at www.pep2pro.ethz.ch for easy access and comparison with other proteomics data. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale replication and heterogeneity in Parkinson disease genetic loci.
Sharma, Manu; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Aasly, Jan O. et al

in Neurology (2012), 79(7), 659-67

OBJECTIVE: Eleven genetic loci have reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in Parkinson disease (PD) based on populations of Caucasian descent. The ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Eleven genetic loci have reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in Parkinson disease (PD) based on populations of Caucasian descent. The extent to which these genetic effects are consistent across different populations is unknown. METHODS: Investigators from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease Consortium were invited to participate in the study. A total of 11 SNPs were genotyped in 8,750 cases and 8,955 controls. Fixed as well as random effects models were used to provide the summary risk estimates for these variants. We evaluated between-study heterogeneity and heterogeneity between populations of different ancestry. RESULTS: In the overall analysis, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 loci showed significant associations with protective per-allele odds ratios of 0.78-0.87 (LAMP3, BST1, and MAPT) and susceptibility per-allele odds ratios of 1.14-1.43 (STK39, GAK, SNCA, LRRK2, SYT11, and HIP1R). For 5 of the 9 replicated SNPs there was nominally significant between-site heterogeneity in the effect sizes (I(2) estimates ranged from 39% to 48%). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significantly stronger effects for the BST1 (rs11724635) in Asian vs Caucasian populations and similar effects for SNCA, LRRK2, LAMP3, HIP1R, and STK39 in Asian and Caucasian populations, while MAPT rs2942168 and SYT11 rs34372695 were monomorphic in the Asian population, highlighting the role of population-specific heterogeneity in PD. CONCLUSION: Our study allows insight to understand the distribution of newly identified genetic factors contributing to PD and shows that large-scale evaluation in diverse populations is important to understand the role of population-specific heterogeneity. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale stochastic optimization using non-stationary geostatistics for uncertainty assessment of groundwater flow and solute transport, in the framework of a near surface radioactive waste disposal
Rogiers, Bart; Laloy, E.; Gedeon, Matej et al

Poster (2014, July 09)

Uncertainty quantification is very much needed to support decision making related to e.g. environmental impact assessment for waste disposal sites. A probabilistic result provides a much stronger basis ... [more ▼]

Uncertainty quantification is very much needed to support decision making related to e.g. environmental impact assessment for waste disposal sites. A probabilistic result provides a much stronger basis for decision making compared to a single deterministic outcome. Accurate posterior exploration of high-dimensional and CPU-intensive models, which are often used for environmental impact assessment, is however a challenging task. To quantify the uncertainty associated with solute transport in the framework of a near surface radioactive waste disposal in Mol/Dessel, Belgium, we investigate combining the adaptive Metropolis (AM) McMC algorithm for updating the global model parameters, and adaptive spatial resampling (ASR) for updating of the spatially distributed model parameters, by block sampling. The forward model used is a groundwater flow model conditioned on borehole and direct push data, that accounts for non-stationary heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity. The obtained flow solutions are used for solute transport simulations, and the results are compared with a different groundwater flow model parameterization, that makes use of homogeneous hydrogeological layers. Moreover, a number of simulations is performed to assess the effect of realistic dispersivity, which is derived from outcrop investigations. The obtained results indicate that the combination of AM and ASR using block sampling seems not to be very efficient for McMC sampling with the forward model used in this study. However, using the algorithm in optimization mode seems to work fine, and provides an alternate way for exploring the parameter space and the prediction uncertainty. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale structure and dynamics of the magnetotails of Mercury, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn.
Jackman; Arridge; Andre et al

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

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See detailLarge-Scale Structures in OB Supergiants: from an Inhomogeneous Surface to a Structured Wind
Morel, Thierry ULg; Marchenko, S. V.; Pati, A. K. et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2003, May 01)

In 2000-2001 we performed long-term spectroscopic monitoring of a sample of bright OB-supergiants aimed at establishing the incidence of co-rotating, large-scale wind structures. In the optical, this can ... [more ▼]

In 2000-2001 we performed long-term spectroscopic monitoring of a sample of bright OB-supergiants aimed at establishing the incidence of co-rotating, large-scale wind structures. In the optical, this can be achieved by detecting rotationally modulated variability in Hα . Practically all the surveyed stars show dramatic line-profile variations operating on a daily (and in some cases on a hourly) timescale. Here we discuss the case of HD 14134 (B3 Ia) where a periodic modulation seen in the optical continuum (stellar surface, P=12.825d) triggers spectacular variations in the Hα emission line (stellar wind). [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale synthesis and forming of xerogel catalysts
Alié, Christelle ULg; Ferauche, Fabrice; Tcherkassova, Natalia et al

in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (2006), 162

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See detailLarge-scale synthesis and shaping of xerogel catalysts
Alié, Christelle ULg; Ferauche, Fabrice; Tcherkassova, Natalia et al

Poster (2006)

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See detailLarge-scale synthesis of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a continuous inclined mobile-bed rotating reactor by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition process using methane as carbon source
Douven, Sigrid ULg; Pirard, Sophie ULg; Chan, Fang-Yue et al

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2012)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced in a continuous inclined mobile-bed rotating reactor by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition of methane on a bimetallic Ni-Mo/MgO catalyst whose ... [more ▼]

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced in a continuous inclined mobile-bed rotating reactor by the catalytic chemical vapour deposition of methane on a bimetallic Ni-Mo/MgO catalyst whose activity remains constant in the course of time. Measurements performed on the continuous reactor were validated to ensure that the installation worked correctly and that measurements were precise enough. The performance of the reactor was simulated using a model based on the chemical reactor engineering approach. Hypotheses of the model were verified, and a kinetic study was performed to obtain a kinetic rate expression and to determine the catalytic activity as a function of time. The purity level of produced CNTs depends on the desired properties of the product, so the operating conditions are linked to the purity level that is required. A minimal purity level corresponds to high carbon production, and a maximal purity level corresponds to high specific productivity. It was shown that operating conditions had to be fixed to reach a given specific productivity or a given carbon production, and the optimized operating conditions leading to those two opposite purity level objectives were established. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale Wind Structures in OB Supergiants: a Search for Rotationally Modulated Halpha variability
Morel, Thierry ULg; Marchenko, S. V.; Pati, A. K. et al

in Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India (2003), 31

We present preliminary results of a long-term spectroscopic monitoring of a sample of bright OB-supergiants aimed at establishing the incidence of co-rotating, large-scale wind structures by detecting ... [more ▼]

We present preliminary results of a long-term spectroscopic monitoring of a sample of bright OB-supergiants aimed at establishing the incidence of co-rotating, large-scale wind structures by detecting rotationally modulated variability in H. Dramatic line-profile variations operating on a daily (and in some cases on a hourly) timescale are observed. A detailed period analysis has been so far carried out for 2 stars, and revealed in both cases the existence of cyclical H variations consistent with rotational modulation. In the case of HD 14134, the same periodicity is found in the contemporaneous light curve. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge-scale wind structures in OB supergiants: a search for rotationally modulated Halpha variability
Morel, Thierry ULg; Marchenko, S. V.; Pati, A. K. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2004), 351

We present the results of a long-term monitoring campaign of the Hα line in a sample of bright OB supergiants (O7.5-B9) which aims at detecting rotationally modulated changes potentially related to the ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a long-term monitoring campaign of the Hα line in a sample of bright OB supergiants (O7.5-B9) which aims at detecting rotationally modulated changes potentially related to the existence of large-scale wind structures. A total of 22 objects were monitored during 36 nights spread over six months in 2001-2002. Coordinated broad-band photometric observations were also obtained for some targets. Conspicuous evidence for variability in Hα is found for the stars displaying a feature contaminated by wind emission. Most changes take place on a daily time-scale, although hourly variations are also occasionally detected. Convincing evidence for a cyclical pattern of variability in Hα has been found in two stars: HD 14134 and HD 42087. Periodic signals are also detected in other stars, but independent confirmation is required. Rotational modulation is suggested from the similarity between the observed recurrence time-scales (in the range 13-25 d) and estimated periods of stellar rotation. We call attention to the atypical case of HD 14134, which exhibits a clear 12.8-d periodicity, both in the photometric and in the spectroscopic data sets. This places this object among a handful of early-type stars where one may observe a clear link between extended wind structures and photospheric disturbances. Further modelling may test the hypothesis that azimuthally-extended wind streams are responsible for the patterns of spectral variability in our target stars. [less ▲]

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See detailLes larmes aux yeux. La phénoménologie embrumée
Steinmetz, Rudy ULg

in Voir (1994)

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See detailLarval development of Myzostoma cirriferum (Myzostomida)
Eeckhaut, I.; Fievez, Laurence ULg; Muller, M. C.

in Journal of Morphology (2003), 258

The larval development of Myzostoma cirriferum is described by means of SEM, TEM, and cLSM. It is similar to that of other myzostomids and includes three stages: the protrochophore, the trochophore, and ... [more ▼]

The larval development of Myzostoma cirriferum is described by means of SEM, TEM, and cLSM. It is similar to that of other myzostomids and includes three stages: the protrochophore, the trochophore, and the metatrochophore. The protrochophore is a ball-shaped larva present in culture from 18-48 h after egg laying. It has no internal organs and its body is made of three cell types: covering cells and ciliated cells that are external and surrounded by a cuticle, and resting cells that fill the blastocoel. The trochophore is a pear-shaped larva that develops 20-72 h after egg laying; the body includes the same three cell types as the previous stage. The metatrochophore is a pear-shaped larva that develops between 40 h and 14 days and is characterized by the presence of two bundles of four chaetae. When fully developed, the metatrochophore has a digestive system (made of a pharynx, an esophagus, and a blind digestive pouch), two pairs of protonephridia, and a nervous system composed of a supraesophageal ganglion, circumesophageal connectives, and dorsal and ventral nerves. Metamorphosis generally occurs 7 days after egg laying. At that time, the metatrochophore loses its chaetae and becomes pleated ventrally. This ultrastructural analysis suggests that chaetae and the five ventral longitudinal nerve cords of M. cirriferum metatrochophores are homologous structures to those observed in some polychaete trochophores. Coupled with recent phylogenetic analyses, where the Myzostomida are placed outside the Annelida, homologies between myzostomid and polychaete larvae support the view that a trochophore appeared early during the spiralian evolution [less ▲]

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See detailLarval development sites of the main Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in northern Europe and distribution of coprophilic species larvae in Belgian pastures
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2014), 205(3-4), 676-686

Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as ... [more ▼]

Some Culicoides species of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological virus vectors worldwide and have indeed been associated with outbreaks of important epizoonoses in recent years, such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in northern Europe. These diseases, which affect domestic and wild ruminants, have caused considerable economic losses. Knowledge of substrates suitable for Culicoides larval development is important, particularly for the main vector temperate species. This study, realized during two years, aimed to highlight the larval development sites of these biting midge species in the immediate surroundings of ten Belgian cattle farms. Moreover, spatial distribution of the coprophilic Culicoides larvae (C. chiopterus and C. dewulfi) within pastures was studied with increasing distance from farms along linear transects (farm–pasture–woodland). A total of 4347 adult specimens belonging to 13 Culicoides species were obtained by incubation of 2131 soil samples belonging to 102 different substrates; 18 of these substrates were suitable for larval development. The Obsoletus complex (formed by two species) was observed in a wide range of substrates, including silage residues, components of a chicken coop, dung adhering to walls inside stables, leftover feed along the feed bunk, a compost pile of sugar beet residues, soil of a livestock trampling area, and decaying wood, while the following served as substrates for the other specimens: C. chiopterus, mainly cow dung; C. dewulfi, cow dung and molehill soil; C. circumscriptus, algae; C. festivipennis, algae and soil in stagnant water; C. nubeculosus, algae and silt specifically from the edge of a pond; C. punctatus, mainly wet soil between silage reserves; C. salinarius, algae; and C. stigma, algae and wet soil between silage reserves. We also recorded significantly higher densities of coprophilic larvae within pastures in cow dung located near forests, which is likely due to the localization of potential hosts; the presence of these larvae within cow dung is, however, uninfluenced by relative distance from farms. A better knowledge of the microhabitats of Culicoides biting midges and their spatial distribution may allow the development of targeted species-specific vector control strategies, and may help to prevent the creation of new larval development sites. [less ▲]

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