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Examples of application.Hubert, Philippe ; Nguyen-Huu, J.-J.; Boulanger, Bruno et alin Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2008), 48(3), 760-71A harmonized approach for the validation of analytical methods based on accuracy profile was introduced by a SFSTP commission on the validation of analytical procedure. This fourth and last document aims ... [more ▼]A harmonized approach for the validation of analytical methods based on accuracy profile was introduced by a SFSTP commission on the validation of analytical procedure. This fourth and last document aims at illustrating this methodology and the statistics used. Therefore the validation of real case methods are proposed such as methods for the quality control of drugs, for the quantitation of impurities in drug substances, for bioanalysis or for the determination of nutriments. Furthermore, different types of analytical methods are used in order to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach to a wide range of methods such as liquid chromatography (LC-UV, LC-MS), spectrophotometry or ELISA. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 173 (33 ULg) Harmonization of the Law of Succession in EuropeLeleu, Yves-Henri ; Verbeke, Alain-Laurentin Hartkamp, S.; Hesselink, M.W.; Hondius, E. (Eds.) et al Towards a European civil Code (2010)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 ULg) Harmonization of the Law of Succession in EuropeLeleu, Yves-Henri ; Verbeke, Alainin Hartkamp, A. (Ed.) Towards a European Civil Code (2004)Detailed reference viewed: 54 (2 ULg) Harmonization of validation strategies for analytical methodsHubert, Philippe ; Chiap, Patrice ; Dewé, Walthère et alConference (2003)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg) Harmonization testsChirici, Gherardo; McRoberts, Ronald E.; Winter, Susanne et alin Chirici, Gherardo; Winter, Susanne; McRoberts, Ronald E. (Eds.) National Forest Inventories - contributions to Forest Biodiversity Assessments (2011)Chapter 5 reports the results of testing the proposed prodedures for harmonizing estimates of indicators for six of the seven essential features of forest biodiversity. Twenty indicators were tested using ... [more ▼]Chapter 5 reports the results of testing the proposed prodedures for harmonizing estimates of indicators for six of the seven essential features of forest biodiversity. Twenty indicators were tested using data from the common database. In general, positive results were obtained for forest categories, forest structure, forest age, deadwood, and naturalness; the results were less positive for ground vegetation because of the considerable differences in definitions and data acquisition methods. Of importance is, that the test focused on assessing harmonization procedures rather than on producing comprehensive estimates for particular countries or forest categories. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (11 ULg) Harmonized Growth Models and Simulations of the Evolution of Pure Stands of Norway spruce, Larches and Douglas-fir for Southern Belgium (Wallonia).Perin, Jérôme ; Ligot, Gauthier ; Cerisier, François et alPoster (2012, March 02)In order to compare different silvicultural scenarios we have undertaken the development of a software that can simulate stand evolution in regards to their species composition, site characteristics and ... [more ▼]In order to compare different silvicultural scenarios we have undertaken the development of a software that can simulate stand evolution in regards to their species composition, site characteristics and silvicultural operations. As a first approach we limited the scope of our work to even-aged and pure coniferous stands of the three most important coniferous species in Wallonia (southern part of Belgium): Norway spruce (Picea abies), douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziensii) and larches (Larix sp.). This presentation introduces carried out simulations and compare their outcomes. First we gathered data sets from the permanent regional inventory, from observation networks and experimental plots throughout Wallonia. Then we adjusted, for these species, harmonized and distance-independent models of dominant-height growth, tree diameter growth, mortality, and the distribution of tree diameter frequency before the first thinning. Next we implemented those models in the Capsis platform, and we simulated, for the three species, the evolution of virtual stands using different scenarios. On one hand the evolution was performed without thinning, and on the other hand we applied silvicultural scenarios that are commonly used in Wallonia. As a result these models highlight, for example, the great juvenile growth and sensibility to stands density of larches whereas Norway spruce behaves the opposite. Further work is however needed to predict and simulate wood quality and value. Once this will be achieved we will attempt to optimize silvicultural scenarios for the three species. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 80 (25 ULg) Harmony and Efficiency: Erudite libertinism in Early Modern FranceDecoster, Sara Conference (2015, March 26)This paper deals with the idea of reason as it was seen by erudite libertines in Early Modern France. The analysis will draw on the work of Gabriel Naudé (1600-1653) and highlight the influence of ... [more ▼]This paper deals with the idea of reason as it was seen by erudite libertines in Early Modern France. The analysis will draw on the work of Gabriel Naudé (1600-1653) and highlight the influence of Montaigne. Naudé developed an ideal of reason based on autonomous thinking within the humanist tradition. The paper shows that this idea of reason was based on two concepts which have been neglected by scholars in the field of erudite libertinism: harmony and efficiency. These concepts appear to be closely related to the stoic vision of moderation, preventing men to become a slave of their passions. This meant in the first place that knowledge had to go hand in hand with harmony. Exclusive focus on specific theories or small, too erudite, details was considered as inappropriate exaggeration. In the second place, Naudé’s concept of efficiency implied that knowledge had to be useful for civic life. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (4 ULg) Haro sur la fouine ?Libois, Roland Learning material (1992)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg) Haro sur les chômeurs: chômage et allocations sociales dans l’opinion publiqueItaliano, Patrick ; Abts, Koen Conference (2015, December 11)La présentation s'appuie sur des données d'enquête internationales (ESS) et longitudinales en Belgique (ISPO) pour faire le point sur la perception du public quant à la légitimité des allocations sociales ... [more ▼]La présentation s'appuie sur des données d'enquête internationales (ESS) et longitudinales en Belgique (ISPO) pour faire le point sur la perception du public quant à la légitimité des allocations sociales, les responsabilités individuelles et collectives du chômage et le soutien à des politiques punitives à l'égard des chômeurs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (6 ULg) Haroun and the Sea of StoriesDelrez, Marc Conference (1991)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXII. Only 4 planets in the Gl~581 systemForveille, T.; Bonfils, X.; Delfosse, X. et alE-print/Working paper (2011)The Gl 581 planetary system has generated wide interest, because its 4 planets include both the lowest mass planet known around a main sequence star other than the Sun and the first super-Earth planet in ... [more ▼]The Gl 581 planetary system has generated wide interest, because its 4 planets include both the lowest mass planet known around a main sequence star other than the Sun and the first super-Earth planet in the habitable zone of its star. A recent paper announced the possible discovery of two additional super-Earth planets in that system, one of which would be in the middle of the habitable zone of Gl 581. The statistical significance of those two discoveries has, however, been questioned. We have obtained 121 new radial velocity measurements of Gl 581 with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6 m telescope, and analyse those together with our previous 119 measurements of that star to examine these potential additional planets. We find that neither is likely to exist with their proposed parameters. We also obtained photometric observations with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope during a potential transit of the inner planet, Gl 581e, which had a 5% geometric transit probability. Those observations exclude transits for planet densities under 4 times the Earth density within -0.2 sigma to +2.7 sigma of the predicted transit center. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (1 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXV. Super-Earths around the M-dwarf neighbors Gl433 and Gl667CDelfosse, X.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2012), 553Context. M dwarfs have often been found to have super-Earth planets with short orbital periods. These stars are thus preferential targets in searches for rocky or ocean planets in the solar neighborhood ... [more ▼]Context. M dwarfs have often been found to have super-Earth planets with short orbital periods. These stars are thus preferential targets in searches for rocky or ocean planets in the solar neighborhood. Aims: Our research group recently announced the discovery of one and two low-mass planets around the M1.5V stars Gl 433 and Gl 667C, respectively. We found these planets with the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory, from observations obtained during the guaranteed time observing program of that instrument. Methods: We obtained additional HARPS observations of those two stars, for a total of 67 and 179 radial velocity measurements for Gl 433 and Gl 667C, respectively, and present here an orbital analysis of these extended data sets and our main conclusions about both planetary systems. Results: One of the three planets, Gl 667Cc, has a mass of only M2sini ~ 4.25 M⊕ and orbits in the central habitable zone of its host star. It receives only 10% less stellar energy from Gl 667C than the Earth receives from the Sun. However, planet evolution in the habitable zone can be very different if the host star is a M dwarf or a solar-like star, without necessarily questioning the presence of water. The two other planets, Gl 433b and Gl 667Cb, both have M2sini of ~5.5 M⊕ and periods of ~7 days. The radial velocity measurements of both stars contain longer timescale signals, which we fit with longer period Keplerians. For Gl 433, the signal probably originates in a magnetic cycle, while data of longer time span will be needed before conclusive results can be obtained for Gl 667C. The metallicity of Gl 433 is close to solar, while Gl 667C is metal poor with [Fe/H] ~ -0.6. This reinforces the recent conclusion that the occurrence of super-Earth planets does not strongly correlate with the stellar metallicity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (1 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. X. A m sin i = 11 M_â planet around the nearby spotted M dwarf GJ 674Bonfils, X.; Mayor, M.; Delfosse, X. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 474Context: How planet properties depend on stellar mass is a key diagnostic of planetary formation mechanisms. Aims: This motivates planet searches around stars that are significantly more massive or less ... [more ▼]Context: How planet properties depend on stellar mass is a key diagnostic of planetary formation mechanisms. Aims: This motivates planet searches around stars that are significantly more massive or less massive than the Sun, and in particular our radial velocity search for planets around very low-mass stars. Methods: As part of that program, we obtained measurements of GJ 674, an M 2.5 dwarf at d = 4.5 pc. These measurements have dispersion much in excess of their internal errors. An intensive observing campaign demonstrates that the excess dispersion is due to two superimposed coherent signals, with periods of 4.69 and 35 days. Results: These data are described well by a 2-planet Keplerian model where each planet has a ~11 M_â minimum mass. A careful analysis of the (low-level) magnetic activity of GJ 674, however, demonstrates that the 35-day period coincides with the stellar rotation period. This signal therefore originates in a spot inhomogeneity modulated by stellar rotation. The 4.69-day signal, on the other hand, is caused by a bona-fide planet, GJ 674b. Conclusions: Its detection adds to the growing number of Neptune-mass planets around M-dwarfs and reinforces the emerging conclusion that this mass domain is much more populated than the Jovian mass range. We discuss the metallicity distributions of M dwarf with and without planets and find a low 11% probability that they are drawn from the same parent distribution. Moreover, we find tentative evidence that the host star metallicity correlates with the total mass of their planetary system. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the GTO program ID 072.C-0488 at Cerro La Silla (Chile). Radial-velocity, photometric and Ca II H+K index time series are only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strabg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/474/293 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIV. Gl 176b, a super-Earth rather than a Neptune, and at a different periodForveille, T.; Bonfils, X.; Delfosse, X. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 493A 10.24-day Neptune-mass planet was recently announced as orbiting the nearby M2 dwarf Gl 176, based on 28 radial velocities measured with the HRS spectrograph on the Hobby-Heberly Telescope. We obtained ... [more ▼]A 10.24-day Neptune-mass planet was recently announced as orbiting the nearby M2 dwarf Gl 176, based on 28 radial velocities measured with the HRS spectrograph on the Hobby-Heberly Telescope. We obtained 57 radial velocities of Gl 176 with the ESO 3.6 m telescope and the HARPS spectrograph, which is known for its sub-m s[SUP]-1[/SUP] stability. The median photon-noise standard error of our measurements is 1.1 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP], significantly lower than the 4.7 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP] of the HET velocities, and the 4-year period over which they were obtained overlaps considerably with the epochs of the HET measurements. The HARPS measurements show no evidence of a signal at the period of the putative HET planet, suggesting that its detection was spurious. We do find, on the other hand, strong evidence of a lower mass 8.4 M_Earth planet, in a quasi-circular orbit and at the different period of 8.78 days. The host star has moderate magnetic activity and rotates on a 39-day period, which we confirm through modulation of both contemporaneous photometry and chromospheric indices. We detect that period, as well, in the radial velocities, but it is well removed from the orbital period and offers no cause for confusion. This new detection of a super-Earth (2 M_Earth < M sin (i) < 10 M_Earth) around an M dwarf adds to the growing evidence that such planets are common around very low-mass stars. A third of the 20 known planets with M sin (i)< 0.1 M_Jup and 3 of the 7 known planets with M sin (i) < 10 M_Earth orbit an M dwarf, in contrast to just 4 of the ~300 known Jupiter-mass planets. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory under program ID 072.C-0488. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXIV. A planetary system around the nearby M dwarf GJ163, with a super-Earth possibly in the habitable zoneBonfils, X.; Lo Curto, G.; Correia, A. C. M. et alE-print/Working paper (2013)The meter-per-second precision achieved by today velocimeters enables the search for 1-10 M_Earth planets in the habitable zone of cool stars. This paper reports on the detection of 3 planets orbiting ... [more ▼]The meter-per-second precision achieved by today velocimeters enables the search for 1-10 M_Earth planets in the habitable zone of cool stars. This paper reports on the detection of 3 planets orbiting GJ163 (HIP19394), a M3 dwarf monitored by our ESO/HARPS search for planets. We made use of the HARPS spectrograph to collect 150 radial velocities of GJ163 over a period of 8 years. We searched the RV time series for coherent signals and found 5 distinct periodic variabilities. We investigated the stellar activity and casted doubts on the planetary interpretation for 2 signals. Before more data can be acquired we concluded that at least 3 planets are orbiting GJ163. They have orbital periods of P_b=8.632+-0.002, P_c=25.63+-0.03 and P_d=604+-8 days and minimum masses msini = 10.6+-0.6, 6.8+-0.9, and 29+-3 M_Earth, respectively. We hold our interpretations for the 2 additional signals with periods P_(e)=19.4 and P_(f)=108 days. The inner pair presents an orbital period ratio of 2.97, but a dynamical analysis of the system shows that it lays outside the 3:1 mean motion resonance. GJ163c, in particular, is a super-Earth with an equilibrium temperature of T_eq = (302+-10) (1-A)^(1/4) K and may lie in the so called habitable zone for albedo values (A=0.34-0.89) moderately higher than that of Earth (A_Earth=0.2-0.3). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVI. Eight HARPS multi-planet systems hosting 20 super-Earth and Neptune-mass companionsUdry, S.; Dumusque, X.; Lovis, C. et alin ArXiv e-prints (2017), 1705We present radial-velocity measurement of eight stars observed with the HARPS Echelle spectrograph mounted on the 3.6-m telescope in La Silla (ESO, Chile). Data span more than ten years and highlight the ... [more ▼]We present radial-velocity measurement of eight stars observed with the HARPS Echelle spectrograph mounted on the 3.6-m telescope in La Silla (ESO, Chile). Data span more than ten years and highlight the long-term stability of the instrument. We search for potential planets orbiting HD20003, HD20781, HD21693, HD31527, HD45184, HD51608, HD134060 and HD136352 to increase the number of known planetary systems and thus better constrain exoplanet statistics. After a preliminary phase looking for signals using generalized Lomb-Scargle periodograms, we perform a careful analysis of all signals to separate \emph{bona-fide} planets from spurious signals induced by stellar activity and instrumental systematics. We finally secure the detection of all planets using the efficient MCMC available on the Data and Analysis Center for Exoplanets (DACE web-platform), using model comparison whenever necessary. In total, we report the detection of twenty new super-Earth to Neptune-mass planets, with minimum masses ranging from 2 to 30 M$_{\rm Earth}$, and periods ranging from 3 to 1300 days. By including CORALIE and HARPS measurements of HD20782 to the already published data, we also improve the characterization of the extremely eccentric Jupiter orbiting this host. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVI. Planetary systems and stellar activity of the M dwarfs GJ 3293, GJ 3341, and GJ 3543Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Delfosse, X. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 575Context. Planetary companions of a fixed mass induce reflex motions with a larger amplitude around lower-mass stars, which adds to making M dwarfs excellent targets for extra-solar planet searches. The ... [more ▼]Context. Planetary companions of a fixed mass induce reflex motions with a larger amplitude around lower-mass stars, which adds to making M dwarfs excellent targets for extra-solar planet searches. The most recent velocimeters with a stability of ~1 m s[SUP]-1[/SUP] can detect very low-mass planets out to the habitable zone of these stars. Low-mass small planets are abundant around M dwarfs, and most of the known potentially habitable planets orbit one of these cool stars.
Results: Two Neptune-mass planets - msin(i) = 1.4 ± 0.1 and 1.3 ± 0.1M[SUB]nept[/SUB] - orbit GJ 3293 with periods P = 30.60 ± 0.02 d and P = 123.98 ± 0.38 d, possibly together with a super-Earth - msin(i) ~ 7.9 ± 1.4 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] - with period P = 48.14 ± 0.12d. A super-Earth - msin(i) ~ 6.1 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] - orbits GJ 3341 with P = 14.207 ± 0.007d. The RV variations of GJ 3543, on the other hand, reflect its stellar activity rather than planetary signals. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program IDs 072.C-0488, 082.C-0718 and 183.C-0437 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Tables A.1-A.3 (radial velocity data) are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/575/A119 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXVIII. Bayesian re-analysis of three systems. New super-Earths, unconfirmed signals, and magnetic cyclesDíaz, R. F.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 585We present the analysis of the entire HARPS observations of three stars that host planetary systems: HD1461, HD40307, and HD204313. The data set spans eight years and contains more than 200 nightly ... [more ▼]We present the analysis of the entire HARPS observations of three stars that host planetary systems: HD1461, HD40307, and HD204313. The data set spans eight years and contains more than 200 nightly averaged velocity measurements for each star. This means that it is sensitive to both long-period and low-mass planets and also to the effects induced by stellar activity cycles. We modelled the data using Keplerian functions that correspond to planetary candidates and included the short- and long-term effects of magnetic activity. A Bayesian approach was taken both for the data modelling, which allowed us to include information from activity proxies such as $\log{(R'_{\rm HK})}$ in the velocity modelling, and for the model selection, which permitted determining the number of significant signals in the system. The Bayesian model comparison overcomes the limitations inherent to the traditional periodogram analysis. We report an additional super-Earth planet in the HD1461 system. Four out of the six planets previously reported for HD40307 are confirmed and characterised. We discuss the remaining two proposed signals. In particular, we show that when the systematic uncertainty associated with the techniques for estimating model probabilities are taken into account, the current data are not conclusive concerning the existence of the habitable-zone candidate HD40307 g. We also fully characterise the Neptune-mass planet that orbits HD204313 in 34.9 days. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (0 ULg) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets: XXXI. The M-dwarf sampleBonfils, X.; Delfosse, X.; Udry, S. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2013), 549(Abridged) Searching for planets around stars with different masses probes the outcome of planetary formation for different initial conditions. This drives observations of a sample of 102 southern nearby ... [more ▼](Abridged) Searching for planets around stars with different masses probes the outcome of planetary formation for different initial conditions. This drives observations of a sample of 102 southern nearby M dwarfs, using a fraction of our guaranteed time on the ESO/HARPS spectrograph (Feb. 11th, 2003 to Apr. 1st 2009). This paper makes available the sample's time series, presents their precision and variability. We apply systematic searches and diagnostics to discriminate whether the observed Doppler shifts are caused by stellar surface inhomogeneities or by the radial pull of orbiting planets. We recover the planetary signals corresponding to 9 planets already announced by our group (Gl176b, Gl581b, c, d & e, Gl674b, Gl433b, Gl 667Cb and c). We present radial velocities that confirm GJ 849 hosts a Jupiter-mass planet, plus a long-term radial-velocity variation. We also present RVs that precise the planetary mass and period of Gl 832b. We detect long-term RV changes for Gl 367, Gl 680 and Gl 880 betraying yet unknown long-period companions. We identify candidate signals in the radial-velocity time series and demonstrate they are most probably caused by stellar surface inhomogeneities. Finally, we derive a first estimate of the occurrence of M-dwarf planets as a function of their minimum mass and orbital period. In particular, we find that giant planets (m sin i = 100-1,000 Mearth) have a low frequency (e.g. f<1% for P=1-10 d and f=0.02^{+0.03}_{-0.01} for P=10-100 d), whereas super-Earths (m sin i = 1-10 Mearth) are likely very abundant (f=0.36^{+0.25}_{-0.10} for P=1-10 d and f=0.35^{+0.45}_{-0.11} for P=10-100 d). We also obtained eta_earth=0.41^{+0.54}_{-0.13}, the frequency of habitable planets orbiting M dwarfs (1http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A72 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (3 ULg)