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Peer Reviewed
See detailThe animal laboratory as training resource
Dondelinger; Ghysels; Brisbois et al

Conference (1998)

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See detailAnimal model genetic evaluation of type traits for five dairy cattle breeds
Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Wiggans, G. R.; Wright, J. R.

in Journal of Dairy Science (1999), 82(6), 13501-135022

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See detailAnimal models of drug addiction: advantages and limitations
Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2006), 106

Various animal models have been developed to investigate the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drug addiction. The most popular of these animal models include the locomotor sensitization ... [more ▼]

Various animal models have been developed to investigate the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of drug addiction. The most popular of these animal models include the locomotor sensitization paradigm, the place conditioning procedure and the self-administration technique. With these techniques, it is possible to mimic in rodents the major aspects of human drug addiction. The self-administration procedure is the most widely used and show an excellent natural and predictive validity. In the self-administration protocol, experimental animals, usually rats or mice, are allowed to press a lever in order to gain access to a small dose of an addictive drug. The drug may be given to the animal through the oral, the intravenous or the intracranial route of administration, according to the purpose of the study. In recent years, the classical self-administration procedure has been adapted to study the specific neurobiological basis of drug relapse. In this now called drug reinstatement paradigm, when drug self-administration behaviors are well established, an extinction procedure starts, during which lever pressing is no longer reinforced by drug access. After a number of such extinction sessions, lever pressing gradually declines and eventually stops. Drug-seeking behaviors are therefore said to be extinguished. It is then possible to test various stimuli in order to investigate whether they reinstate drug-seeking behaviors and use such a reinstatement as an animal model of drug relapse. Three types of stimuli have been shown to reinstate drug-seeking behaviors: a small priming dose of drug, drug-associated cues and a stressful stimuli. The effects of these three relapse-triggering stimuli are mediated by different neurobiological mechanisms, leading to the expectation that they may be targeted by different pharmacotherapeutic and behavioral interventions. Despite the high value of the current animal models of drug addiction, there show several limitations. In particular, it is difficult to differentiate between self-controlled and compulsive drug use in animals. As only uncontrolled compulsive drug consumption characterizes drug addiction in humans, such a limitation might explain the high frequency of false positive results in animal experiments. Indeed, it is common that therapeutic interventions successfully developed in animals later proved to be disappointing in humans. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal models of migraine: looking at the component parts of a complex disorder
Bergerot, A.; Holland, P. R.; Akerman, S. et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2006), 24(6), 1517-1534

Animal models of human disease have been extremely helpful both in advancing the understanding of brain disorders and in developing new therapeutic approaches. Models for studying headache mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Animal models of human disease have been extremely helpful both in advancing the understanding of brain disorders and in developing new therapeutic approaches. Models for studying headache mechanisms, particularly those directed at migraine, have been developed and exploited efficiently in the last decade, leading to better understanding of the potential mechanisms of the disorder and of the action for antimigraine treatments. Model systems employed have focused on the pain-producing cranial structures, the large vessels and dura mater, in order to provide reproducible physiological measures that could be subject to pharmacological exploration. A wide range of methods using both in vivo and in vitro approaches are now employed; these range from manipulation of the mouse genome in order to produce animals with human disease-producing mutations, through sensitive immunohistochemical methods to vascular, neurovascular and electrophysiological studies. No one model system in experimental animals can explain all the features of migraine; however, the systems available have begun to offer ways to dissect migraine's component parts to allow a better understanding of the problem and the development of new treatment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal Models of Mitral Regurgitation Induced by Mitral Valve Chordae Tendineae Rupture.
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Moonen, Marie ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg et al

in Journal of Heart Valve Disease (The) (2012), 21

Background – Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common valvular disease throughout the world. Various diagnostic techniques have been developed to assess the causes and severity of MR, and the therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Background – Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common valvular disease throughout the world. Various diagnostic techniques have been developed to assess the causes and severity of MR, and the therapeutic approaches to this disease have been widely documented. However, treatments for chronic MR remain controversial, and various animal models of chronic MR (including chordae tendineae rupture, rapid pacing and ischemia) have been developed to study the pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches to this disease. The objective of this paper is to review the animal MR models that have been developed using a mitral valve chordae tendineae rupture technique. Animal models – Dogs and sheep have been the animals most commonly used in MR models induced by mitral valve chordae tendineae rupture, mainly due to considerations of cardiac size. Chordae tendineae cutting is performed using closed or open chest techniques. In the closed chest model, long flexible grasping forceps are positioned percutaneously in order to tear the mitral valve chordae. In the open chest model, cardiopulmonary bypass is performed and either selected chordae are cut under direct visualization, or a non specified number of chordae are cut using a metal device inserted through the left ventricular apex. Whatever the model used, MR has been found to become chronic 3 to 6 months after the induction of MR by chordae rupture. The reported mortality and complication rates of these models are high. Conclusion – In the long term, experimental evolution of chronic MR is similar to the evolution occurring naturally in patients suffering from chronic MR. These models could thus be useful in understanding the disease better and in testing new therapeutic modalities. This review summarizes the physiological effects of each of these techniques and compares the advantages and disadvantages of each procedure. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal models of VZV infection
Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine ULg; Rentier, Bernard ULg

in Gershon, Anne A.; Arvin, Ann M. (Eds.) Varicella-Zoster Virus : Virological and Clinical Management (2000)

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See detailAnimal noroviruses.
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; Vinje, J. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2008), 178(1), 32-45

Among enteric caliciviruses, noroviruses belong to the genus Norovirus, one of the four accepted genera in the family Caliciviridae. These single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are highly variable ... [more ▼]

Among enteric caliciviruses, noroviruses belong to the genus Norovirus, one of the four accepted genera in the family Caliciviridae. These single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are highly variable both genetically and antigenically. Several animal enteric caliciviruses that are morphologically indistinguishable and genetically closely related to human noroviruses have been identified. The first bovine enteric noroviruses were described in Great Britain and are known as Newbury Agent 2. At least three genetic clusters of porcine noroviruses join together within genogroup II noroviruses. Human noroviruses are the most important cause of acute gastroenteritis illness in people of all ages. In the USA, they are associated with approximately 30-50% of all food-borne outbreaks. Until now, noroviruses have not been associated with gastroenteritis outbreaks in immunocompetent animals. Neither bovine nor porcine noroviruses can replicate in cell culture, although human norovirus can grow in a complex 3D culture system. However, the recently discovered murine noroviruses can replicate in cell culture and are therefore used as model viruses to study human noroviruses. This review focusses on virus classification, virion structure, pathogenesis, epidemiology, immune response and diagnosis of animal noroviruses in comparison with human noroviruses. The classification of animal enteric caliciviruses within the Norovirus genus raises the question of whether transmission from an animal reservoir to humans could occur. Answering this question is important in determining the risk of cross-species infections affecting the epidemiology and evolution of these viruses and so complicating the control of human norovirus infections. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal performance and nitrogen surplus in suckler cows pastures fertilised with mineral nitrogen fertilizer, pig slurry or cattle compost
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Land use systems in grassland dominated regions, 20th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation (2004)

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See detailAnimal performance and nitrogen surplus in suckler cows pastures fertilised with mineral nitrogen fertilizer, pig slurry or cattle compost
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Land use systems in grassland dominated regions, Book of abstracts of 20th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation (2004)

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See detailAnimal performance and sward characteristics in pasture grazed by heifers supplemented by different carbohydrates
Raskin, Pascale; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Book of abstracts of the 49th annual meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (1998)

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See detailAnimal performance, plasma hormones and metabolites in Holstein and Belgian Blue growing-fattening bulls.
Istasse, Louis ULg; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULg; Evrard, Pierre et al

in Journal of Animal Science (1990), 68(9), 2666-73

Six Holstein (light-muscled type) and six Belgian Blue bulls (double-muscled type) were fed a finishing diet. Average daily gain was 1.36 kg for the Holstein bulls vs 1.24 kg for the Belgian Blue bulls (P ... [more ▼]

Six Holstein (light-muscled type) and six Belgian Blue bulls (double-muscled type) were fed a finishing diet. Average daily gain was 1.36 kg for the Holstein bulls vs 1.24 kg for the Belgian Blue bulls (P less than .05). Holstein bulls consumed more feed (2.3 vs 1.8 kg/100 kg body weight, P less than .001) than the Belgian Blue bulls. The dressing percentage (55.4 vs 65.8%, P less than .001) and the proportion of muscle (56.1 vs 71.3%, P less than .001) in the carcass were less, whereas the proportions of adipose tissue (28.3 vs 15.4%, P less than .001) and bone (15.7 vs 13.4%, P less than .05) were higher in the Holstein bulls. Plasma creatinine determined in samples obtained once a week was lower (11.0 vs 20.3 mg/liter, P less than .001) in the Holstein bulls. In contrast, Holstein bulls tended to produce more triiodothyronine (2.3 vs 1.8 nM, P less than .10), tetraiodothyronine (71.9 vs 54.7 nM, P less than .10) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I; 340 vs 205 ng/ml, P less than .20) than the Belgian Blue bulls. Growth hormone, insulin, IGF-I and testosterone were measured at 20-min intervals during two 24-h periods. In wk 6, Holstein bulls tended to produce more growth hormone than the Belgian Blues, as indicated by higher total peak area (3,185 vs 2,431 ng), peak amplitude (34.1 vs 22.6 ng/ml, P less than .10) and baseline (4.6 vs 3.3 ng/ml, P less than .20). In wk 27, the trends were opposite.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) [less ▲]

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See detailThe animal phylogeny and the fundamental importance of taxon sampling
Philippe, Hervé; Brinkmann, Henner; Baurain, Denis ULg

Scientific conference (2006, February 20)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailAnimal production and selection in Maghreb
Kafidi, N.; Meniai, Kh.; Leroy, Pascal ULg

(1992)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'animal toxicomane: les modèles de comportement animal dans l'étude de la tolérance et de la toxicomanie
Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Nouvelles de la Science et des Technologies (1987), 5

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See detailAnimal welfare: The contribution of ethology
Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(1, FEB-MAR), 17-22

During the last fifty years, intensive husbandry has profoundly modified the animal living conditions, especially in pigs and poultry. At the same time, concerns about animal welfare were growing on ... [more ▼]

During the last fifty years, intensive husbandry has profoundly modified the animal living conditions, especially in pigs and poultry. At the same time, concerns about animal welfare were growing on. "Welfare " (" le bien-etre " in french) can be defined as a state of dynamic balance (homeostasy) between the animal and its environment (internal and external). The attempts of the animal to maintain or to adjust this balance may induce physical and mental sufferings, eventually harmful even on a health than on a performance point of view. Welfare of farm animals is assessed using 4 complementary and closely linked types of measures, i.e. performance, health, physiology and ethology. Ethological measurements involve a lot of advantages and are more and more utilised: study of adaptation abilities, behavioural disorders or animal motivation and preference. Ethology is thus considered as a very useful tool that can not be neglected, as shown by the important scientific work, notably in pigs and poultry. Research results have to constitute an essential prerequisite to the ethical reflection process regarding animal welfare, allowing to induce concrete and relevant political acts. [less ▲]

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See detailL'animalerie Souris SPF du GIGA
Ectors, Fabien ULg; Bay, Daniel ULg

Diverse speeche and writing (2007)

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (12 ULg)
See detailAnimateur de l'atelier Intégration sociale et citoyenneté
Martiniello, Marco ULg

Scientific conference (1997, December 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)