Browsing
     by title


0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

or enter first few letters:   
OK
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic resonance imaging findings in the equine deep digital flexor tendon and distal sesamoid bone in advanced navicular disease--an ex vivo study.
Busoni, Valeria ULg; Heimann, Marianne; Trenteseaux, Jacques ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2005), 46(4), 279-86

We describe the abnormal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and distal sesamoid bone in horses with radiographic changes compatible with navicular syndrome ... [more ▼]

We describe the abnormal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings in the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and distal sesamoid bone in horses with radiographic changes compatible with navicular syndrome. Thirteen postmortem specimens were examined using a 1.5-T magnetic field, with spin echo (SE) T1-weighted, turbo SE (TSE) proton density-weighted (with and without fat saturation), and fat saturation TSE T2-weighted sequences. The limbs were then dissected to compare the MR findings with the gross assessment and histologic examination of the DDFT and distal sesamoid bones. Tendonous abnormalities were detected by MR imaging in 12 DDFTs and confirmed at necropsy. Most tendon lesions were located at the level of the distal sesamoid bone and the proximal recess of the podotrochlear bursa. Tendon lesions were classified based on their MR imaging features as core lesions, dorsal lesions, dorsal abrasions, and parasagittal splits. Areas of increased MR signal in the DDFTs were characterized by tendon fiber disturbance and lack of continuity of the collagen fibers, foci of edema, hemorrhages, and formation of lakes containing eosinophilic plasma-like material or amphophilic material of low density. Bone marrow signal alterations in the distal sesamoid bone were seen in all digits. Two main phenomena were responsible for the abnormal signal, respectively, in T1-weighted (decreased signal) and in T2-weighted fat-suppressed images (increased signal): a decrease in the fat marrow content in the trabecular spaces and an increase in the fluid content. Histologic examination revealed foci of bone marrow edema, hemorrhage, necrosis, and fibrosis. Cyst formation and trabecular abnormalities (disorganization, thinning, remodelling) were also observed in areas of abnormal signal intensity. Increased bone density because of trabecular thickening induced a decrease in signal in all sequences. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (11 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic resonance imaging of canine elbow joint
Saunders; Snaps, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2006)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic resonance imaging of the palmar aspect of the equine podotrochlear apparatus: Normal appearance
Busoni, Valeria ULg; Snaps, Frédéric ULg; Trenteseaux, Jacques ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2004), 45(3), 198-204

The purpose of this study was to describe the normal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of the palmar structures of the equine podotrochlear apparatus by means of retrospective evaluation of ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to describe the normal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of the palmar structures of the equine podotrochlear apparatus by means of retrospective evaluation of MR imaging studies of 16 cadaver limbs. The articular aspect of the distal sesamoid bone was not evaluated in this study. Equine digits were imaged with a human knee radiofrequency coil in a 1.5 T magnetic field, using spin echo (SE) T1-weighted, turbo spin echo proton density (TSE PD)-weighted with and without fat saturation (FS), and FS TSE T2-weighted sequences. The limbs were dissected after imaging to validate the absence of gross abnormalities of the flexor aspect of the distal sesamoid bone, of the deep digital flexor tendon, and the distal impar sesamoidean ligament. Seven deep digital flexor tendons were subjected to histologic examination to exclude any microscopic tendon pathology. The anatomic structures of the podotrochlear apparatus were easily identified on MR images. Compact bone of the flexor cortex of the distal sesamoid bone had low intensity signal on all sequences. In 11 digits an increased signal was seen within the thickness of the sagittal eminence of the flexor cortex in SE T1-weighted images and in TSE PD-weighted images without FS. Trabecular bone had a granular appearance and high signal in SE T1-weighted sequences and TSE images without FS. The deep digital flexor tendon had low signal on FS T2-weighted images, while on short echo time sequences (T1- and PD-weighted sequences), the tendon signal varied depending on the relative orientation between its fibers and the static magnetic field. Seven tendons had stippled appearance due to small intratendonous foci of slightly increased signal on transverse T1-weighted images. MR imaging provides a thorough evaluation of the anatomical structure of the podotrochlear apparatus: A good knowledge of the MR imaging appearance and anatomy and an awareness of potential pitfalls will improve diagnostic specificity for the detection of pathologic changes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic resonance signal changes during time in equine limbs refrigerated at 4 degrees C.
Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Haye, Dimitri; Dondelinger, Robert ULg et al

in Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound (2010), 51(1), 19-24

When ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are undertaken, specimen conservation should be taken into account when interpreting MR imaging results. The purpose of this study was to assess MR ... [more ▼]

When ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies are undertaken, specimen conservation should be taken into account when interpreting MR imaging results. The purpose of this study was to assess MR changes during time in the anatomic structures of the equine digit on eight cadaver limbs stored at 4 degrees C. The digits were imaged within 12 h after death and then after 1, 2, 7, and 14 days of refrigeration. After the last examination, four feet were warmed at room temperature for 24 h and reimaged. Sequences used were turbo spin echo (TSE) T1, TSE T2, short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and double-echo steady state (DESS). Images obtained were compared subjectively side by side for image quality and signal changes. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was measured and compared between examinations. There were no subjective changes in image quality. A mild size reduction of the synovial recesses was detected subjectively. No signal change was seen subjectively except for bone marrow that appeared slightly hyperintense in STIR and slightly hypointense in TSE T2 sequence after refrigeration compared with day 0. Using quantitative analysis, significant SNR changes in bone marrow of refrigerated limbs compared with day 0 were detected in STIR and TSE T2 sequences. Warming at room temperature for 24 h produced a reverse effect on SNR compared with refrigeration with a significant increase in SNR in TSE T2 images. After 14 days of refrigeration a statistically significant decrease of SNR was found in bone marrow in TSE T2 and DESS sequences. The SNR in the deep digital flexor tendon was not characterized by significant change in SNR. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging in coma survivors: promises and pitfalls.
TSHIBANDA, Luaba ULg; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey ULg; Galanaud, Damien et al

in Progress in Brain Research (2009), 177

The status of comatose patient is currently established on the basis of the patient-exhibited behaviors. Clinical assessment is subjective and, in 40% of patients, fails to distinguish vegetative state ... [more ▼]

The status of comatose patient is currently established on the basis of the patient-exhibited behaviors. Clinical assessment is subjective and, in 40% of patients, fails to distinguish vegetative state (VS) from minimally conscious states (MCS). The technologic advances of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have dramatically improved our understanding of these altered states of consciousness. The role of neuroimaging in coma survivors has increased beyond the simple evaluation of morphological abnormalities. The development of 1H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provide opportunity to evaluate processes that cannot be approached by current morphologic MRI sequences. They offer potentially unique insights into the histopathology of VS and MCS. The MRS is a powerful noninvasive imaging technique that enables the in vivo quantification of certain chemical compound or metabolites as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho), and Creatine (Cr). These biomarkers explore neuronal integrity (NAA), cell membrane turnover (Cho), and cell energetic function (Cr). DTI is an effective and proved quantitative method for evaluating tissue integrity at microscopic level. It provides information about the microstructure and the architecture of tissues, especially the white matter. Various physical parameters can be extracted from this sequence: the fractional anisotropy (FA), a marker of white matter integrity; mean diffusivity (MD); and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) which can differentiate cytotoxic and vasogenic edema. The most prominent findings with MRS and DTI performed in traumatic brain-injured (TBI) patients in subacute phase are the reduction of the NAA/Cr ratio in posterior pons and the decrease of mean infratentorial and supratentorial FA except in posterior pons that enables to predict unfavorable outcome at 1 year from TBI with up to 86% sensitivity and 97% specificity. This review will focus on the interest of comatose patients MRI multimodal assessment with MRS and DTI. It will emphasize the advantages and pitfalls of these techniques in particular in predicting the coma survivors' outcome. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMagnetic shielding properties of a bulk Bi-2223 superconducting hollow cylinder subjected to an inhomogeneous magnetic field
Hogan, Kevin ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 12)

Bulk superconducting materials are well suited for magnetic shielding applications. At low frequencies, the performances of superconductors are higher than those of conventional ferromagnetic materials ... [more ▼]

Bulk superconducting materials are well suited for magnetic shielding applications. At low frequencies, the performances of superconductors are higher than those of conventional ferromagnetic materials. In shielding applications, two situations may be encountered. The first one corresponds to the case where the screen has to shield a volume from the magnetic field in its environment; this corresponds to an “immunity” problem. In the second situation, the screen has to prevent the magnetic field generated by an electronic device from perturbing its environment; this is an “emission” problem. So far, superconducting screens have been extensively studied in “immunity” and were subjected to uniform magnetic fields. In “emission”, the magnetic field is no longer uniform because a local magnetic source has to be placed inside the screen. In this work, we have studied experimentally at 77K the magnetic flux penetration in a Bi-2223 superconducting hollow cylinder subjected to a non-uniform quasi-static magnetic field generated by a small coil placed inside the sample. Two configurations were investigated: axial and transverse; corresponding respectively to the situation where the axis of the coil is coaxial or perpendicular to the axis of tube. We also investigate the influence of the sweep rate of the magnetic field on the magnetic shielding performances. Planar and circular (i.e. at constant distance of the tube) mappings of the magnetic field at proximity of the external surface of the tube were obtained thanks to a bespoke experimental setup using a three axes miniature Hall probe. It was observed that the three components of the magnetic field measured outside are affected differently by the superconducting screen. A simple one-dimensional model based on the conservation of magnetic flux and the Bean model was developed for the axial configuration. It was found to be in accordance with experimental data. It allows one to predict the maximal magnetic flux that can be generated inside the coil before the tube is fully penetrated and a magnetic field is measured outside the tube. Finally, it was observed that the inner surface of the tube is subjected to a magnetic field higher than the one at the same place without the tube. This concentration phenomenon arises because of the diamagnetic behaviour of the superconductor. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic shielding properties of a superconducting hollow cylinder containing slits: Modelling and experiment
Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Elschner, S.; Hobl, A. et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2012), 25(10), 104006

This paper deals with the magnetic properties of bulk high temperature superconducting cylinders used as magnetic shields. We investigate, both numerically and experimentally, the magnetic properties of a ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the magnetic properties of bulk high temperature superconducting cylinders used as magnetic shields. We investigate, both numerically and experimentally, the magnetic properties of a hollow cylinder with two axial slits which cut the cylinder in equal halves. Finite element method modelling has been used with a three-dimensional geometry to help us in understanding how the superconducting currents flow in such a cut cylinder and therefore how the magnetic shielding properties are affected, depending on the magnetic field orientation. Modelling results show that the slits block the shielding current flow and act as an entrance channel for the magnetic flux lines. The contribution of the slits to the total flux density that enters the cylinder is studied through the angle formed between the applied field and the internal field. The modelled data agree nicely with magnetic shielding properties measured on a bulk Bi-2212 hollow cylinder at 77K. The results demonstrate that the magnetic flux penetration in such a geometry can be modelled successfully using only two parameters of the superconductor (constant J c and n value), which were determined from magnetic measurements on the plain cylinder. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 56 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic shielding properties of high- Tc superconducting hollow cylinders: model combining experimental data for axial and transverse magnetic field configurations
Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Dirickx, Michel; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2009), 22(10), 10500210

Magnetic shielding efficiency was measured on high- Tc superconducting hollow cylinders subjected to either an axial or a transverse magnetic field in a large range of field sweep rates, dBapp/dt. The ... [more ▼]

Magnetic shielding efficiency was measured on high- Tc superconducting hollow cylinders subjected to either an axial or a transverse magnetic field in a large range of field sweep rates, dBapp/dt. The behaviour of the superconductor was modelled in order to reproduce the main features of the field penetration curves by using a minimum number of free parameters suitable for both magnetic field orientations. The field penetration measurements were carried out on Pb-doped Bi-2223 tubes at 77 K by applying linearly increasing magnetic fields with a constant sweep rate ranging between 10 uT s[?]1 and 10 mT s[?]1 for both directions of the applied magnetic field. The experimental curves of the internal field versus the applied field, Bin(Bapp), show that, at a given sweep rate, the magnetic field for which the penetration occurs, Blim, is lower for the transverse configuration than for the axial configuration. A power law dependence with large exponent, n', is found between Blim and dBapp/dt. The values of n' are nearly the same for both configurations. We show that the main features of the curves Bin(Bapp) can be reproduced using a simple 2D model, based on the method of Brandt, involving a E(J) power law with an n-exponent and a field-dependent critical current density, Jc(B), (following the Kim model: Jc = Jc0(1+B/B1)[?]1). In particular, a linear relationship between the measured n'-exponents and the n-exponent of the E(J) power law is suggested by taking into account the field dependence of the critical current density. Differences between the axial and the transverse shielding properties can be simply attributed to demagnetizing fields. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (45 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic shielding properties of high-temperature superconducting tubes subjected to axial fields
Denis, Samuel ULg; Dusoulier, Laurent; Dirickx, Michel ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2007), 20(3), 192-201

We have experimentally studied the magnetic shielding properties of a cylindrical shell of BiPbSrCaCuO subjected to low frequency AC axial magnetic fields. The magnetic response has been investigated as a ... [more ▼]

We have experimentally studied the magnetic shielding properties of a cylindrical shell of BiPbSrCaCuO subjected to low frequency AC axial magnetic fields. The magnetic response has been investigated as a function of the dimensions of the tube, the magnitude of the applied field and the frequency. These results are explained quantitatively by employing the method of Brandt ( 1998 Phys. Rev. B 58 6506) with a Jc( B) law appropriate for a polycrystalline material. Specifically, we observe that the applied field can sweep into the central region either through the thickness of the shield or through the opening ends, the latter mechanism being suppressed for long tubes. For the first time, we systematically detail the spatial variation of the shielding factor ( the ratio of the applied field over the internal magnetic field) along the axis of a high-temperature superconducting tube. The shielding factor is shown to be constant in a region around the centre of the tube, and to decrease as an exponential in the vicinity of the ends. This spatial dependence comes from the competition between two mechanisms of field penetration. The frequency dependence of the shielding factor is also discussed and shown to follow a power law arising from the finite creep exponent n. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (52 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic Shielding with Bulk High Temperature Superconductors: Factors Influencing the Magnetic Field Penetration in Hollow Cylinders
Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Vanderheyden, Benoît ULg; Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg

in Muralidhar, Miryala (Ed.) Superconductivity: Recent Developments and New Production Technologies (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (15 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic shielding with YBCO coated conductors: influence of the geometry on its performances
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Levin, G. A. et al

in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (2012), 23(3),

A superconducting magnetic shield can be built as a stack of several sections of milled 2G coated conductors. Each section consists of a closed loop where persistent currents can flow and provide a strong ... [more ▼]

A superconducting magnetic shield can be built as a stack of several sections of milled 2G coated conductors. Each section consists of a closed loop where persistent currents can flow and provide a strong attenuation of external dc magnetic fields. The purpose of the present work is to study experimentally several geometries of such magnetic shields made out of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) coated conductors from SuperPower. Our aim is to investigate in detail the influence of the aspect ratio and the number of layers of the assembly on the magnetic shielding properties. In order to do so, the magnetic shield is subjected to an axial quasi-static (“dc”) magnetic field ramped slowly at a fixed sweep rate. A Hall probe is used to measure the local magnetic induction inside the assembly as a function of the appliedmagnetic induction. Results show that the shielding factor, SF, (defined as the ratio between the appliedmagnetic induction and the magnetic induction measured inside the shield) is improved for increasing aspect ratios of the global coated conductor assembly and that the threshold magnetic induction (defined for SF = 10) increases with the number of layers. Using a double layer of 18 sections at T = 77 K, dc magnetic fields up to 56 mT can be shielded by a factor larger than 10. Finally, the effect of an air gap of constant width between coated conductor sections is also characterized.(C) 2012 IEEE [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (11 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMagnetic shielding with YBCO coated conductors: influence of the geometry on its performances.
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Levin, George et al

Poster (2012, October 10)

A superconducting magnetic screen can be built as a stack of several sections of milled 2G coated conductors. Each section consists of a closed loop where persistent currents can flow and provide a strong ... [more ▼]

A superconducting magnetic screen can be built as a stack of several sections of milled 2G coated conductors. Each section consists of a closed loop where persistent currents can flow and provide a strong attenuation of external dc magnetic fields. The purpose of the present work is to study experimentally several geometries of such magnetic screens made out of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) coated conductors from SuperPower. Our aim is to investigate in details the influence of the aspect ratio and the number of layers of the assembly on the magnetic shielding properties. In order to do so, the magnetic screen is subjected to an axial quasi-static (“dc”) magnetic field ramped slowly a fixed sweep rates. A Hall probe is used to measure the local magnetic induction inside the assembly as a function of the applied magnetic induction. Results show that the threshold magnetic induction (above which magnetic shielding ceases) increases with the number of layers and that the shielding factor (defined as to ratio between the applied magnetic induction and the magnetic induction measured inside the screen) is improved for increasing aspect ratios of the global coated conductor assembly. Using a double layer of 18 sections at T = 77 K, dc magnetic fields up to 56 mT can be shielded by a factor larger than 10. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions for a perfect (type-I) magnetic shield with the same aspect ratio. Finally, the effect of an air gap of constant width between coated conductor sections is also characterized. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for the detection of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies.
Druet, E.; Mahieu, P.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Journal of Immunological Methods (1982), 48(2), 149-57

A new enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the demonstration of antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies. Magnetically responsive polyacrylamide-agarose beads (Magnogel) activated with ... [more ▼]

A new enzyme immunoassay has been developed for the demonstration of antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies. Magnetically responsive polyacrylamide-agarose beads (Magnogel) activated with glutaraldehyde were used to bind sonicated insoluble rat glomerular basement membranes. Both the collagenous and the non-collagenous moieties were demonstrated to be fixed on the beads. Sera from brown Norway rats with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies induced by HgCl2 injections were incubated with the beads. After washing, the fixed rat IgG were revealed using alkaline phosphatase labelled Fab fragments from anti-rat IgG sheep, IgGs. Comparison with a radioimmunoassay showed that results were reliable. This enzyme immunoassay has several advantages which may render this assay of considerable clinical usefulness. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic Stars
Ledoux, Paul; Renson, Pierre ULg

in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics (1966), 4

Not Available

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMagnetic stimulation in multiple sclerosis ans peripheral neuropathies
MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg

in Pascual-Leone, Alvara; Davey, N. J.; Rothwell, John (Eds.) et al Handbook of transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (2002)

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic Stimulation of the Motor Cortex in Cervical Spondylosis
Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg; Remacle, J. M.; PEPIN, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Neurology (1991), 41(1), 75-80

We report a new technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex to measure conduction within central motor pathways of 67 patients with cervical spondylosis or disk herniation. There ... [more ▼]

We report a new technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex to measure conduction within central motor pathways of 67 patients with cervical spondylosis or disk herniation. There were upper motor neuron signs in 34 patients (51%) and x-ray evidence of cervical cord compression in 44 (66%). Muscle action potentials (MAPs) to cortical stimulation were abnormal in 84% of patients with, and 22% of those without, radiologic signs of cervical cord compression. Median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were altered in only 25% of patients. The frequency of MAP alterations correlated with upper motor neuron signs. In 5 (11%) of the 44 patients with x-ray evidence of cervical cord compression, subclinical cord compression was disclosed by cortical stimulation. In 10 patients restudied 3 months after surgical decompression, normalization of central motor conduction time did not occur, indicating permanent damage to the cervical cord. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMagnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in cervical spondylotic myelopathy
MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg

in Lissens, M. A. (Ed.) Clinical Applications of magnetic transcranial stimulation (1992)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMagnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in early multiple sclerosis
MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; Charlier, Marianne; Delwaide, Paul ULg

in Gonsette, R. E.; Delmotte, P. (Eds.) Recent advances in multiple sclerosis therapy (1989)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailMagnetic storm effects on the tropical ultraviolet airglow
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Anderson, D. N.; Matsushita, S.

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1977), 82

Ogo 4 measurements of the UV equatorial airglow made during a period which included a major magnetic storm are analyzed and used as an indicator of wind direction and velocity as well as ExB drift ... [more ▼]

Ogo 4 measurements of the UV equatorial airglow made during a period which included a major magnetic storm are analyzed and used as an indicator of wind direction and velocity as well as ExB drift magnitude and phase. Some features of the airglow intensity and distribution are explained in terms of storm-induced changes in vertical drift velocity, neutral composition, or both. The observations are shown to be consistent with an eastward neutral wind that transports ionization from the Southern to the Northern Hemisphere while raising the F layer in the South and lowering it in the North. Theoretical modeling of the low-latitude F-region ionosphere indicates that an eastward wind with velocity approaching 300 m/s at 2100 LT can qualitatively produce the observed hemispheric asymmetries in airglow emission rates. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)