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See detailLong-incubation time-interferon-gamma release assays in response to PPD-, ESAT-6- and/or CFP-10 for the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children
Schepers, Kinda; Mouchet, Françoise; Dirix, Violette et al

in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology (2013)

Background: Diagnosis of childhood active tuberculosis (aTB) or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) remains a challenge, and replacement of tuberculin skin tests (TST) by ... [more ▼]

Background: Diagnosis of childhood active tuberculosis (aTB) or latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection (LTBI) remains a challenge, and replacement of tuberculin skin tests (TST) by commercialized interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) is not currently recommended. Methods: 266 children between 1 month and 15 years of age, 214 being at risk of recent Mtb infection and 51 being included as controls, were prospectively enrolled. According results of clinical evaluation, TST, chest X-Ray and microbiology, children were classified as non-infected, LTBI or aTB. Long-incubation time PPD-, ESAT-6-, and CFP-10-IGRA were performed and evaluated for their accuracy to correctly classify the children. Results: Whereas both TST and PPD-IGRA were suboptimal to detect aTB, combining CFP-10-IGRA with TST or with PPD-IGRA allowed us to detect all the children with aTB, with 96% specificity for children who were positive for CFP-10-IGRA. Moreover, combination of CFP-10- and PPD-IGRA also detected 96% of children classified as LTBI, but a strong IFN-γ response to CFP-10 (>500 pg/ml) was highly suggestive of aTB at least among children less than 3 years old. Conclusions: Long-incubation time CFP-10- and PPD-IGRA should help the clinicians to identify quickly aTB or LTBI in young children. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-lasting effect of subliminal processes on cardiovascular responses and performance.
Capa, Rémi ULg; Cleeremans, Axel; Bustin, Gaëlle ULg et al

in International journal of psychophysiology : official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (2011), 81(1), 22-30

Students were exposed to a priming task in which subliminal representations of the goal of studying were directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to positive words. A control group ... [more ▼]

Students were exposed to a priming task in which subliminal representations of the goal of studying were directly paired (priming-positive group) or not (priming group) to positive words. A control group without subliminal prime of the goal was added. Just after the priming task, students performed an easy or a difficult learning task based on their coursework. Participants in the priming-positive group performed better and had a stronger decrease of pulse transit time and pulse wave amplitude reactivity than participants of the two other groups, but only during the difficult condition. Results suggested that subliminal priming induces effortful behavior extending over twenty five minutes but only when the primes had been associated with visible positive words acting as a reward. These findings provide evidence that subliminal priming can have long-lasting effects on behaviors typical of daily life. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-lived organic compounds (Chapter 1)
Prinn, R.; Zander, Rodolphe ULg; Cunnold, D. M. et al

in Albritton; Aucamp, Pieter J.; Mégie, Gérard (Eds.) et al Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998 (1999)

This assessment report is a summary of the scientific community's current understanding of the stratospheric ozone layer and its relation to humankind.

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See detailLong-lived organic compounds (Chapter 1)
Clerbaux, C.; Cunnold, D. M.; Anderson, J. et al

in Nohende Ajavon, Ayité-Lô; Albritton, Daniel L.; Watson, Robert T. (Eds.) Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006 (2007)

This assessment report is a summary of the scientific community's current understanding of the stratospheric ozone layer and its relation to humankind.

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See detailLong-pulsed ruby laser-assisted hair removal in male-to-female transsexuals.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Fumal, I.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2002), 1(1), 8-12

BACKGROUND: Unwanted male-pattern pilosity is a heavy psychological burden and can cause distress for male-to-female transsexuals. Orchidectomy and oestrogen supplementation combined with antiandrogens ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Unwanted male-pattern pilosity is a heavy psychological burden and can cause distress for male-to-female transsexuals. Orchidectomy and oestrogen supplementation combined with antiandrogens fail to make hair disappear. AIMS: To study the effect of long-pulsed ruby laser treatment. RESULTS: Hair density was successfully abated on the beard and chest of three male-to-female transsexuals. A lingering effect over 6 months with a 50-90% hair density reduction was obtained. CONCLUSION: Photothermolysis using the long-pulsed ruby laser is a promising, well-tolerated method of hair removal in male-to-female transsexuals under oestrogen supplementation and antiandrogens. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-range Coulomb interaction in ZrO2
Detraux, F.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Gonze, X.

in Physical Review Letters (1998), 81(15), 3297-3297

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See detailLong-range potential and the fine structure of the diffraction peak
Selyugin, O. V.; Cudell, Jean-René ULg

in Capua, Marcella (Ed.) DIFFRACTION 2010: International Workshop on Diffraction in High Energy Physics Diffraction in High Energy Physics (2010)

The possibility of oscillations in the differential elastic cross section of hadron scattering at small momentum transfer is studied. It is shown that string-like quark potentials at large distances can ... [more ▼]

The possibility of oscillations in the differential elastic cross section of hadron scattering at small momentum transfer is studied. It is shown that string-like quark potentials at large distances can lead to such small oscillations, and an analysis of the experimental data at small |t| allows the determination of the parameters of the potential. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-slit pre and postperihelion spectrography of Comet P/Halley
Arpigny, Claude ULg; Dossin, F.; Zucconi, J. M. et al

in ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halley's Comet (1986, December 01)

A series of about forty long-slit spectra of Halley's comet has been secured in the optical wavelength region, using different instruments, at resolution ranging from 0.05 to 1.6 nm. The interval of ... [more ▼]

A series of about forty long-slit spectra of Halley's comet has been secured in the optical wavelength region, using different instruments, at resolution ranging from 0.05 to 1.6 nm. The interval of heliocentric distance r covered by these observations is 1.7 to 0.9 a.u. before perihelion, while r = 0.95 a.u. after perihelion. The main characteristics of the pre-perihelion spectra are described. In particular, some emissions due to the OH[SUP]+[/SUP] (0,1) and CH[SUP]+[/SUP](1,0) bands have been detected for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-Term (3 Years) Prevention of Trabecular Postmenopausal Bone Loss with Low-Dose Intermittent Nasal Salmon Calcitonin
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Denis, D.; Deroisy, Rita ULg et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : The Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (1994), 9(1), 69-73

The long-term effect of intermittent low-dose nasal salmon calcitonin on trabecular early postmenopausal bone loss was assessed as follow-up to a previously published study. Randomized controlled group ... [more ▼]

The long-term effect of intermittent low-dose nasal salmon calcitonin on trabecular early postmenopausal bone loss was assessed as follow-up to a previously published study. Randomized controlled group comparison was made of 287 healthy women with 6-36 months of natural menopause and no treatment interfering with calcium metabolism at an outpatient clinic for research in bone and cartilage metabolism. The 287 women were randomly allocated to 3 years of treatment with either 500 mg/day, 5 days/week of calcium or the same amount of calcium plus 50 IU/day, 5 days per week of nasal salmon calcitonin. A total of 186 women complied with the study protocol throughout. The main outcome measures were bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (DPA) and biochemical parameters reflecting bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatases, urinary calcium/creatinine, and hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio). The average changes in bone mineral density after 36 months showed a positive (p < 0.05) outcome (1.8 +/- 5.7%; mean +/- SD) in the group treated with salmon calcitonin and calcium and a significant (p < 0.01) loss (-5.8 +/- 4.8%) in patients receiving calcium alone. The difference between the evolution of the two groups was significantly (p < 0.01) different after 6 months of treatment and remained so until the end of the study. No significant changes were recorded in biochemical parameters reflecting bone turnover. As previously shown during a 1 year follow-up, nasal salmon calcitonin given at low dose and intermittently, in association with calcium, can counteract trabecular postmenopausal bone loss. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term (3 years) reproducibility for the radiological assessment of knee osteoarthritis
DEROISY, Rita ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Gensburger, Deborah et al

in Osteoporosis International (2012, March), 23(Suppl. 2), 219-220

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See detailLong-term bedload mobility in gravel-bed rivers using iron slag as a tracer
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULg; Levecq, Yannick ULg; Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg et al

in Geomorphology (2011), 126

Bedload dispersion is evaluated in gravel-bed rivers using slag elements from ironworks established along rivers in the Ardenne region, between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries. Large ... [more ▼]

Bedload dispersion is evaluated in gravel-bed rivers using slag elements from ironworks established along rivers in the Ardenne region, between the fourteenth and the nineteenth centuries. Large quantities of slag were dumped close to these rivers or even directly into the channels. For centuries, slag elements were dispersed in the bedload and transported by floods of varying importance. Consequently, slag may be considered as a reliable tracer to analyze bedload dispersion over several centuries. The size of slag elements was studied along 16 Ardenne rivers. The longitudinal size trend of the largest slag particles allows the effective competence of these rivers to be determined (between 19 and 129 mm for rivers where specific stream power for the bankfull discharge ranges between 20 and 134 W/m²). A direct relationship doesn’t exist between these two parameters as the size of slag elements must be considered with regard to the D50 of the bed. Selective transport was analyzed directly downstream of the input sites. The sorting distance varies from river to river and depends on the velocity of the coarse elements introduced into the river since the inception of the iron industry. Downstream of two metallurgic sites, the slag propagation fronts were located. As the periods of activity at these sites are known from historical studies, the virtual velocity of bedload movement in these rivers was estimated to be 2-4 km/century. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term behavior and quality of life after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy for tetralogy of Fallot or ventricular septal defect.
Hovels-Gurich, H. H.; Konrad, K.; Skorzenski, D. et al

in Pediatric Cardiology (2007), 28(5), 346-354

The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior and quality of life in children after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy. Twenty cyanotic (tetralogy of Fallot) and 20 acyanotic children ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior and quality of life in children after corrective cardiac surgery in infancy. Twenty cyanotic (tetralogy of Fallot) and 20 acyanotic children (ventricular septal defect), operated at a mean age of 0.7 years with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were assessed at a mean age of 7.4 years by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the German KINDL. Test results were related to perioperative and neurodevelopmental outcome. Compared to healthy children and not significantly different between the groups, internalizing and externalizing problems were elevated, school performance and total competence were reduced, and self- and parent-reported quality of life was not reduced. Parent-reported problems and reduced physical status were correlated with longer durations of DHCA and CPB. Internalizing and externalizing problems, reduced school competence, and reduced self-esteem were associated with reduced endurance capacity. Externalizing problems were related to reduced gross motor function. Poor school competence was related to reduced intelligence and academic achievement. Children with preoperative hypoxemia in infancy due to cyanotic cardiac defects are not at significantly higher risk for behavioral problems and reduced quality of life than those with acyanotic heart defects. The risk of long-term psychosocial maladjustment after corrective surgery in infancy is increased compared to that for normal children and related to the presence of neurodevelopmental dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term biogeochemical effects of adding alkalinity into the ocean
Ilyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy ULg et al

Conference (2011, June 20)

Large-scale perturbations in seawater chemistry brought about by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 will go on long after emissions decline or stop. Several geo-engineering approaches have been ... [more ▼]

Large-scale perturbations in seawater chemistry brought about by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 will go on long after emissions decline or stop. Several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations and ocean acidification. One of them is to enhance weathering processes to remove atmospheric CO2. This method involves dissolving rocks (i.e. limestone, olivine) or adding strong bases (i.e. calcium hydroxide) to the upper ocean. The net effect of these two approaches is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to take up and store anthropogenic CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. However, whereas adding bases initially only alters alkalinity of seawater, dissolution of carbonates perturbs both, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon budgets. Thus, on longer time scales, these two methods will likely have different biogeochemical effects in the ocean. Here we test enduring implications of the two approaches for the marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC which also includes marine sediments. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We compare the long-term effectiveness of the two geo-engineering approaches to decrease atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term biogeochemical impacts of liming the ocean
Ilyina, Tatiana; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Munhoven, Guy ULg et al

Conference (2011, December 08)

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate ... [more ▼]

Fossil fuel CO2 emissions result in large-scale long-term perturbations in seawater chemistry. Oceans take up atmospheric CO2, and several geo-engineering approaches have been suggested to mitigate impacts of CO2 emissions and resulting ocean acidification that are based on this property. One of them is to enhance weathering processes to remove atmospheric CO2. This method involves dissolving rocks (i.e. limestone) or adding strong bases (i.e. calcium hydroxide) in the upper ocean and is termed as liming the oceans. The net effect of this approach is to increase ocean alkalinity, thereby increasing the oceanic capacity to store anthropogenic CO2. Another effect of adding alkalinity would be to drive seawater to higher pH values and thus counteract the ongoing ocean acidification. However, whereas adding bases only alter alkalinity of seawater, dissolution of carbonates perturb both, alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon budgets. Thus, on longer time scales, these two methods will likely have different biogeochemical effects in the ocean. Here we test enduring implications of the two approaches for marine carbon cycle using the global ocean biogeochemical model HAMOCC. In our model scenarios we add alkalinity in the amounts proportional to fossil fuel emissions. We compare the longterm effectiveness of the two geo-engineering approaches to decrease atmospheric CO2. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term Brightness Variations of the Io UV Footprint
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2008, December 01)

Since the finding of the UV Io footprint in 1996, the successive UV instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) allowed us to considerably improve the understanding of the Io-Jupiter electro ... [more ▼]

Since the finding of the UV Io footprint in 1996, the successive UV instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) allowed us to considerably improve the understanding of the Io-Jupiter electro-magnetic interaction and its auroral counterpart. It has been shown that the Io footprint is generally formed by one bright spot preceded or followed by secondary spots whose relative positions are linked to the location of Io in the plasma torus. We also know that these spots experience brightness variations from minutes to hours. The Io footprint brightness varies over hours with the longitude of Io in the Jovian magnetic field (System III longitude) but until recently, huge gaps existed in the longitude coverage. Part of these gaps has now been filled during the latest HST imaging campaign and a more complete spot brightness versus Io System III longitude diagram emerges. Additionally, we compare spot brightness between images obtained a few minutes apart but from opposite hemispheres. Based on images gathered from 1997 to 2007 with the STIS and the ACS cameras, we also show that the footprint morphology and the spots brightness, including their relative brightness, can vary significantly from one year to another. Finally, we discuss the brightness variations from hours to years in terms of plasma torus density and position of Io in the plasma torus as well as in Jovian magnetic field. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-Term Care Insurance and Family
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Canta, Chiara

in B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (2014)

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See detailLong-Term Care Insurance and Family Norms
Pestieau, Pierre ULg; Canta, Chiara

in The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (2013), 14(1), 1-28

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See detailLong-term care insurance and optimal taxation for altruistic children
Jousten, Alain ULg; Lipszyc, B.; Marchand, Maurice et al

in Finanzarchiv (2005), 61(1), 1-18

We model long-term care insurance in an optimal taxation framework. Every adult decides upon the amount and type of care he purchases for his dependent parent. We consider two alternatives: nursing-home ... [more ▼]

We model long-term care insurance in an optimal taxation framework. Every adult decides upon the amount and type of care he purchases for his dependent parent. We consider two alternatives: nursing-home care provided by the government, and home care paid by the child with some lump-sum subsidy by the government. The only source of information asymmetry is the government's inability to observe the degree of altruism of the adult child for his/her parent. Further tax collection entails some social costs. In such a second-best setting, we show that the quality of institutional care has to be kept relatively low and that compared to altruistic children, nonaltruistic ones enjoy a high level of consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-Term Care: the State, the Market and the Family
Motohiro, Sato; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

in Economica (2008), (75), 435-454

In this paper we study the optimal design of a long term care policy in a setting that includes three types of care to dependent parents: public nursing, private nursing and assistance in time by children ... [more ▼]

In this paper we study the optimal design of a long term care policy in a setting that includes three types of care to dependent parents: public nursing, private nursing and assistance in time by children. Private nursing can be financed either by financial aid from children or by private insurance. The social planner can use a number of instruments: public nursing, subsidy to aiding children, subsidy to private insurance premiums, all financed by a flat tax on earnings. [less ▲]

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