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See detailMain Glucosidase Conversion Products of the Gluco-Alkaloids Dolichantoside and Palicoside
Brandt, V.; Tits, Monique ULg; Penelle, J. et al

in Phytochemistry (2001), 57(5), 653-9

The enzymatic glucose cleavage of palicoside revealed the biosynthetic pathway to akagerine, whereas the conversion of dolichantoside led to a new quaternary heteroyohimbine alkaloid named N(b)-methyl-21 ... [more ▼]

The enzymatic glucose cleavage of palicoside revealed the biosynthetic pathway to akagerine, whereas the conversion of dolichantoside led to a new quaternary heteroyohimbine alkaloid named N(b)-methyl-21-beta-hydroxy-mayumbine. The hypothetical models of reactions occurring after the conversion of both substrates are proposed. Dolichantoside and palicoside, as well as Strychnos mellodora stem bark crude ethanol extract, exhibit significant antimycotic activity against human pathogens in presence of specific glucosidase. [less ▲]

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See detailThe main results of a european research project : improvement of transport safety by control of fog production in a chamber ("FOG")
Andre, Philippe ULg; Aparecida Silva, Cl.; Balocco, E. et al

Conference (2004, October)

The issue of transport safety is identified as a major goal in the European Union. The mid term objective declared in the European White Paper for Transport aims at halving the number of deaths on the ... [more ▼]

The issue of transport safety is identified as a major goal in the European Union. The mid term objective declared in the European White Paper for Transport aims at halving the number of deaths on the roads by 2010. Low visibility conditions, especially due to fog, increase the risk of major accidents (chain collision) and a number of innovative products are developed by the automotive industry, including equipment manufacturers, in order to increase the level of safety of the cars passengers and drivers. Testing of these products require the simulation or artificial reproduction of adequate low visibility (fog) conditions with good stability and reproductibility characteristics. The main objective of the “FOG” project was to develop a prototype of innovative fog chamber in which the mechanistic production of fog (by high pressure spraying of water) in a chamber was assisted by an efficient control of the indoor climate. This prototype was installed in a new building constructed on the campus of the University of Liège in Arlon (Belgium). The developments of the project also include a number of additional products enhancing the capabilities of the prototype: - an improved fog production spraying device, including an optimized management - a laser-based visibility measurement device - a reduced scale transmissiometer - a combined indoor climate - fog production simulation software All these products were successfully tested in the conclusive part of the project making the prototype fully operational and ready for use by researchers in the field of transport safety as well as industrial products manufacturers. The capability of the testing facility to test the interaction with the driver was also investigated. The paper will present the major developments of the project and the potential future perspectives of the work. [less ▲]

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See detailla main-d'oeuvre étrangère en Belgique
Feld, Serge ULg

Book published by Bruylant-Academia (2010)

179 !"#$% &%' ("!)e+%' SOMMAIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 INTRODUCTION GÉNÉRALE ... [more ▼]

179 !"#$% &%' ("!)e+%' SOMMAIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 INTRODUCTION GÉNÉRALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Une première en Belgique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Les apports du recensement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Immigrants et communautés étrangères . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Une population hétérogène . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Un marché du travail très spécifique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 La variable « nationalité » . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 La main-d’oeuvre étrangère et le système éducatif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Activité, emploi, chômage : des réalités contrastées . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Le rôle économique du travail étranger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Des différences régionales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 La sous-utilisation des compétences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 De nouvelles perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Un marché du travail très défavorable à la main-d’oeuvre étrangère. . . . 20 CHAPITRE I – Éducation et formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Section 1 : le niveau d’éducation des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . 25 1. Aperçu global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. Les niveaux d’éducation selon la nationalité et le sexe . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3. Les indices comparatifs des niveaux d’éducation des étrangers et des Belges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 4. Les différences d’éducation entre les trois régions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 5. Les niveaux d’éducation selon le pays de naissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 6. Les niveaux d’éducation et l’âge d’arrivée en Belgique . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Main oeuvre Belgique.indd Sec3:179 4/06/10 11:05:43 La main-d’oeuvre étrangère en Belgique 180 Section 2 : le choix des filières et les retards scolaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 1. Répartition de la population diplômée selon l’orientation du diplôme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 1.1. Présentation générale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 1.2. Standardisation de la répartition des étrangers par filières d’études. . 42 1.3. Le choix des filières selon le sexe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1.4. La répartition entre filières dans les trois régions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2. Estimation des retards scolaires des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . 49 2.1. Questions de méthode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.2. Aperçu général des retards des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.3. L’impact du lieu de naissance sur les retards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.4. L’ampleur des retards est-elle influencée par le sexe ? . . . . . . . . . . . 55 2.5. Les différences régionales de retard dans le cursus scolaire . . . . . . . 56 Section 3 : la formation professionnelle des Belges et des étrangers . . . . 58 1. Panorama général . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2. La filière de formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 CHAPITRE II – L’activité et l’emploi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Section 1 : l’activité des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 1. Évaluation générale de la population en âge de travailler . . . . . . . . . 70 2. La mesure des niveaux d’activité des Belges et des étrangers. . . . . . . . 73 2.1. Présentation générale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 2.2. Analyse des courbes d’activité par âge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Section 2 : le chômage des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 1. Le chômage en Belgique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 2. Les taux de chômage dans les régions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3. Le chômage par âge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. Le chômage des jeunes à la recherche d’un premier emploi . . . . . . . . 86 5. Le chômage et le niveau d’éducation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.1. Aperçu général . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 5.2. Le taux de chômage des principales nationalités . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Section 3 : le niveau de l’emploi des Belges et des étrangers. . . . . . . . . . 93 1. Les taux d’emploi de la Belgique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 2. Les taux d’emploi par région. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Annexe du chapitre II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Main oeuvre Belgique.indd Sec3:180 4/06/10 11:05:43 Table des matières CHAPITRE III – Le marché du travail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Section 1 : le statut, la nature du contrat et la durée de travail . . . . . . 104 1. Les types de contrat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 1.1. Le statut des Belges et des étrangers sur le marché du travail : Présentation générale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 1.2. Le statut d’activité selon le sexe et la nationalité . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 1.3. Le statut d’activité et le niveau de qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 1.4. Le statut d’activité dans les trois régions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 2. Le type de contrat et la durée du travail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 2.1. Présentation générale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 2.2. Le type de contrat selon le sexe et la nationalité . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 2.3. Le type de contrat et le niveau de qualification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 2.4. Le type de contrat et le statut professionnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Section 2 : analyse des secteurs d’activité . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 1. Présentation de la répartition des actifs belges et étrangers entre les secteurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 2. Les secteurs et le pays de naissance des actifs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 3. La concentration sectorielle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 3.1. La concentration sectorielle de l’ensemble de la main-d’oeuvre étrangère par rapport aux Belges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3.2. La concentration sectorielle des principales nationalités par rapport aux Belges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 3.3. La concentration sectorielle des principales nationalités par rapport à l’ensemble de la main-d’oeuvre étrangère . . . . . . . . 142 3.4. Les principaux secteurs d’activité et les régions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 3.5. Le chômage sectoriel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 CHAPITRE IV – Les professions des Belges et des étrangers . . . . . . 153 Section 1 : de l’analyse des secteurs à celle des professions et des métiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 1. Présentation générale de la répartition professionnelle des Belges et des étrangers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 2. Les professions des étrangers et les régions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Section 2 : la main-d’oeuvre étrangère est-elle surqualifiée ou sous-qualifiée ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 RÉFÉRENCES BIBLIOGRAPHIQUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 INDEX DES TABLEAUX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 INDEX DES FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Main oeuvre Belgique.indd Sec3:181 4/06/10 11:05:43 [less ▲]

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See detailLa mainmise administrative sur les systèmes d'information hospitaliers
Albert, Adelin ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1993), 48(8), 465-72

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See detailMainstreaming de l’intégration dans les politiques publiques, Colloque: Pas-de-deux.
Martiniello, Marco ULg

Scientific conference (2008, November 26)

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See detailMaintaining people with multiple sclerosis at work: Validation of a questionnaire identifying their professional difficulties
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Monisse, Aurélie; Berkail, Radia et al

Poster (2014, May 27)

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction and validation of a questionnaire in order to evaluate the specific work difficulties and compensation mechanisms developed by multiple sclerosis ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to present the construction and validation of a questionnaire in order to evaluate the specific work difficulties and compensation mechanisms developed by multiple sclerosis patients (MS). At the moment, only few very recent questionnaires (in English) are constructed in order to highlight the link between the patients’ cognitive deficits with their professional situation (Doogan & Playford, 2014; Honan et al., 2012; McFadden et al., 2012). This lack of accurate assessment is detrimental to the patients’ job retention. Our questionnaire was constructed from review of literature and interviews of patients and experts. In order to validate our questionnaire and to test its specificity to MS patients, three groups of participants answered the questionnaire: MS patients, diabetic patients (diabetes is also a chronic illness but without any cognitive deficits contrary to MS) and a control group. We controlled the effect of anxiety and depression and we conducted a factorial analysis that showed the existence of 3 factors: the ergonomic factor (that includes cognitive difficulties and resources and adaptation process), the description of work situation and the social support. The three groups of participants obtained similar results for the work description and the social support while the group of patients with MS obtained a higher score than the other 2 groups for the ergonomic factor. These results suggest that our questionnaire is specific to the MS population and to the difficulties they specifically meet in their work situations. These results highlight new research opportunities and specific ways to increase job retention in MS population. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintaining the communication and information tool of the Belgian anesthesiology community
BONHOMME, Vincent ULg

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2011), 62(4), 173-174

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See detailMaintenance and modernization works in the Belgian waterways network
Lejeune, André ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg

in Internationales Wasserbausymposium Aachen 2000: Verkehrswasserbau (2000)

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See detailMaintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Kaufman, J. M.; Devogelaer, J. P. et al

in Arthritis and Rheumatism (2011), 63(S10), 436

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See detailMaintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Kaufman, J. M.; Goemaere, S. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2012), 23

In an open-label extension study, BMD increased continuously with strontium ranelate over 10 years in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01). Vertebral and nonvertebral fracture incidence was lower between 5 and ... [more ▼]

In an open-label extension study, BMD increased continuously with strontium ranelate over 10 years in osteoporotic women (P < 0.01). Vertebral and nonvertebral fracture incidence was lower between 5 and 10 years than in a matched placebo group over 5 years (P < 0.05). Strontium ranelate's antifracture efficacy appears to be maintained long term. INTRODUCTION: Strontium ranelate has proven efficacy against vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, including hip, over 5 years in postmenopausal osteoporosis. We explored long-term efficacy and safety of strontium ranelate over 10 years. METHODS: Postmenopausal osteoporotic women participating in the double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 studies SOTI and TROPOS to 5 years were invited to enter a 5-year open-label extension, during which they received strontium ranelate 2 g/day (n = 237, 10-year population). Bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence were recorded, and FRAX(R) scores were calculated. The effect of strontium ranelate on fracture incidence was evaluated by comparison with a FRAX(R)-matched placebo group identified in the TROPOS placebo arm. RESULTS: The patients in the 10-year population had baseline characteristics comparable to those of the total SOTI/TROPOS population. Over 10 years, lumbar BMD increased continuously and significantly (P < 0.01 versus previous year) with 34.5 +/- 20.2% relative change from baseline to 10 years. The incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture with strontium ranelate in the 10-year population in years 6 to 10 was comparable to the incidence between years 0 and 5, but was significantly lower than the incidence observed in the FRAX(R)-matched placebo group over 5 years (P < 0.05); relative risk reductions for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were 35% and 38%, respectively. Strontium ranelate was safe and well tolerated over 10 years. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term treatment with strontium ranelate is associated with sustained increases in BMD over 10 years, with a good safety profile. Our results also support the maintenance of antifracture efficacy over 10 years with strontium ranelate. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintenance of functional human cancellous bone and human hematopoiesis in NOD/SCID mice
Hubin, F.; Humblet, Chantal ULg; Belaid, Zakia ULg et al

in Cell Transplantation (2004), 13(7-8), 823-831

Attempts were made to establish models to study interactions between marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic cells in vivo. The approach was to create a NOD-SCID-hu murine model of long-term human ... [more ▼]

Attempts were made to establish models to study interactions between marrow stromal cells and hematopoietic cells in vivo. The approach was to create a NOD-SCID-hu murine model of long-term human hematopoiesis by implantation of a human adult bone fragment. Nine to 12 weeks posuransplantation, human CD45(+) cells were detected in the blood and the spleen of some mice. The histology of the human transplant showed that human bone fragment was viable at 9 weeks. Moreover, vessels of human origin, as assessed by immunohistochemical detection of human beta(2)-microglobulin, were observed in the mouse tissue surrounding the transplanted human fragment. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintenance of Remission Among Patients With Crohn's Disease on Antimetabolite Therapy After Infliximab Therapy Is Stopped.
Louis, Edouard ULg; Mary, J. Y.; Vernier-Massouille, G. et al

in Gastroenterology (2012), 142(1), 63-70531

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is important to determine whether infliximab therapy can be safely interrupted in patients with Crohn's disease who have undergone a period of prolonged remission. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is important to determine whether infliximab therapy can be safely interrupted in patients with Crohn's disease who have undergone a period of prolonged remission. We assessed the risk of relapse after infliximab therapy was discontinued in patients on combined maintenance therapy with antimetabolites and identified factors associated with relapse. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 115 patients with Crohn's disease who were treated for at least 1 year with scheduled infliximab and an antimetabolite and had been in corticosteroid-free remission for at least 6 months. Infliximab was stopped, and patients were followed up for at least 1 year. We associated demographic, clinical, and biologic factors with time to relapse using a Cox model. RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 28 months, 52 of the 115 patients experienced a relapse; the 1-year relapse rate was 43.9% +/- 5.0%. Based on multivariable analysis, risk factors for relapse included male sex, the absence of surgical resection, leukocyte counts >6.0 x 10(9)/L, and levels of hemoglobin </=145 g/L, C-reactive protein >/=5.0 mg/L, and fecal calprotectin >/=300 mug/g. Patients with no more than 2 of these risk factors (approximately 29% of the study population) had a 15% risk of relapse within 1 year. Re-treatment with infliximab was effective and well tolerated in 88% of patients who experienced a relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 50% of patients with Crohn's disease who were treated for at least 1 year with infliximab and an antimetabolite agent experienced a relapse within 1 year after discontinuation of infliximab. However, patients with a low risk of relapse can be identified using a combination of clinical and biologic markers. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintenance threonine requirement and efficiency of its use for accretion of whole-body threonine and protein in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry.
Rollin, Xavier; Wauters, Jean*-Baptiste; Bodin, Noe Lie et al

in British Journal of Nutrition (2006), 95(2), 234-45

Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres ... [more ▼]

Eighteen groups of seventy Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry (initial mean body weight 0.8 (sd 0.01) g) were fed on semi-purified diets containing graded levels of l-threonine (Thr) in 15 litres aquaria at a temperature of 14.5+/-1 degrees C. Doses of Thr represented 1, 31, 41, 51, 62, 72, 83 and 93 % of its ideal level for optimum protein deposition. Indispensable amino acids other than Thr were included in the same proportion (on a g/16 g N basis) as in the Atlantic salmon fry whole-body carcass. Following 36 d of feeding and a 36 h fast, fry were killed for whole-body protein and amino acid analysis. Weight gain (r2 0.98), protein accretion (r2 0.97), and Thr accretion (r2 0.97) were linear (P<0.01) functions of Thr intake. Slope of the Thr accretion regression line showed that the efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance was 76 %. At zero Thr intake, fry lost 5.4 mg Thr/kg body weight0.75 per d. The Thr maintenance requirement was 7.2 mg/kg body weight0.75 per d and the Thr requirement for growth was 66 mg for 1 g protein deposition. Increasing doses of Thr resulted in increased (P<0.05) concentrations of histidine and lysine, and decreased concentrations of isoleucine in whole-body protein. The maintenance need for Thr represented 13.4 % of the total need for Thr. The data suggest that efficiency of Thr utilisation above maintenance is constant at all levels of Thr intake between 1 and 93 % of the level required for optimum protein deposition. [less ▲]

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