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See detailThe human genome contains hundreds of genes coding for finger proteins of the Kruppel type
Bellefroid, Eric J.; Lecocq, P.; Benhida, A. et al

in DNA (1989), 8(6), 377-87

Our aim was to identify new human proteins with potential DNA binding activity, related to the Kruppel protein which regulates Drosophila segmentation. We screened a human placenta cDNA library and a ... [more ▼]

Our aim was to identify new human proteins with potential DNA binding activity, related to the Kruppel protein which regulates Drosophila segmentation. We screened a human placenta cDNA library and a human genomic DNA library with a synthetic oligonucleotide probe corresponding to the H/C link region that connects finger loops in the multifingered Kruppel protein. We found more than 100 different mRNAs encoding Kruppel multifingered proteins in the human placenta. In the whole human genome, the number of genes encoding such proteins reaches about 300. Sequence analysis of 14 cloned cDNAs indicated that they code for at least nine undescribed human finger proteins. The sequences of the 106 finger repeats present in these nine proteins are highly homologous. Most of the variability lies in a limited number of positions located in their postulated alpha-helical structure, and therefore could be implicated in their DNA-binding specificity. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman germinal center CD4+CD57+ T cells act differently on B cells than do classical T-helper cells.
Bouzahzah, F.; Bosseloir, A.; Heinen, Ernst ULg et al

in Developmental Immunology (1995), 4(3), 189-97

We have isolated two subtypes of helper T cells from human tonsils: CD4+CD57+ cells, mostly located in the germinal center (GC), and CD4+CD57- cells, distributed through the interfollicular areas but also ... [more ▼]

We have isolated two subtypes of helper T cells from human tonsils: CD4+CD57+ cells, mostly located in the germinal center (GC), and CD4+CD57- cells, distributed through the interfollicular areas but also present in the GC. In a functional study, we have compared the capacities of these T-cell subtypes to stimulate B cells in cocultures. In order to block T-cell proliferation while maintaining their activation level, we pretreated isolated T cells with mitomycin C prior to culture in the presence of B cells and added polyclonal activators such as PHA and Con A, combined or not with IL-2. Contrary to CD4+ CD57- cells, CD4+CD57+ cells did not markedly enhance B-cell proliferation. Even when sIgD.B cells typical of germinal center cells were tested, the CD4+CD57+ cells had no significant effect. This is in accordance with the location of these cells: They mainly occupy the light zones of the GC where few B cells divide. Even when added to preactivated, actively proliferating cells, CD4+CD57 cells failed to modulate B-cell multiplication. On the supernatants of B-cell-T-cell cocultures, we examined by the ELISA technique the effect of T cells on Ig synthesis. Contrary to CD57+ T cells, whose effect was strong, CD57- T cells weakly stimulated Ig synthesis. More IgM than IgG was generally found. Because CD57 antigen is a typical marker of natural killer cells, we tested the cytolytic activity of tonsillar CD4+CD57+ cells on K562 target cells. Unlike NK cells, neither CD4+CD57+ nor CD4+CD57- cells exhibit any cytotoxicity. Thus, germinal center CD4+CD57+ cells are not cytolytic and do not strongly stimulate either B-cell proliferation or Ig secretion. CD4+CD57- cells, however, enhance B-cell proliferation and differentiation, thus acting like the classical helper cells of the T-dependent areas. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman glioblastoma-initiating cells invade specifically the subventricular zones and olfactory bulbs of mice after striatal injection.
Kroonen, Jérôme ULg; Nassen, Jessica ULg; Boulanger, Yves-Gauthier et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2011), 129(3), 574-585

This study reports the subsequent isolation of human glioblatoma cells able to initiate experimental brain tumors, specifically and repeatedly found in the subventricular zones and olfactory bulbs ... [more ▼]

This study reports the subsequent isolation of human glioblatoma cells able to initiate experimental brain tumors, specifically and repeatedly found in the subventricular zones and olfactory bulbs following xenograft in the caudate putamen of immunodeficient mice.In patients with glioblastoma multiforme, recurrence is the rule despite continuous advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Within these malignant gliomas, glioblastoma stem cells or initiating cells have been recently described and they were shown to be specifically involved in experimental tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that some human glioblastoma cells injected into the striatum of immunodeficient nude mice exhibit a tropism for the subventricular zones. There and similarily to neurogenic stem cells, these subventricular glioblastoma cells were then able to migrate towards the olfactory bulbs. Finally, the glioblastoma cells isolated from the adult mouse subventricular zones and olfactory bulbs display high tumorigenicity when secondary injected in a new mouse brain. Together, these data suggest that neurogenic zones could be a reservoir for particular cancer-initiating cells. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman growth hormone: complementary DNA cloning and expression in bacteria
Martial, Joseph ULg; Hallewell, R. A.; Baxter, J. D. et al

in Science (1979), 205(4406), 602-7

The nucleotide sequence of a DNA complementary to human growth hormone messenger RNA was cloned; it contains 29 nucleotides in its 5' untranslated region, the 651 nucleotides coding for the prehormone ... [more ▼]

The nucleotide sequence of a DNA complementary to human growth hormone messenger RNA was cloned; it contains 29 nucleotides in its 5' untranslated region, the 651 nucleotides coding for the prehormone, and the entire 3' untranslated region (108 nucleotides). The data reported predict the previously unknown sequence of the signal peptide of human growth hormone and, by comparison with the previously determined sequences of rat growth hormone and human chorionic somatomammotropin, strengthens the hypothesis that these genes evolved by gene duplication from a common ancestral sequence. The human growth hormone gene sequences have been linked in phase to a fragment of the trp D gene of Escherichia coli in a plasmid vehicle, and a fusion protein is synthesized at high level (approximately 3 percent of bacterial protein) under the control of the regulatory region of the trp operon. This fusion protein (70 percent of whose amino acids are coded for by the human growth hormone gene) reacts specifically with antibodies to human growth hormone and is stable in E. coli. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman growth hormone: complementary DNA cloning and expression in bacteria. 1979
Martial, Joseph ULg; Hallewell, R. A.; Baxter, J. D. et al

in Biotechnology (Reading, Mass.) (1992), 24

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See detailHuman herpesvirus 8-encoded chemokine vCCL2/vMIP-II is an agonist of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7
Szpakowska, Martyna; Dupuis, Nadine ULg; Baragli, Alessandra et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2016), 114

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See detailHuman immune cells express ppMCH mRNA and functional MCHR1 receptor
Verlaet, Myriam ULg; Adamantidis, Antoine ULg; Coumans, Bernard ULg et al

in FEBS Letters (2002), 527(1-3), 205-210

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is highly expressed in the brain and modulates feeding behavior. It is also expressed in some peripheral tissues where its role remains unknown. We have investigated ... [more ▼]

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is highly expressed in the brain and modulates feeding behavior. It is also expressed in some peripheral tissues where its role remains unknown. We have investigated MCH function in human and mouse immune cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed a low expression of prepro-MCH and MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) but not of MCHR2 transcript in tissular and peripheral blood immune cells. FACS and in vitro assay studies demonstrated that MCHR1 receptor expression on most cell types can trigger, in the presence of MCH, cAMP synthesis and calcium mobilization in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, MCH treatment decreases the CD3-stimulated PBMC proliferation in vitro. Accordingly, our data indicate for the first time that MCH and MCHR1 may exert immunomodulatory functions. (C) 2002 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Human Impacts of Climate Change
Zickgraf, Caroline ULg

Speech/Talk (2016)

This talk on the human impacts of climate change was given to the WPC at their request to better inform them on the topic and to have expert guidance in the potential roles of foundations on the matter ... [more ▼]

This talk on the human impacts of climate change was given to the WPC at their request to better inform them on the topic and to have expert guidance in the potential roles of foundations on the matter. The WPC is a network of UK-based philanthropic foundations. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman impacts on Antarctic ecosystems: do not forget the microorganisms!
Hughes, Kevin; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim et al

Conference (2013, July)

The tiny and microscopic creatures that are the permanent inhabitants of the Antarctic continent are often overlooked in environmental impact assessments and when new management and protection strategies ... [more ▼]

The tiny and microscopic creatures that are the permanent inhabitants of the Antarctic continent are often overlooked in environmental impact assessments and when new management and protection strategies are designed. This lack of consideration is probably due to their small size and the need of sophisticated molecular methods to study their diversity, evolution and geographic distribution. However, considerable progress has been made in the field of molecular diversity in the last two decennia, and is still ongoing for Antarctic bacteria, cyanobacteria, protists, fungi, etc. Recent studies have shown the presence of highly diverse microbial communities and the existence of species endemic to Antarctic in some taxonomic groups. With the emergence of High Throughput Sequencing methodologies that are able to detect ‘rare’ taxa, it becomes crucial to find Antarctic locations that have not yet been impacted by human presence. These ‘pristine’ areas are essential to serve as reference sites and allow to distinguish the true Antarctic organisms from the imported ones. Indeed, recent studies have shown that humans unintentionally disperse their own microbial flora but may also spread organisms from other locations. In the extreme biotopes with a reduced diversity that are currently found in Antarctica, such contaminations might have a profound impact. It is important to raise the awareness of scientists, environmental managers and policy makers about the necessity to single out some areas that are kept untouched, or where stringent biosecurity measures are taken. The purpose is not to hinder scientific research, but to weigh carefully, when exploring a new area, the importance of the acquired piece of knowledge in relation to the possibility of hindering future microbiological research. Some parallels with other fields of research are interesting to consider. Archeologists are used to keeping some parts of the explored caves untouched because they foresee that technological progress will allow better analyses in future. The COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection makes recommendations to avoid the contamination of other planets with microbes from Earth, which would obscure any discovery of extraterrestrial indigenous life forms. These examples illustrate the essential need to integrate the delineation of reference areas for future analyses in the design and execution of scientific research. In fact, the Madrid Protocol foresees the possibility to designate ‘inviolate areas’ (Annex V, Article 3), though this tool has rarely been used. It would be useful if scientists of all disciplines would reflect how to use this management option. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman in the forest: Long-term interactions, lifestyle and ecosystem services in Central Africa
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Lhoest, Simon ULg; Morin-Rivat, Julie et al

Poster (2016, May 20)

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See detailHuman kininogens of low and high molecular mass: quantification by radioimmunoassay and determination of reference values.
Adam, Albert; Albert, Adelin ULg; Calay, G et al

in Clinical Chemistry (1985), 31(3), 423-6

Kininogens of low and high molecular mass, highly purified from human plasma, were used to raise antisera in rabbits. To obtain immunologically intact tracers, we labeled the kininogens by the lodogen ... [more ▼]

Kininogens of low and high molecular mass, highly purified from human plasma, were used to raise antisera in rabbits. To obtain immunologically intact tracers, we labeled the kininogens by the lodogen method, followed by double chromatography, first on Sephadex G50 and then on Sephadex G200 for high-molecular-mass kininogen or on G100 for low-molecular-mass kininogen. Both assays are sensitive, accurate, and reproducible. On an equimolar basis, the high-molecular-mass kininogen cross reacted completely in the determination of low-molecular-mass analyte. Moreover, the radioimmunoassay for the former was highly specific. After optimizing the time and temperature of incubation to provide rapid and reliable results, we determined 95% reference intervals from a large sample of healthy subjects (250 men, 200 women): 109-272 and 69-116 mg/L for the low- and high-molecular-mass kininogens, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman L-ficolin recognizes phosphocholine moieties of pneumococcal teichoic acid.
Vassal-Stermann, Emilie; Lacroix, Monique; Gout, Evelyne et al

in Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (2014), 193(11), 5699-708

Human L-ficolin is a soluble protein of the innate immune system able to sense pathogens through its fibrinogen (FBG) recognition domains and to trigger activation of the lectin complement pathway through ... [more ▼]

Human L-ficolin is a soluble protein of the innate immune system able to sense pathogens through its fibrinogen (FBG) recognition domains and to trigger activation of the lectin complement pathway through associated serine proteases. L-Ficolin has been previously shown to recognize pneumococcal clinical isolates, but its ligands and especially its molecular specificity remain to be identified. Using solid-phase binding assays, serum and recombinant L-ficolins were shown to interact with serotype 2 pneumococcal strain D39 and its unencapsulated R6 derivative. Incubation of both strains with serum triggered complement activation, as measured by C4b and C3b deposition, which was decreased by using ficolin-depleted serum. Recombinant L-ficolin and its FBG-like recognition domain bound to isolated pneumococcal cell wall extracts, whereas binding to cell walls depleted of teichoic acid (TA) was decreased. Both proteins were also shown to interact with two synthetic TA compounds, each comprising part structures of the complete lipoteichoic acid molecule with two PCho residues. Competition studies and direct interaction measurements by surface plasmon resonance identified PCho as a novel L-ficolin ligand. Structural analysis of complexes of the FBG domain of L-ficolin and PCho revealed that the phosphate moiety interacts with amino acids previously shown to define an acetyl binding site. Consequently, binding of L-ficolin to immobilized acetylated BSA was inhibited by PCho and synthetic TA. Binding of serum L-ficolin to immobilized synthetic TA and PCho-conjugated BSA triggered activation of the lectin complement pathway, thus further supporting the hypothesis of L-ficolin involvement in host antipneumococcal defense. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman lysozyme amyloidosis
Dumoulin, Mireille ULg; Johnson, Russell J.K.; Bellotti, Vittorio et al

in Uversky, V.; Fink, A. L. (Eds.) Protein Misfolding, Aggregation and Conformational Diseases. II. Molecular Basis of Conformational Diseases. (2007)

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See detailHuman melatonin and alerting response to blue-enriched light depend on a polymorphism in the clock gene PER3.
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Viola, Antoine U.; Schmidt, Christina ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2012), 97(3), 433-7

CONTEXT: Light exposure, particularly at the short-wavelength range, triggers several nonvisual responses in humans. However, the extent to which the melatonin-suppressing and alerting effect of light ... [more ▼]

CONTEXT: Light exposure, particularly at the short-wavelength range, triggers several nonvisual responses in humans. However, the extent to which the melatonin-suppressing and alerting effect of light differs among individuals remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: Here we investigated whether blue-enriched polychromatic light impacts differentially on melatonin and subjective and objective alertness in healthy participants genotyped for the PERIOD3 (PER3) variable-number, tandem-repeat polymorphism. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen healthy young men homozygous for the PER3 polymorphism (PER3(5/5)and PER3(4/4)) underwent a balanced crossover design during the winter season, with light exposure to compact fluorescent lamps of 40 lux at 6500 K and at 2500 K during 2 h in the evening. RESULTS: In comparison to light at 2500 K, blue-enriched light at 6500 K induced a significant suppression of the evening rise in endogenous melatonin levels in PER3(5/5) individuals but not in PER3(4/4). Likewise, PER3(5/5) individuals exhibited a more pronounced alerting response to light at 6500 K than PER3(4/4) volunteers. Waking electroencephalographic activity in the theta range (5-7 Hz), a putative correlate of sleepiness, was drastically attenuated during light exposure at 6500 K in PER3(5/5) individuals as compared with PER3(4/4). CONCLUSIONS: We provide first evidence that humans homozygous for the PER3 5/5 allele are particularly sensitive to blue-enriched light, as indexed by the suppression of endogenous melatonin and waking theta activity. Light sensitivity in humans may be modulated by a clock gene polymorphism implicated in the sleep-wake regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman milk fortification in preterm infants
SENTERRE, Thibault ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailHuman Muscle Energetics During Voluntary and Electrically Induced Isometric Contractions as Measured by 31p Nmr Spectroscopy
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg; Gilles, R.; Carlier, Pierre ULg et al

in International Journal of Sports Medicine (1999), 20(5), 279-83

Electrical stimulation (ES) and voluntary contraction (VC) were compared in the quadriceps muscle of ten male volunteers. In both modes, a workload corresponding to 20% of maximal voluntary contraction ... [more ▼]

Electrical stimulation (ES) and voluntary contraction (VC) were compared in the quadriceps muscle of ten male volunteers. In both modes, a workload corresponding to 20% of maximal voluntary contraction was applied during 64 isometric contraction (5.5 s)-relaxation (5.5 s) cycles. The protocols were performed in a 1.5 T whole-body magnet. The Pi/PCr ratio and the intracellular pH (pHi) were monitored by 31P NMR spectroscopy during baseline, exercise and recovery periods, in a superficial region of the vastus medialis. During baseline, the Pi/PCr ratio (0.12 vs. 0.10) and the pHi (7.01 vs. 7.00) were comparable in both conditions. During exercise, the Pi/PCr ratio was higher (0.36 vs. 0.14) and the pHi was lower (6.85 vs. 7.07) during ES than during VC. For the same external work production, these results reflect a different metabolic solicitation in the ES quadriceps than in the VC ones. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman muscle proteome modifications after acute or repeated eccentric exercises
Hody, Stéphanie ULg; Leprince, Pierre ULg; Sergeant, K. et al

in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise (2011), 43(12), 2281-2296

INTRODUCTION:: DOMS (Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness), a condition triggered by eccentric exercise, affects muscle cells at a biochemical level in a poorly understood fashion. The objective of the present ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION:: DOMS (Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness), a condition triggered by eccentric exercise, affects muscle cells at a biochemical level in a poorly understood fashion. The objective of the present study was to examine human muscle proteome modifications induced by strenuous eccentric exercises following a specific training aimed to prevent DOMS. METHODS:: Biopsy of the rectus femoris were taken from healthy human volunteers in three successive conditions: (1) at rest, (2) 24 hours after an injuring exercise protocol consisting of 3 series of 30 maximal contractions of the quadriceps on an isokinetic dynamometer, (3) 24 hours after a similar exercise bout preceded either by 5 eccentric training sessions, or no training. RESULTS:: Muscle damage was assessed before and 1 day after each maximal eccentric test by comparing three indirect markers: plasma activity of creatine kinase (CK), muscle stiffness and subjective pain intensity. Compared to the first eccentric test, those markers were reduced after the second test and further reduced if this second test followed the eccentric training, thus confirming the protective effect of such training. Muscle protein extracts were subjected to a 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS protein identification. Surprisingly, we observed that myosin heavy chains decreased after the first eccentric test, and were reduced further with other contractile proteins after the second test. Furthermore, the expression of several glycolytic enzymes decreased only after the second test that was preceded by a specific training. CONCLUSION:: These findings suggest that the eccentric training resulted in a switch to oxidative metabolism, which may be associated with protection from DOMS. [less ▲]

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See detailThe human NANOS3 gene contributes to lung tumour invasion by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition
Grelet, S; Andries, V; Polette, M et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2015), 237(1), 25-37

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See detailHuman norovirus infection in Latin America
da Silva Polo, Tatiane; Peiro, Juliana; Claudio Nogueira Mendes, Luiz et al

in Journal of Clinical Virology (2016), 78

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (3 ULg)