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See detailAntibody production by injection of living cells expressing non self antigens as cell surface type II transmembrane fusion protein.
Nizet, Yannick; Gillet, Laurent ULg; SCHROEDER, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of immunological methods (2011)

Antigen expression and purification are laborious, time consuming and frequently difficult steps in the process of antibody production. In the present study, we developed a method avoiding these two steps ... [more ▼]

Antigen expression and purification are laborious, time consuming and frequently difficult steps in the process of antibody production. In the present study, we developed a method avoiding these two steps. This method relies on the injection of histocompatible living cells stably expressing the antigen as a cell surface type II transmembrane fusion protein. A vector, nicknamed pCD1-CD134L, was constructed to express the antigen fused at the carboxyterminal end of the human CD134 ligand (CD134L) type II transmembrane protein on the surface of eucaryotic cells. This vector was shown to induce cell surface expression of epitopes from human c-Myc (soluble protein), uterogloblin-related protein 1 (secreted protein) and CD94 (type II transmembrane protein). Using this vector, we developed a method to produce antibodies without antigen production. The flowchart of this method is as follows: (i) cloning of the antigen in the pCD1-CD134L vector; (ii) production of a histocompatible cell line stably expressing the CD134L-antigen fusion protein; (iii) testing for cell surface expression of the fusion protein by targeting the CD134L carrier; and (iv) prime-boost immunisation with living cells expressing the fusion protein. This method was successfully used for production of polyclonal antibodies raised against Ixodes ricinus calreticulin (secreted protein) in mice and for production of monoclonal antibodies raised against an epitope of Vaccinia virus A56 (type I transmembrane protein) protein in rat. The present study is the first to demonstrate the use of a type II transmembrane protein as a carrier for cell surface display of antigens. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibody Response to Glycoprotein E after Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 Infection in Passively Immunised, Glycoprotein E-Negative Calves
Lemaire, Mylène; Schynts, Frédérick; Meyer, Gilles et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1999), 144(7), 172-6

This study was conducted to determine whether young calves with maternal antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) but without antibodies against glycoprotein E (gE) can produce an active ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to determine whether young calves with maternal antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) but without antibodies against glycoprotein E (gE) can produce an active antibody response to gE after a BHV-1 infection. Five calves received at birth colostrum from gE-seronegative cows which had been vaccinated two or three times with an inactivated BHV-1, gE-deleted marker vaccine. After inoculation with a wild-type virulent strain of BHV-1, all the passively immunised gE-negative calves shed virus in large amounts in their nasal secretions. All the calves seroconverted to gE within two to four weeks after inoculation and then had high levels of gE antibodies for at least four months. The development of an active cell-mediated immune response was also detected by in vitro BHV-1-specific interferon-gamma assays. All the calves were latently infected, because one of them re-excreted the virus spontaneously and the other four did so after being treated with dexamethasone. The results showed that under the conditions of this work the gE-negative marker could also distinguish between passively immunised and latently infected calves. [less ▲]

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See detailANTIBODY-COUPLED NANORODS AS BIOSENSOR PLATFORM FOR SPECIFIC CANCER DETECTION
Schol, Daureen ULg

Doctoral thesis (2013)

This work started as part of a Specific Targeted Research Project, ADONIS (FP-6 of the European Commission) and the aim of the project was the development of active targeting gold nanoparticles for ... [more ▼]

This work started as part of a Specific Targeted Research Project, ADONIS (FP-6 of the European Commission) and the aim of the project was the development of active targeting gold nanoparticles for optoacoustic imaging, from chemistry to biology. The establishment of a biosensor composed of antibody-functionalized gold nanorods is achieved on a model of tumor, in our case prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a major public health problem in our industrialized countries, indeed it is the most frequent cancer and the second leading cause of death by cancer in men [1]. A major challenge in prostate cancer oncology is to develop more accurate, precise and less invasive tools for early stage diagnostic, including more accurate imaging assessments than those currently available. An efficient imaging technique which significantly improves the sensitivity and the specificity of the diagnostic and enables prediction of the cancer behavior would be extremely valuable to oncologists. Briefly the developed biosensor model consists of a gold nanorod – designed to convert a primary optical excitation into a detectable acoustic signal – coupled with a monoclonal antibody that targets prostate cancer cells for a specific recognition. Improved access to the target can be achieved by targeting accessible extracellular domain of a membrane protein, here the Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) [2]. PSMA is a transmembrane protein considered as a suitable biomarker for prostate cancer [3] and which is under intense investigation for use as an imaging and therapeutic target. PSMA is highly expressed in prostate cancers and also expressed in the tumor associated neovasculature of most solid cancers [4]. Before biological assessments the cytotoxic surfactant, essential to form rod-shaped nanoparticles, is exchanged by a mixture of two functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules: HS-PEG-OMe for nanoparticle passivation and HS-PEG-NH2 for subsequent coupling with the antibody. The different cytotoxicity assays are achieved to establish the toxic threshold of the surfactant in order to know what CTAB concentration maybe tolerable on the cells. This argument is important during the displacement of the surfactant, based on successive centrifugations, because the whole discard of CTAB seem to be time-consuming or even routinely unfeasible. Once this threshold drawn up, the PEGylated GNRs can be assessed on cancer cells, what seems being a common in vitro investigation. However unexpected issues came up during the experiments and had to be considered due to the properties of the nanomaterial. Nevertheless, after cytotoxicity assessment of PEGylated nanoparticles, the biosensor binding on targeted cells was assessed by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopies, two straightforward and flexible techniques. The antibody coupled to the gold nanorod is specific to the human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cell line, reported to express PSMA which is an admitted biomarker of this cell line [5]. Finally, in order to complete the specific targeting of the biosensor, the antibody-coupled gold nanorods are injected in nude mice to evaluate their biodistribution and bioaccumulation for which inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is the technique of choice. Preliminary optoacoustic imaging is the ultimate step for the state-of-theart of the developed biosensor. Although the promising end results, particularly biodistribution assays, new questioning swarm and this is more and more discussed in publications due to the in vivo use of nanomaterials. Owing to their increasingly extensive use, their nanometer sizes and their physiological contact (more or less long), controlling the interaction of nanoparticles with biological systems became a fundamental challenge of nanomedicine [6]. Therefore the protein opsonization on the gold nanorods is a tremendous study and is accomplished via mass spectrometry analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibubble lifetime: influence of the bulk viscosity and of the surface modulus of the mixture
Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg; Delhalle, René ULg; Dujardin, Julien ULg et al

in Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2010)

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See detailAntibubbles dynamics: the drainage of an air film with incompressible interfaces
Scheid, Benoit; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg; Arriaga, Laura et al

in Physical Review Letters (2012)

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See detailAntibubbles, liquid onions and bouncing droplets
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Terwagne, Denis ULg; Gilet, Tristan ULg et al

in Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2009), 344

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (19 ULg)
See detailAnticancer activities of Strychnopentamine
Quetin-Leclercq; Bouzahza, B; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

Poster (1992)

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See detailLes antichambres de l'humanité. Armel Job et l'expérience littéraire
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Article for general public (2014)

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See detail«Antiche poesie italiane inedite nel ms. Stockholm, Kungliga Biblioteket, Vu 14»
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Medioevo Romanzo (1998), XXIII

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See detailAntichità/Unità : Storia, cultura e cinema in Italia
Curreri, Luciano ULg; Ferro, Licia; Palumbo, Giuseppe

Book published by Nerosubianco (2013)

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See detailAnticipating Juno Observations of the Magnetosphere of Jupiter
Bunnell; Fowler; Bagenal et al

Poster (2012, December 07)

The Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in 2016 and will go into polar orbit. Juno will make the first exploration of the polar regions of Jupiter's vast magnetosphere, combining in situ particles and ... [more ▼]

The Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in 2016 and will go into polar orbit. Juno will make the first exploration of the polar regions of Jupiter's vast magnetosphere, combining in situ particles and fields measurements with remote sensing of auroral emissions in the UV, IR and radio. The primary science period comprises ~30 orbits with 11-day periods with a~1.06Rj perijove, allowing Juno to duck under the hazardous synchrotron radiation belts. Apojove is at ~38Rj. The oblateness of the planet causes the orbit to precess with the major axis moving progressively south at about 1 degree per orbit, eventually bringing the spacecraft into the radiation belts. This orbit allows unprecedented views of the aurora and exploration of the auroral acceleration regions. We present an overview of anticipated Juno observations based on models of the Jovian magnetosphere. On approach to Jupiter and over a capture orbit that extends to ~180Rj on the dawn flank, Juno will traverse the magnetosheath, magnetopause and boundary layer regions of the magnetosphere. Due to the high plasma pressures in the magnetospheric plasmasheet the magnetosphere of Jupiter is known to vary substantially with the changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use Ulysses solar wind data obtained around 5 AU to predict the conditions that Juno will observe over the several months it will spend in these boundary regions. [less ▲]

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See detailL’anticipation du conceptuel chez le jeune Heidegger
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2013, July 08)

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See detailAnticipatory Artificial Autopoiesis
Dubois, Daniel ULg; Holmberg, Stig C.

in Trappl, Robert (Ed.) CYBERNETICS AND SYSTEMS 2010 (2010)

In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic ... [more ▼]

In examining relationships between autopoiesis and anticipation in artificial life (Alife) systems it is demonstrated that anticipation may increase efficiency and viability in artificial autopoietic living systems. This paper, firstly, gives a review of the Varela et al [1974] automata algorithm of an autopoietic living cell. Some problems in this algorithm must be corrected. Secondly, a new and original anticipatory artificial autopoiesis algorithm for automata is presented. In our automata system, the asymmetric membrane of the self-creating living cell plays a central role. The simulation confirms the validity of our algorithm in showing its autopoietic properties. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticipatory Mechanisms in Evolutionary Living Systems
Dubois, Daniel ULg; Holmberg, Stig C.

in Dubois, Daniel (Ed.) COMPUTING ANTICIPATORY SYSTEMS (2010)

This paper deals firstly with a revisiting of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Darwin in his book never uses the word “evolution”, but shows a clear position about mutability of species. Darwin's ... [more ▼]

This paper deals firstly with a revisiting of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection. Darwin in his book never uses the word “evolution”, but shows a clear position about mutability of species. Darwin's Natural Selection was mainly inspired by the anticipatory Artificial Selection by humans in domestication, and the Malthus struggle for existence. Darwin showed that the struggle for existence leads to the preservation of the most divergent offspring of any one species. He cited several times the canon of “Natura non facit saltum”. He spoke about the origin of life from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed. Finally, Darwin made anticipation about the future researches in psychology. This paper cites the work of Ernst Mayr who was the first, after 90 years of an intense scientific debate, to present a new and stable Darwinian paradigm as the “Evolutionary Synthesis” in 1942. To explain what is life, the Living Systems Theory (LST) by J. G. Miller is presented. It is showed that the Autopoietic Systems Theory of Varela et al is also a fundamental component of living systems. In agreement with Darwin, the natural selection is a necessary condition for transformation of biological systems, but is not a sufficient condition. Thus, in this paper we conjecture that an anticipatory evolutionary mechanism exists with the genetic code that is a self-replicating and self-modifying anticipatory program. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock, evolution in genomes is programmed. The word “program” comes from “pro-gram” meaning to write before, by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes of behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. For example, cell death may be programmed by what is called the apoptosis. This definitively is a great breakthrough in our understanding of biological evolution. Hence, it is possible to formulate a new principle of evolution, i.e. the principle of Double Anticipatory Loop (DAL) of evolution: Biological evolution is driven by interaction between a mindless environment that is passively selecting the fittest inhabitants and purposeful anticipatory living systems, which are actively selecting and creating their own environment. Evolution on the genome level is trigged by environmental stress but guided by an inherent program. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticipatory Modeling and Simulation for Inter Regional Security
Dubois, Daniel ULg; Asproth, Viveca; Stig C, Holmberg et al

Conference (2012, April)

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See detailAnticipatory responding, exclusive drug-context pairing and conditioned effects in sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing in mice
Tirelli, Ezio ULg; Heidbreder, C.

in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (1999), 23(3), 505-518

1. The conditioning aspects of contextual sensitization were examined in the case of apomorphine-induced wall-climbing in mice, measuring onset latencies of the pharmacological response and controlling ... [more ▼]

1. The conditioning aspects of contextual sensitization were examined in the case of apomorphine-induced wall-climbing in mice, measuring onset latencies of the pharmacological response and controlling differential habituation to the test context during drug treatment. 2. Sensitization was generated in male out-bred mice which received intermittent i.p. injections of 0.4 mg/kg apomorphine over 9 daily sessions. On day 10, they were tested for contextual sensitization (all mice under apomorphine). On day 14, after 3 sessions of reinstatement, mice were tested for conditioned climbing (all mice under saline). 3. It was found that simultaneous exposure to both apomorphine and the test context facilitated the expression of a full-blown contextual sensitization (some non-contextual sensitization emerging too); importantly, sensitization was accompanied by a progressive shortening of the latencies to climb (before injections); conditioned climbing appeared only in mice pairing the drug with the test context, that response being absent in mice treated outside the context or never exposed to the context. 4. It is likely that contextual sensitization to apomorphine-induced climbing relies on Pavlovian conditioning processes rather than on habituation-related processes. [less ▲]

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